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1 Click the mouse button or press the space bar to continue
UNIT 5, Part 1 Acts of Courage Click the mouse button or press the space bar to continue

2 Click a selection title to go to the corresponding selection menu.
Unit 5, Part 1 MAIN MENU Acts of Courage (pages 970–1019) Click a selection title to go to the corresponding selection menu.

3 Selection Menu (pages 970–987)
Before You Read Reading the Selection After You Read Grammar Workshop

4 Click the picture to learn about the author.
BEFORE YOU READ Meet T. H. White Click the picture to learn about the author.

5 Connecting to the Story
BEFORE YOU READ Connecting to the Story In the following selection, Arthur, referred to as “Wart,” experiences a sudden change in status. Before you read the selection, think about the following questions: How would you react if you were suddenly given great responsibility? How might your friends react?

6 BEFORE YOU READ Building Background This story takes place somewhere in England at some time during the medieval period when men wore armor and fought with swords. The author refers to the setting simply as “an imaginary world.”

7 BEFORE YOU READ Building Background In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, jousting was one of the most popular sports in Europe. It involved two armored horsemen charging at each other with lowered spears, or lances. The goal was to knock the opponent off his horse. Sometimes the jousters merely broke their lances; occasionally they were injured or killed. King Henry II of France died after a jousting tournament in honor of his daughter’s marriage.

8 Setting Purposes for Reading
BEFORE YOU READ Setting Purposes for Reading Acts of Courage As you read, notice how White reveals the qualities that will make young Arthur a great king.

9 Setting Purposes for Reading
BEFORE YOU READ Setting Purposes for Reading Idiom An idiom is a phrase with a special meaning that is different from the literal meaning of the words that make it up. Expressions such as “dying to see you” and “catching someone’s eye” are examples of idioms.

10 Setting Purposes for Reading
BEFORE YOU READ Setting Purposes for Reading Idiom In this selection, White sometimes uses idioms that are anachronistic, or out of their proper time period. As you read, note his use of idioms.

11 BEFORE YOU READ Analyzing Tone The tone of a literary work is a reflection of the author’s attitude toward the subject. A writer’s tone may convey a variety of attitudes, including sympathy or humor.

12 BEFORE YOU READ Analyzing Tone Reading Tip: Creating Character Sketches To determine the tone of White’s story, create charts for each of the characters. Find examples that reveal the character’s personality and make a list of adjectives that describe the character. Then decide what White’s attitude is toward the character and explain your reasoning.

13 BEFORE YOU READ Analyzing Tone

14 BEFORE YOU READ petulantly adv. crankily; in an annoyed way (p. 973) The small child sulked petulantly when she did not get her way. vulgar adj. characterized by a lack of good breeding or good taste; common; crude (p. 976) Vulgar behavior offends people who value courtesy and good manners. Click a vocabulary term to listen to the definition.

15 BEFORE YOU READ sumptuous adj. costly and magnificent (p. 977) The flowers at my sister’s expensive wedding were sumptuous. combatant n. one trained for, or engaged in, combat (p. 978) The combatants fought each other mercilessly. Click a vocabulary term to listen to the definition.

16 BEFORE YOU READ throng v. to move or gather in large numbers; to crowd together (p. 979) People thronged the park to see the fireworks. Click a vocabulary term to listen to the definition.

17

18 Answer: He is honorable, loyal, resourceful, humble, and selfless.
READING THE SELECTION Acts of Courage Keep the following question in mind as you read. In what ways does the Wart show courage? Answer: He is honorable, loyal, resourceful, humble, and selfless.

19 READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Predicting Read the first six paragraphs of the selection. Predict how people will react to the news. Answer: Some may say people will grieve. Others may say they will try to figure out who will succeed the king.

20 READING THE SELECTION Viewing the Art Look at the painting on page 972. What can you infer about a tournament by examining the painting? Answer: Focus on the grandiosity of the tournament, based on details such as the castle in the background, the pristine field, the immense crowd, and the knights on horseback and in full regalia.

21 READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Dialect Speech written in dialect reflects the character and background of the person speaking. Read aloud some examples of dialect on pages 972–973. Explain what the dialect indicates about the characters.

22 READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Answer: The characters use slang and informal language, which suggests they are ordinary people. Characters such as Nannie use the Cockney dialect, which suggests they have less education than the noble characters.

23 READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Analyzing Tone Read the text highlighted in blue on page 973. How does the author use characterization to emphasize his humorous tone? Answer: The characters’ dialect and the narrator’s colloquial diction communicate the informal and lighthearted tone. For example, having the characters repeat each other and mispronounce words shows that the author is not taking the legend entirely seriously.

24 READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Analyzing Tone Read the text highlighted in blue on page 974. How would you describe the tone of this selection so far? Answer: The tone, as conveyed through the characters, is humorous. King Pellinore, Sir Ector, and Sir Grummore are portrayed as absentminded old men who repeatedly misunderstand one another.

