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The Knights of the Round Table

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1 The Knights of the Round Table
The Legend of King Arthur AND The Knights of the Round Table

2 Legend The legend of King Arthur began in early Britain as a number of folk stories. As the legend spread, it gave rise to a rich collection of art and literature.

3 Epic: An epic is a long verse narrative that tells the story of a hero who represents the values of a particular group of people.

4 Medieval Romance: A forerunner to modern fiction, Medieval Romance is a story about a noble hero, his adventures, and his pursuit of love.

5 Knights A lord would employ knights and give them the time and equipment they needed to practice; in return, they served their lord as vassals. DUTIES OF A VASSAL: ~Fight in his lord’s army ~Guard his lord’s castle ~Give his lord financial aid ~Act as his lord’s messenger or ambassador ~Serve on his lord’s council *In return, The knight was under his lord's protection, both legally and militarily.

6 Stages of Knighthood KNIGHT SQUIRE PAGE

7 It was the relationship between himself and his lord that defined the knight's life. The lord's position gave him considerable control over the knight's life, career, and future, including the final say in whom the knight could marry and the disposition of his estate after his death. The lord technically owned the land used by the knight to raise revenues, and while the property usually remained in the knight's family for generations, it was the lord's prerogative to revoke a knight's right to the land and give it to someone else.

8 Today, the word "knight" conjures up far more than war and service
Today, the word "knight" conjures up far more than war and service. Loyalty, courtesy, honor, glory, courage. And, indeed, as history unfolded, the knight's role in society altered from that of a cavalry soldier to a model of behavior. Yet, as we know, knights were only human, and did not always live up to the standards imposed on them by society.

9 Choose 10 total from the 2 slides
The Code of Chivalry Choose 10 total from the 2 slides Live to serve King and Country. Live to defend Crown and Country and all it holds dear. Live one's life so that it is worthy of respect and honor. Live for freedom, justice and all that is good. Never attack an unarmed foe. Never use a weapon on an opponent not equal to the attack. Never attack from behind. Avoid lying to your fellow man. Avoid cheating. Avoid torture. Obey the law of king, country, and chivalry. Administer justice. Protect the innocent. Exhibit self control. Show respect to authority. Respect women.

10 Exhibit Courage in word and deed.
Defend the weak and innocent. Destroy evil in all of its monstrous forms. Crush the monsters that steal our land and rob our people. Fight with honor. Avenge the wronged. Never abandon a friend, ally, or noble cause. Fight for the ideals of king, country, and chivalry. Die with valor. Always keep one's word of honor. Always maintain one's principles. Never betray a confidence or comrade. Avoid deception. Respect life and freedom. Die with honor. Exhibit manners. Be polite and attentive. Be respectful of host, women, and honor. Loyalty to country, King, honor, freedom, and the code of chivalry. Loyalty to one's friends and those who lay their trust in thee.

11 Excalibur The "Excalibur" was King Arthur's sword. Also known as the "Sword in the Stone" or the sword that Merlin helped him get from the Lady of the Lake. Unbreakable and it came with a magical scabbard (sheath) that prevents the wearer to be injured by man-made weapons.

12 Lady of the Lake Since King Arthur was always in battle, (the sword from the stone broken in battle), Merlin led Arthur to a lake, from the middle of which an arm protruded holding a sword. The sword, Excalibur, belonged to the Lady of the Lake, who gave it to Arthur. It was the Lady of the Lake offering Arthur a magic unbreakable blade, fashioned by an Avalonian elf smith, along with a scabbard which would protect him as long as he wore it. Towards the end of his reign, during the troubled times of Mordred's rebellion, Excalibur was stolen by Arthur's wicked half-sister Morgan le Fay.

13 Though it was recovered, the scabbard was lost forever
Though it was recovered, the scabbard was lost forever. Thus when Arthur was mortally wounded at the Battle of Camlann, the King then instructed Bedwyr to return Excalibur to the lake from whence it came. However, when questioned about the circumstances of its return, Bedwyr claimed to have seen nothing unusual. Arthur therefore knew that Bedwyr had kept Excalibur for himself and sent him back to the Lake once more.

14 Hurling the sword into the misty waters this time, Bedwyr saw the mystic hand appear to catch Excalibur and draw it beneath the rippling waters for the last time.

15 Sword in the Stone Legend
The story of the Sword in the Stone is a story about Arthur's claim to the throne of Britain. According to legend, the Sword was Uther's sword, the sword of the High King of Britain. After Uther's death there is no known heir and the barons are fighting among each other who is to be the next High King of Britain.

