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Elements of Literature

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Presentation on theme: "Elements of Literature"— Presentation transcript:

1 Elements of Literature
Style, Diction, Syntax, Dialogue, Dialect, and Tone

2 Style Style is the distinctive way in which an author uses language.
Word choice, phrasing, sentence length, tone, dialogue, purpose, and attitude toward the audience and subject can all contribute to an author’s writing style.

3 Diction Diction is the author’s choice of words and the manner in which we express words. Diction = WORD CHOICE, enunciation Some easy examples are: Don’t say ‘goin’ – say ‘going’, Don’t say ‘wanna’ – say ‘want to’ Shakespeare uses very complicated diction making it difficult for students to understand his plays.

4 Syntax Syntax is how an author constructs phrases or sentences (i.e. grammar) Syntax= WORD ORDER Shakespeare uses very complex syntax to express basic emotions such as love and revenge.

5 Dialogue Dialogue is conversation between two or more characters.
Dialogue is when a character speaks to another character. Dialogue is conversation. Dialogue can include when a character speaks out loud to an animal, an inanimate object or him or herself. Dialogue can be used to explain something to the reader/audience.

6 Dialect Dialect refers to the distinctive speech patterns of a particular region, class, or race. Unlike slang, dialect has a distinctive system of grammar, vocabulary, and pronunciation. It has usually been in existence for a long time. Commonly brought to mind to New Yorkers are the Bostonian Dialect and the Southern Dialect.

7 Tone Tone is a reflection of a writer’s or speaker’s attitude toward a subject of a literary work. Tone may be communicated through words and details that express particular emotions and that evoke and emotional response from the reader. For example, word choice or phrasing may seem to convey respect, anger, lightheartedness, or sarcasm.

8 TONE? MOOD? Do not get tone confused with mood.
MOOD= ATMOSPHERE/FEELING created by reader; relates to setting TONE= FEELING toward story; how author/narrator feels about the subject

9 Setting Where and when a story takes place.
Setting is generally a physical local that shapes the story’s mood (atmosphere). Setting is the dramatic backdrop for a story. Why is setting important?

10 Setting reveals The mood or atmosphere present in the story.
It may show the internal and external conflicts within a story. Can determine the fate of the protagonist. May act as a challenge providing a test for a character to reveal his or her true self.

11 Types Physical- time of day, season, weather, indoors/outdoors, types of rooms, objects around, colors, imagery-5 senses Geographical- country, region, neighborhood, street, floor level in building, urban, rural, suburban Historical- time period, role of government, major historical events, prominent leaders, transportation, wars, crop yield, etc. Cultural- values ideas, attitudes of a place, dialogue, clothing, routines, education, social status, religious belief

12 MDG Setting Ship-Trap Island Carribean Sea Early 1900’s
As you read look for other clues that help develop the setting.

13 Symbolism The practice of representing things by means of symbols or of attributing symbolic meanings or significance to objects, events, or relationships. a person, place, thing, or idea that stands for something else. They are used deliberately to reinforce meaning. For example, a sword may be a sword and also symbolize justice. A symbol may be said to embody an idea.

14 Symbolism A symbol may have more than one meaning, or its meaning may change from the beginning to the end of a literary work. Personal: a meaning uniquely associated with our experiences Contextual: a private meaning created by an author Cultural: a meaning uniquely influenced by our culture (ex/ dogs represent faithfulness in China, but impurity in Indian/South Asian cultures Universal: a meaning that is given to a thing by most people and cultures (ex/ lions represent deity, power and courage in many cultures)

15 How many symbols can you associate these images with
How many symbols can you associate these images with? (Don’t limit yourself to just objects. Think about shapes, colors, and parts of each image as well)

16 Motifs A recurring image, word, phrase, or action that tend to create unity within a literary work. Sometimes the motif helps to create the theme in literature A motif differs from a theme in that it can be expressed as a single word or fragmentary phrase, while a theme usually must be expressed as a complete sentence.

17 Motif Examples A recurring motif in George Orwell's "1984" is urban decay. Winston Smith's run-down home, London's crumbling buildings, and the overall disintigration of the city all support Orwell's theme of the miserable results of total government control.

18 Below is a short list of common literary motifs…there are sooo many more!
Clothing Seasons Colors Death Supernatural Adversaries Extraordinary Animals Wishes Magical Objects Magical Powers Deep Sleeps Witches Trickery Illness Consequences of Greed Flowers/plants Beautiful Princess  Foolish or Dimwitted Hero

19 …how we know about what happens/ how the story is told; the writer’s choice of narrator
Point of View

20 First Person Point of View
A character in the story tells the story from his/her perspective using I, me, we, etc. Example: “Being Southerners, it was a source of shame to some members of the family that we had no recorded ancestors on either side of the Battle of Hastings. All we had was Simon Finch, a fur-trapping apothecary from Cornwall whose piety was exceeded only by his stinginess” -TKAM.

21 Third Person Omniscient
The narrator can tell the reader what every character thinks and feels; he is all-knowing. Example: “Rainsford remembered the shots. They had come from the right, and doggedly he swam in that direction, swimming with slow, deliberate strokes, conserving his strength…” “General Zaroff had an exceedingly good dinner in his great paneled dining hall that evening. With it he had a bottle of Pol Roger and half a bottle of Chambertin. Two slight annoyances kept him from perfect enjoyment” – The Most Dangerous Game.

22 Third Person Limited The narrator sees the world through one character’s eyes and reveals only that character’s thoughts. Example: “To Marius the fever was like a cloud of warm river fog around him…Such a fool she was, a praying stupid fool that he had married five years ago. He could remember thinking that even in the deep, troubled delirium of the fever” -The Horsehair Trunk.

23 Objective Point of View
when the writer tells what happens without stating more than can be inferred from the story's action and dialogue. (Drama- Plays) Example: TYBALT What, art thou drawn among these heartless hinds? Turn thee, Benvolio, look upon thy death. BENVOLIO I do but keep the peace: put up thy sword, Or manage it to part these men with me. TYBALT What, drawn, and talk of peace! I hate the word, As I hate hell, all Montagues, and thee: Have at thee, coward!

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