25 READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Idiom Read the first text highlighted in purple on page 974. What is Sir Ector telling King Pellinore to do? Is this an expression you would expect to hear in medieval times? Answer: Sir Ector is telling King Pellinore to relax, using a colloquial expression of a different time.

26 READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Idiom Read the second text highlighted in purple on page 974. What does King Pellinore mean? Answer: He means that Sir Grummore and Sir Ector are confusing him with their constant interruptions.

27 READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Analyzing Tone Read the text highlighted in blue on page 975. How does the characters’ discussion about whether to go to London affect the tone of the story? Consider the casual nature of their comments.

28 READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Answer: The author combines a realistic detail—the difficulty of traveling to London in the Middle Ages—with the otherwise contemporary dialogue of the characters. Therefore, a statement such as “My father went there once” has a humorous effect.

29 READING THE SELECTION Viewing the Art Look at the painting on page 975. What do you think were some benefits and liabilities of wearing armor like this in battle? Answer: Benefits: protection. Liabilities: very heavy; hot inside; limited visibility; hard to balance on a horse.

30 READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Character Read the first column on page 976. Is Kay a realistic character? Answer: Kay says that “all the best people will be there.” He wants to see a splendid tournament and famous people. He says people will think poorly of the family if they do not go. The dialogue realistically portrays the arguments of a teenager.

31 READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Idiom Read the text highlighted in purple on page 977. What does Ector’s reaction to Merlyn’s departure suggest about Merlyn’s character? Answer: Merlyn is well-loved and respected by Ector as well as by the others, especially the Wart. Jolly is an idiom that means “very” or “quite.”

32 READING THE SELECTION Acts of Courage Read the text highlighted in tan on page 977. Why might such a journey have required courage to undertake? Answer: Travel was arduous in the Middle Ages. Travelers faced poor conditions, went by horseback or on foot, and risked assault from thieves. Taking such a journey would have required great bravery.

33 READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Idiom Read the text highlighted in purple on page 978. Explain the meaning of “full to the brim.” Answer: So many people were in London for the tournament that new arrivals had no place to stay. “Full to the brim” is a modern expression, implying close to overflow, like a pot filled with liquid.

34 READING THE SELECTION Acts of Courage Read the text highlighted in tan on page 978. What conflicting emotions is Kay experiencing? Answer: Nighttime dreams of courageous victory have given way to nervous fears as the day approaches.

35 READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Connecting Read the description of the tournament scene on pages 978 and 979. To what type of modern event might the tournament be compared? Answer: Some examples may be a football game, horse race, or Olympic event.

36 READING THE SELECTION Acts of Courage Read the text highlighted in tan on page 979. What do you learn about the Wart’s character from this paragraph? Answer: Wart is not as meek as he may appear; he is bright and honorable and resents being ordered around.

37 READING THE SELECTION Viewing the Art Look at the painting on page 979. In the painting, how do the people react to Arthur’s pulling the sword from the stone? Answer: The people look surprised and somewhat confused.

38 READING THE SELECTION Viewing the Art Look at the painting on page 979. How is their reaction similar to or different from that of Kay and Sir Ector? Answer: Kay and Sir Ector are surprised, but they quickly begin to treat Arthur like royalty.

39 READING THE SELECTION Acts of Courage Read the first text highlighted in tan on page 980. Why is the Wart willing to go to such lengths to obtain a sword for Kay? Answer: The Wart gets over his anger and begins to feel sorry for Kay, realizing that he was quite upset about not having a sword for the tournament. Wart’s bravery demonstrates the noble person he really is.

40 READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Analyzing Tone Read the text highlighted in blue on page 980. How would you describe the author’s tone as the Wart decides to pull the sword from the stone and attempts to do so?

41 READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Answer: The author plays up the irony and humor of the Wart, casually deciding to pull the sword from the stone, which he assumes is “some sort of war memorial.” He becomes more serious as he describes the differences in Wart’s perceptions brought on by holding the sword.

42 READING THE SELECTION Acts of Courage Read the second text highlighted in tan on page 980. Why does the Wart try so hard to pull the sword from the stone? Answer: The Wart struggles bravely with the sword because of the allegiance he feels toward Kay and Ector. His courage is demonstrated by his selfless attempt to aid in Kay’s success. This is yet another sign that Arthur will one day make a good king.

43 READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Idiom Read the text highlighted in purple on page 981. What is the Luce telling the Wart to do? Answer: The Luce is telling the Wart that he should use his back as leverage in pulling the sword from the stone. This is an example of another modern idiom.

44 READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Analyzing Tone Read the text highlighted in blue on page 981. At the climactic moment when the Wart draws the sword from the stone, what do you notice about the author’s tone? Answer: The tone switches from playful and humorous to quiet and almost reverential.

45 READING THE SELECTION Viewing the Art Look at the painting on page 981. Imagine the conversations among the spectators or the thoughts of the jousters. What might they be thinking about, feeling, wondering, or fearing? Answer: Responses should reflect details seen in the painting or learned from the text.