16 Merlin, who was Uther counselor, has the solution: he takes Uther's sword and with his magic, he runs it into a rock. The one man who is able to draw the sword from the stone again will be the rightful heir. Many have tried: Lot, Uriens, even Leodegrance and many more, but no one was able to draw the sword. Until one day Sir Ector and his sons Kay and Arthur (not knowing he is not Ector's real son but fostered by him) come to the place where the sword is captured in the rock, they come for a tournament. Arthur, being squire to Ector and Kay, has to get Kay a new sword for his one is broken. He passes the rock and draws the sword, which he brings to Ector and Kay. Next, confusion is great, for how could this boy draw the sword from the stone.

17 Then Merlin makes his entrance again and declares that Arthur is Uther's son. To proof that he places the sword back in the stone and dares anyone to draw it. Again no one succeeds, but Arthur. And so he became High King of Britain at a very young age.

18 Pre-Arthurian Times

19 King Uther Pendragon Father of Arthur Fierce warlord and knight
Makes a deal with Merlin to spend night with Lady Igrain, must give his son to Merlin as payment Merlin uses magic to transform Uther to look like Sir Gorlois

20 Merlin A druid (old pagan religion) Supposed mother is Queen Mab
In love with Lady of the Lake (his aunt) Foster mother is Ambrosia Wizard with ability to manipulate nature Places Arthur into foster care Serves as Arthur’s mentor

21 Sir Gorlois Husband of Lady Igrain Father of Morgana

22 Lady Igrain Mother of Arthur and Morgana Wife of Sir Gorlois

23 Morgana (Morgan le Fay)
Daughter of Igrain and Gorlois Half-sister to Arthur Despises Arthur and plots to destroy him An evil sorceress trained by Merlin, who later uses her magic against him Castle Charyot is her stronghold.

24 Sir Ector Foster father of Arthur, father of Sir Kay
Keeps Arthur’s birth and parents a secret until Arthur is ready to become King

25 Sir Kay Foster brother of Arthur Son of Sir Ector
Arthur is his squire (second stage before knighthood)

26 Lady of Lake Mythological creature (a water nymph) of old pagan religion who creates and guards Excalibur Sister of Queen Mab In some stories, she is mischievous and tries to trick Merlin (who loves her)

27 Queen Mab Supposed mother of Merlin, did not raise him (raised by a foster mother - Ambrosia) A malicious sorceress (a woodland nymph) who desires to save the pagan religion and ways Mercutio referred to her as the queen of dreams in Romeo and Juliet

28 Arthurian Times

29 King Arthur Pendragon Son of Uther Pendragon and Lady Igrain
Married to Queen Gwynevere Becomes king by drawing sword from stone (this sword is sometimes Excalibur) Mentored by Merlin Established Camelot as his kingdom Creates the Round Table as a meeting place for his knights

30 Gwynevere Wife of Arthur
Has forbidden affair with Arthur’s most trusted knight Sir Launcelot Exiled to live in a convent for her sin

31 Camelot Name of Arthur’s kingdom and castle
A beautiful, peaceful, and lavish place

32 The Round Table Reserved for the best and bravest knights of the kingdom The table was round to promote equality between all knights

33 Siege Perilous Seat reserved at Round Table for purest knight

34 The Knights of the Round Table

35 Sir Launcelot du Lake The best warrior of all the knights
Speculation regarding his mother being the Lady of the Lake and his father being Merlin Handsome and charming Has affair with Queen Gwynevere Forced to leave Camelot and live in exile Unable to attain Holy Grail because of his sinful past Father of Sir Galahad

36 Sir Galahad Son of Sir Launcelot du Lake
Only knight worthy of the Siege Perilous In some stories he finds the Holy Grail, drinks from the cup and ascends into Heaven

37 Sir Perceval Finds the location of the Holy Grail but in some stories is unable to attain it

38 Sir Bedwyr In some stories he returns Excalibur to the Lady of the Lake prior to Arthur’s death

39 Sir Gawain Defeated the fearsome Green Knight
Marries the hideous Lady Ragnell to uphold Arthur’s honor

40 The Quest for the Holy Grail
In order to save his kingdom Arthur sends out his knights to find and return the Holy Grail Arthur and his kingdom are a symbiotic relationship

41 The Holy Grail Cup used at the Last Supper between Christ and his disciples Cup used to catch his blood at his crucifixion Located in the Castle of Corbenic.

42 Sir Mordred Son of Arthur and Morgana, identity is a secret
Destined to kill Arthur In some stories he is a one of the Knights of the Round Table, other stories have him as an enemy of the kingdom Some stories have him possessing enchanted armor that cannot be pierced by normal weapons

43 Avalon The final resting spot for Arthur
Arthur is transported to isle on a funeral barge escorted by the Maidens of the Mist

44 The Grid Queen Gwynevere Queen Mab Lady of the Lake Ambrosia
Sir Launcelot du Lake Merlin Queen Gwynevere Sir Galahad The Grid King Uther Lady Igrain Sir Gorlois Sir Ector King Arthur Morgana (Morgan le Fay) Sir Kay Mordred

45 The End

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