46 READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Idiom Read the text highlighted in purple on page 982. What are the people at the tournament doing? Answer: The people are making a lot of noise cheering as the tournament continues.

47 READING THE SELECTION Acts of Courage Read the first text highlighted in tan on page 983. Will the Wart be a good king? Explain. Answer: The Wart’s even temper, loyalty, selflessness, and courage indicate that he has the potential to be a good king.

48 READING THE SELECTION Acts of Courage Read the second text highlighted in tan on page 983. In your opinion, is Kay brave? Why or why not? Answer: Some may say that Kay is brave because he admitted to being a liar. Others will say that he is cowardly for lying in the first place.

49 READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Analyzing Tone Read the text highlighted in blue on page 983. What is the author’s tone at the end of the story? Answer: The author’s portrayal of the Wart’s confused emotions is serious and touching.

50

51 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Respond How did you react to the Wart’s behavior at the beginning of the excerpt? At the middle? At the end? Explain. Answer: You should refer to specific incidents in the story.

52 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret (a) Why does the death of King Uther throw the country into a state of excitement? (b) What effect does the death of the old king have on Sir Ector and his companions? Explain.

53 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret Answer: (a) The king left no heir (b) They are sad at first, but then they grow curious about who will succeed him.

54 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret (a) What news does the Wart announce to Sir Ector and Kay? (b) What can you infer about the Wart’s relationship with Merlyn? Support your answer with details from the story.

55 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret Answer: (a) The Wart announces that Merlyn is leaving. (b) The Wart has an affectionate relationship with Merlyn and sees him as his mentor. His attitude is shown by his emotional reaction when Merlyn leaves and his calling upon Merlyn when he has difficulties.

56 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret (a) Why is the Wart unable to bring Sir Kay’s sword back to him? (b) Why does the Wart silently obey Sir Kay’s order to fetch his sword?

57 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret Answer: (a) The inn where they are staying is locked. (b) It is the Wart’s duty, and it is not in his nature to cause trouble by refusing an order.

58 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret (a) Sir Kay claims that he pulled the sword from the stone. Why does he change his story? (b) What does the Wart’s response to this suggest to you about his character and future leadership?

59 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret Answer: (a) Kay is unable to make a false promise to his trusting father. (b) Arthur’s silence suggests that he is wise and tactful and not power hungry, traits that promise to make him a good leader.

60 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate How does White’s use of repetition in the first churchyard scene affect your appreciation of the story? Explain. Answer: Repetition of the music and the light emphasizes the importance of the event and evokes suspense.

61 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate Why did White portray Sir Ector as a wise and loving father? Answer: To show that Arthur will be a good leader because he was raised well

62 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate Do Sir Ector’s and Sir Kay’s reactions to the Wart’s sudden “promotion” seem true to life? Explain. Answer: Yes, because becoming king was an enormous step and people felt great respect for their king

63 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Connect Acts of Courage In your opinion, what is White saying about heroism and acts of courage? Answer: An example may be that a person becomes a hero by acting nobly. Acts of courage sometimes entail controlling one’s impulses and trying to empathize with those who treat one shabbily.

64 AFTER YOU READ Idiom Idioms differ according to language and culture. Native speakers of English, for instance, use expressions such as “take it with a grain of salt” and “wrap it up,” but these idioms would be difficult to translate for a foreign visitor learning English, because no direct translation exists. Americans might even have to work to “translate” idioms commonly found in British English, due to differences in vocabulary.

65 AFTER YOU READ Idiom Why does White use more contemporary idioms in his retelling of the Arthurian legend?

66 AFTER YOU READ Idiom Answer: White uses modern-day expressions to instill a humorous tone that serves to lighten the story and to make the characters more accessible to the modern reader.

67 AFTER YOU READ Idiom In your opinion, do these idioms enhance or detract from the story? Explain your answer. Answer: You may say that the idioms enhance the story by creating the humorous tone.

68 AFTER YOU READ Review: Legend As you learned on pages 968–969, a legend is a story usually based on actual events that have been exaggerated over time. Many legends are based on the lives and exploits of kings, especially those who lived at a time when stories were more likely to be told orally.

69 AFTER YOU READ Review: Legend Partner Activity With a classmate, use the library or Internet to research other legendary kings of England, Scotland, Wales, and Ireland. Select two or three stories about legendary kings and then compare and contrast them with what you know of the Arthurian legend.

70 AFTER YOU READ Review: Legend Make a chart like the one on the next slide to organize your points. Share your findings with the rest of the class.

71 AFTER YOU READ

72 AFTER YOU READ Analyzing Tone The author’s tone, or attitude toward his or her subject, can be revealed through elements such as word choice, punctuation, sentence structure, and figures of speech.

73 Describe the overall tone of “Arthur Becomes King.”
AFTER YOU READ Analyzing Tone Describe the overall tone of “Arthur Becomes King.” Answer: The overall tone is one of lighthearted humor.

74 List three details that help convey the tone.
AFTER YOU READ Analyzing Tone List three details that help convey the tone. Answer: Examples may be pulled from the idioms or the conversations between King Pellinore and Sirs Ector and Grummore.

75 AFTER YOU READ Practice Practice with Context Clues Use context clues to determine the meaning of each boldfaced word.

76 When frustrated, King Pellinore sometimes spoke petulantly.
AFTER YOU READ Practice When frustrated, King Pellinore sometimes spoke petulantly. peevishly forcefully

77 AFTER YOU READ Practice 2. Some of the spectators acted in a vulgar way, pushing and shoving to get a better view. considerate crass

78 3. The knight wore sumptuous armor and a cloak with gold embroidery.
AFTER YOU READ Practice 3. The knight wore sumptuous armor and a cloak with gold embroidery. rusty splendid

79 AFTER YOU READ Practice 4. The rules of the tournament forbade the combatants to attack a fallen warrior. fighters allies

80 AFTER YOU READ Practice 5. Like rock concerts today, many people thronged medieval tournaments. crowded refused

81 These words will help you think, write, and talk about the selection.
AFTER YOU READ Academic Vocabulary These words will help you think, write, and talk about the selection. despite prep. in spite of; regardless of grant v. to allow or consent to something

82 Academic Vocabulary Practice and Apply
AFTER YOU READ Academic Vocabulary Practice and Apply 1. Why does the Wart try to pull out the sword a third time, despite his previous failed attempts? Answer: The Wart persists because he knows he must find a sword for Kay.

83 Academic Vocabulary Practice and Apply
AFTER YOU READ Academic Vocabulary Practice and Apply 2. What request does Sir Ector ask Arthur to grant at the end of the story? Answer: Sir Ector asks that Arthur make Kay his seneschal, the manager of a king’s estate.

84 Writing About Literature
AFTER YOU READ Writing About Literature Analyze Characters No one is more surprised than Wart to find that he is to be king of England. Does Wart have what it takes to be a good king? Review the selection for evidence that young Arthur possesses royal qualities and then write a brief analysis of his character. Include quotations from the text to support your analysis.

85 Writing About Literature
AFTER YOU READ Writing About Literature Before you begin drafting, brainstorm a list of “kingly” traits that you detect in the Wart. Use the list on the next slide to help develop your analysis of the Wart.

86 AFTER YOU READ Present your opinion of Wart’s character in a concise thesis statement. Add supporting evidence. Refer to the “kingly traits” you brainstormed. Briefly summarize your position and consider offering a related insight.

87 AFTER YOU READ Internet Connection Arthurian legend has developed over hundreds of years, and many variations of the stories exist. Using the Internet, find other legends about King Arthur and share them with the class.

88 White’s Language and Style
AFTER YOU READ White’s Language and Style Using Fragments for Effect A sentence fragment is a word group written as a sentence but lacking either a subject, a verb, or both. Because sentence fragments are grammatically incorrect and often difficult to understand, writers tend to avoid using them. However, authors may use sentence fragments in dialogue to help create the sound of natural speech.

89 White’s Language and Style
AFTER YOU READ White’s Language and Style For example, in “Arthur Becomes King,” Sir Kay expresses a desire to go to London. “Long way to London,” Sir Grummore replies. His statement lacks a subject and a verb, but it is the kind of clipped, fragmentary comment you might hear in actual speech.

90 White’s Language and Style
AFTER YOU READ White’s Language and Style Note the following sentence fragments that occur in the dialogue in “Arthur Becomes King”

91 White’s Language and Style
AFTER YOU READ White’s Language and Style Partner Activity Copy a passage from “Arthur Becomes King” that includes several sentence fragments. With a partner, replace these fragments with complete sentences. Then discuss how this changes the effect of the dialogue.

92

93 Selection Menu (pages 988–1008)
Before You Read Reading the Selection After You Read

94 Click the picture to learn about the author.
BEFORE YOU READ Meet Sit Thomas Malory Click the picture to learn about the author.

95 Connecting to the Story
BEFORE YOU READ Connecting to the Story Le Morte d’Arthur is a series of stories about knights and their brave deeds. Before you read the story, think about the following questions: Who is your hero? What makes that person a hero to you? Who do you think will be remembered as a hero five hundred years from now?

96 BEFORE YOU READ Building Background In late medieval Europe (the twelfth to fifteenth centuries), knights and noblemen tried to behave according to a strict code of chivalry. Chivalry is derived from the French word chevalier, meaning “horseman.” A chivalrous knight, however, was more than a skilled rider. He also strove to be generous to the weak and courteous to women.

97 BEFORE YOU READ Building Background Le Morte d’Arthur is a series of stories about King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table. In episodes that take place between “The Tale of King Arthur” and “The Tale of Sir Launcelot du Lake,” King Arthur marries Gwynevere. Her father gives Arthur the Round Table, and Arthur seeks to fill its 150 seats with knights. Arthur and his bravest knights, including Launcelot, go to Rome to fight Lucius. The Knights of the Round Table, especially Launcelot, show great strength and courage, defeating the Romans against huge odds.

98 Setting Purposes for Reading
BEFORE YOU READ Setting Purposes for Reading Acts of Courage As you read this selection, notice how Malory’s legend provides evidence that Arthur is a courageous hero.

99 Setting Purposes for Reading
BEFORE YOU READ Setting Purposes for Reading Dialogue Dialogue is conversation between characters in a literary work. Dialogue can contribute to characterization, create mood, advance the plot, and develop theme. Pay careful attention to the use of dialogue as you read this legend.

100 BEFORE YOU READ Analyzing Plot When you analyze plot, you critically examine the sequence of events in a narrative work. Most plots develop around a conflict, or a struggle between opposing forces. A legend’s plot may consist of a series of random conflicts.

101 BEFORE YOU READ Analyzing Plot Reading Tip: Taking Notes Compare and contrast the plot of Le Morte d’Arthur with the plot of a short story you have read.

102 BEFORE YOU READ Analyzing Plot

103 BEFORE YOU READ abashed adj. self-conscious; embarrassed or ashamed (p. 992) Mike was abashed about his too-short haircut. inscribe v. to write, carve, or mark on a surface (p. 994) The wedding band was inscribed with the couple’s initials. Click a vocabulary term to listen to the definition.

104 BEFORE YOU READ ignoble adj. of low birth or position; without honor or worth; (p. 995) They were shocked to discover that the charming young man had such ignoble beginnings. tumultuous adj. wildly excited, confused, or agitated (p. 995) The horse galloped away, taking the girl on a tumultuous ride. Click a vocabulary term to listen to the definition.

105 BEFORE YOU READ prowess n. great ability or skill (p. 996) Her prowess on the violin was evident as she played the solo. Click a vocabulary term to listen to the definition.

106

107 READING THE SELECTION Acts of Courage Keep the following question in mind as you read. What situations develop that demand courage from the characters? How do different characters display courage?

108 READING THE SELECTION Answer: The various battles, captures, and threats from opponents all demand courage. Sir Launcelot confronts powerful knights and rescues many people. King Uther puts himself in a dangerous situation to inspire his people. Several knights prefer to face death rather than give in to their opponents.

109 READING THE SELECTION Viewing the Art Look at the image on page 972 of Arthur on the left and Launcelot on the right. What can you tell about the differences between these characters based on how they are pictured?

110 READING THE SELECTION Viewing the Art Answer: Arthur is a king, while Lancelot is a knight dressed for battle. Arthur appears thoughtful, while Lancelot appears ready to fight his enemies.

111 READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Dialogue Read the text highlighted in purple on page 991. How does this dialogue help characterize Igraine? Answer: The dialogue helps characterize Igraine as brave and loyal to her husband.

112 READING THE SELECTION Viewing the Art Look at the painting on page 991. Determine which characters in Le Morte d’Arthur seem to be portrayed in the painting. Defend your choices with details from the painting. Answer: You might say that the character on the right resembles the wizard Merlin. He may be explaining his plan for winning Igraine to King Uther, on the left.

113 READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Analyzing Plot Read the text highlighted in blue on page 992. How do you think this event will advance the plot? Answer: A possible prediction is that Uther will be able to deceive Igraine, allowing him to take advantage of her when her guard is down.

114 READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Dialogue Read the last paragraph on page 992. What do you think of King Uther when he tells Igraine, “tell me the truth and I swear I shall love you the better for it.” Answer: Some may find him kind and understanding. Others may think that he is manipulative, since he has tricked Igraine and asks the question to see if she will tell him the truth, even though he has deceived her.

115 READING THE SELECTION Acts of Courage Read the text highlighted in tan on page 993 to the end of the next paragraph. What is so remarkable about the king’s statement? Answer: The king is aware that Merlin had arranged for him to be the father of Igraine’s child and that the baby was conceived in a deceptive way. He keeps his word to Merlin, even if it means giving up his child.

116 READING THE SELECTION Viewing the Art Look at the image on page 993. How does the sculpture reflect the relationship between Merlin and Arthur? Answer: The sculpture portrays Merlin’s wisdom, kindliness, and love for Arthur. It makes him seem like a father figure.

117 READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Analyzing Plot Read the text highlighted in blue on page What purpose have the events in this story served up until this point? Answer: The events have set in motion Arthur’s ascension to the throne.

118 READING THE SELECTION Language History Etymology Look up the origin of the words noble and nobility. Explain how the original meaning relates to the meaning used by Malory. Answer: Both words come from the Latin nobilis, meaning “well-known.” Nobles are well-known because of outstanding qualities or aristocratic birth.

119 READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Analyzing Plot The scene in which Arthur pulls the sword from the stone is a climatic one because it answers the question of who will succeed the throne. What is the tone of this scene?

120 READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Answer: The scene is not very suspenseful. Arthur pulls out the sword accidentally and then must perform the action several more times before he is allowed to become king. The scene has a matter-of-fact tone.

121 READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Analyzing Plot Read the text highlighted in blue on page 995. What conflict is being revealed here? Answer: Sir Kay creates conflict when he lies to his father and tells him that he freed the sword from the stone. The reader knows that Arthur actually tugged the sword free.

122 READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Dialogue Read the text highlighted in purple on page 995. What does this response reveal about Arthur? Answer: Arthur seems both unassuming and unaware. He does not seem to know what his actions mean, and he does not seem to feel that he deserves the admiration of Sir Ector and Sir Kay.

123 READING THE SELECTION Acts of Courage Read the second paragraph on page 996. Do you consider Sir Launcelot’s decision to leave the court in search of adventure to be an act of courage? Why or why not?

124 READING THE SELECTION Answer: Answers will vary. Some might think it is courageous, while others may think it is impetuous and childish of him to go off blindly in search of “adventure” because he is tired of his life at court.

125 READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Analyzing Plot Read the text highlighted in blue on page 996. What does this action reveal about Sir Lyonel? Answer: Sir Lyonel is courageous, but his decision to challenge the knight on his own, without the assistance of his experienced uncle, seems foolish.

126 READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Dialogue Read page 997. What are the functions of the dialogue on this page? Answer: It characterizes Sir Ector, furthers the plot, and provides vivid images of the castle setting.

127 READING THE SELECTION Viewing the Art Look at the painting on page 997. King Arthur’s knights are known as the Knights of the Round Table. What do you think is the significance of the table’s being round? Answer: Since the table was round, none of the knights could claim higher rank than any other.

128 READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Analyzing Plot Read the text highlighted in blue on page 998. How does this detail create suspense? Answer: The reader is reminded of Sir Launcelot’s vulnerable position as he sleeps under the apple tree. The prisoners seem to lose hope because they believe that something may have happened to Launcelot.

129 READING THE SELECTION Acts of Courage Read the text highlighted in tan on page 998. From this statement, what do you think Sir Launcelot values? Answer: It seems that Sir Launcelot values his honor and his loyalty to Gwynevere more than his own life.

130 READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Dialogue Read the text highlighted in purple on page 999. What does this dialogue reveal about Sir Launcelot? Answer: Launcelot is grateful and generous to those who help him, and he is true to his word.

131 READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Analyzing Plot Read the fifth paragraph on page 999. How does the plot of this legend compare to many contemporary plots? Answer: Instead of being built around one major conflict, the plot describes a series of conflicts that are seemingly random. Similarly, a series of new characters appears with whom the protagonist is in conflict.

132 READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Analyzing Plot Read the text highlighted in blue on page 999. Why do you think Sir Launcelot makes these requests? Answer: Launcelot does not want to use his reputation to intimidate his opponents. Instead, he wants to prove himself by his deeds. He also wants to allow King Bagdemagus the opportunity to triumph before he enters the battle.

133 READING THE SELECTION Acts of Courage Read the second paragraph on page After reading the description of the combatants he faces, what do you think of Launcelot’s decision to fight for the king? Answer: The description of the numerous men Launcelot faces makes him appear particularly brave and generous in agreeing to fight.

134 READING THE SELECTION Viewing the Art Look at the painting on page What inferences can you make about the lifestyle of King Arthur and Queen Guinevere, based on this art? Answer: They lived a very opulent life, had feasts, and had servants attending to them.

135 READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Dialogue What is the style of Launcelot’s dialogue? How does it complement his character? Answer: His dialogue is formal and extremely polite. He uses phrases like “most happily challenge” and “vindicate the honor” that emphasize his role as a knight.

136 READING THE SELECTION Viewing the Art Look at the painting on page What can you learn about the brotherhood of knights from this painting? Answer: Note that the bright colors of the painting suggest a festive occasion. The knights appear to be enjoying their feast, and their close proximity to one another suggests a sense of camaraderie.

137 READING THE SELECTION Acts of Courage Read the text highlighted in tan on page Why do you think Launcelot reveals himself, exposing himself to further danger? Answer: You may say that Launcelot believes it is more important to expose his identity and risk death than lie and damage his sense of honor.

138 READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Dialogue Read the text highlighted in purple on page How do the other characters’ responses to Launcelot help characterize them? Answer: They are loyal and respectful. They not only feel it is their duty, but they are eager to follow him on his quest.

139 READING THE SELECTION Acts of Courage Read the text highlighted in tan on page The noblewoman tells Launcelot that he is the “bravest and gentlest” knight she has known. What is the significance of these two adjectives?

140 READING THE SELECTION Answer: It is not enough for a knight to be a brave and skillful fighter; he must also be “gentle,” polite, kind to women, and socially astute.

141 READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Dialogue Read the last paragraph in the first column on page According to his words, how does Launcelot believe a knight should behave?

142 READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Answer: Knights should devote themselves to tournaments, wars, and adventures instead of to relationships with women. Some unmarried knights may choose to have affairs at the expense of their virtue. If a knight were to behave in this way, he would be at a disadvantage against virtuous knights.

143 READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Analyzing Plot Read the text highlighted in blue on page Why do you think Malory returns Sir Launcelot to Tintagil?

144 READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Answer: Malory is reminding the reader of events in the first legend that led to the birth of Arthur. King Uther was attracted to Igraine and arranged with Merlin to have a relationship with her. Launcelot’s return to Tintagil reveals how different he is from King Uther.

145 READING THE SELECTION Viewing the Art Look at the painting on page How does the picture help you understand the variety of life in King Arthur’s court? Answer: It shows the honor, chivalry, camaraderie, and respect that are part of life in Camelot.

146 READING THE SELECTION Acts of Courage Read the last paragraph on page Launcelot rushes to Sir Kay’s aid, saying “If they kill Sir Kay I shall be a party to his death.” What does this tell you about Launcelot?

147 READING THE SELECTION Answer: He has a strong sense of honor and duty and feels that he must always try to help someone out of an unfair situation. If he did not do everything in his power to prevent Sir Kay’s murder, he would feel as guilty as if he had struck the blow himself.

148 READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Dialogue Read the text highlighted in purple on page What does this statement reveal about the fraternity of knights? Answer: The knights seem to follow a code of conduct in battle. For example, when one knight kills another, he earns the right to the fallen knight’s armor.

149 READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Dialogue Read the fifth complete paragraph on page What is the effect of Sir Sagramour’s announcing he will challenge Sir Kay and the knights, not knowing who is riding in Kay’s armor?

150 READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Answer: This section adds humor and irony because the reader knows it is really Launcelot in Sir Kay’s armor, and that the knights are wrong to think this rider will be easily conquered.

151 READING THE SELECTION Acts of Courage Read the text highlighted in tan on page Why does Sir Launcelot refrain from describing his acts of courage? Answer: Launcelot is a noble character who does not perform his deeds for personal glory, but in honor of Gwynevere and for the glory of knighthood in general. He does not want to boast of his exploits; the other knights will do so for him.

152

153 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Respond What is your reaction to the world of King Arthur and his knights? If you could be transported there for a day, would you go? Why or why not? Answer: You should refer to the setting and characters of the legend in your response.

154 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret (a) What does Merlin ask of King Uther in return for granting his wish? (b) Why, do you think, does Merlin request this reward for helping Uther?

155 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret Answer: (a) Merlin asks for custody of the child that Igraine will bear Uther. (b) Merlin arranged the birth of Arthur and wants to control his fate.

156 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret (a) What events lead Arthur to pull the sword from the stone? (b) What does Arthur’s behavior immediately after pulling the sword free tell you about him?

157 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret Answer: (a) Arthur’s brother, Sir Kay, forgets his sword and asks Arthur to go back for it. (b) Arthur is modest and selfless. His rule will probably be more fair and generous than Uther’s rule.

158 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret (a) Why is Sir Tarquine so determined to kill Sir Launcelot? (b) Why do you think Sir Launcelot reveals his identity, knowing that the ensuing fight will lead to death?

159 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret Answer: (a) Because Launcelot had killed his brother (b) Because he is an honest, virtuous knight, and because he is confident he can win the battle

160 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate Do the characters of King Uther Pendragon and Igraine seem realistic? Why or why not?

161 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate Answer: You may say the characters of Uther and Igraine do not seem realistic because their relationship is based on magic. Or you may say they are realistic because Uther demonstrates the human trait of lust and the use of trickery to get what he wants, while Igraine defends her virtue.

162 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate If you were one of the nobles, would you have proclaimed the young Arthur to be king as described in “The Tale of King Arthur”? Explain. Answer: Response should show knowledge of the plot and characters of the legend.

163 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate What do you learn about Sir Kay’s character in “The Tale of King Arthur” that foreshadows what his fellow knights think of him in “The Tale of Sir Launcelot du Lake”? Answer: He is revealed to be a dishonest and weak character.

164 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Connect Acts of Courage Why would Sir Launcelot be described as courageous? Is he a hero? Explain. Answer: Include specific details about Launcelot’s character and about your own understanding of the definition of courage.

165 AFTER YOU READ Dialogue Much of Le Morte d’Arthur is related through dialogue, the written conversation between characters. Dialogue gives readers a sense of a character’s personality and feelings, and helps readers focus on important scenes.

166 AFTER YOU READ Dialogue In “The Tale of King Arthur,” for example, the reader realizes the importance of King Uther’s feelings when Uther says “Igraine has broken my heart, and unless I can win her, I shall never recover.”

167 AFTER YOU READ Dialogue Reread the scene on page 995 in which Sir Ector realizes that Arthur has removed the sword from the stone. Why do you think the author chose to use dialogue here? Answer: You may say that the dialogue shows the relationship between the men.

168 AFTER YOU READ Dialogue Which passage of dialogue in the selection do you find particularly effective or striking? Why? Answer: Give specific reasons for your choice. For example, Launcelot’s response to Morgan le Fay on page 998 is effective because it reveals his personality and gives insight into a knight’s moral code.

169 AFTER YOU READ Review: Hero As you learned on pages 968–969, a hero is the chief character in a literary work, typically one whose qualities or noble deeds arouse the admiration of the reader.

170 AFTER YOU READ Review: Hero Partner Activity Critic Jeffrey Helterman observes that “Arthur institutes a code of behavior which stresses always succoring [aiding] ladies ... and never taking up battles for a wrongful cause.” With a partner, find examples from “The Tale of Sir Launcelot du Lake” of knights following this code of behavior.

171 Review: Hero Use a chart like the one shown. What can
AFTER YOU READ Review: Hero Use a chart like the one shown. What can you infer from the code about the values held by this society?

172 AFTER YOU READ Analyzing Plot Often, determining the author’s purpose in plotting certain episodes can help readers understand the theme of a legend.

173 AFTER YOU READ Analyzing Plot Why do you think Malory included Launcelot’s refusal to choose a paramour from among Morgan le Fay and her companions? Answer: Malory included this to illustrate his virtue and his devotion to Gwynevere.

174 AFTER YOU READ Analyzing Plot Why might Malory have included Launcelot’s killing of Sir Tarquine within the plot? Answer: Malory may have included the scene to show Launcelot’s devotion to protecting women.

175 Answer: Malory wants to express the moral code of the knights.
AFTER YOU READ Analyzing Plot Using what you know about the plot, what message do you think Malory wants to express? Explain. Answer: Malory wants to express the moral code of the knights.

176 AFTER YOU READ Practice Practice with Word Origins Choose the word that has the same origin as each vocabulary word on the next slides. Use a dictionary if you need help.

177 AFTER YOU READ Practice abashed abacus bashful basked

178 AFTER YOU READ Practice 2. tumultuous timid tepid tumor

179 AFTER YOU READ Practice 3. ignoble ignorance nobility igneous

180 AFTER YOU READ Practice 4. inscribe scribble scrutiny install

181 These words will help you think, write, and talk about the selection.
AFTER YOU READ Academic Vocabulary These words will help you think, write, and talk about the selection. ensure v. to make certain; to insure impact v. to have an effect

182 Academic Vocabulary Practice and Apply
AFTER YOU READ Academic Vocabulary Practice and Apply 1. By exchanging armor, what is ensured for Sir Launcelot? For Sir Kay? Answer: Launcelot ensures that he will face Sir Kay’s enemies and that Sir Kay will ride home without challenge.

183 Answer: Answers may vary.
AFTER YOU READ Academic Vocabulary Practice and Apply 2. How did the violence in this selection impact you? Would you have preferred less of it? Why or why not? Answer: Answers may vary.

184 Writing About Literature
AFTER YOU READ Writing About Literature Compare and Contrast Characters Malory introduces and describes strong characters in this legend. He discusses and shows their personal characteristics, some of which are in distinct contrast with those of other characters.

185 Writing About Literature
AFTER YOU READ Writing About Literature Choose two characters from the legend, such as Launcelot and Sir Kay, or Merlin and Uther. Write a one- or two-page analysis in which you compare and contrast the personalities and qualities of these characters. Use evidence from Malory’s legend to explain your position.

186 Writing About Literature
AFTER YOU READ Writing About Literature Before you begin drafting, take notes on the similarities and differences of each character in the Venn diagram shown.

187 Writing About Literature
AFTER YOU READ Writing About Literature Include evidence from the legend to support your descriptions of the characters. Once you have completed the diagram, begin drafting.

188 Writing About Literature
AFTER YOU READ Writing About Literature Invite a peer reviewer to exchange drafts with you. Proofread and edit each other’s drafts, and provide comments about those areas you find particularly interesting, as well as places that may need more clarification. Check for errors in spelling, grammar, and punctuation.

189 AFTER YOU READ Literature Groups One element of Arthurian legend was the tradition of courtly love, in which knights devoted themselves to a lady, often a married woman. Within your group, discuss how the relationships between men and women in the selections compare with gender roles in society today.

190

191 Selection Menu (pages 1009–1019)
Before You Read Reading the Selection After You Read

192 Click the picture to learn about the author.
BEFORE YOU READ Meet Miguel De Cervantes Click the picture to learn about the author.

193 Connecting to the Story
BEFORE YOU READ Connecting to the Story The following excerpt from Don Quixote depicts an underdog, or someone who is not expected to succeed. Before you read the story, think about the following questions: Can you remember a time when you defied the odds? Explain. How do you generally feel about an underdog in a given situation?

194 BEFORE YOU READ Building Background Cervantes published the novel Don Quixote in two parts, the first in 1605 and the final in The excerpt included here is just a fraction of the entire work, which, in some English translations, spans over one thousand pages.

195 BEFORE YOU READ Building Background Don Quixote discusses two sharply different perspectives of the world: idealism (envisioning things in an ideal form) and realism (envisioning things as they actually are). The work can be appreciated as a satire of idealism in an imperfect and often corrupt world. Don Quixote also highlights the way illusion can transform. Its influence on the development of the modern novel is significant and global.

196 Setting Purposes for Reading
BEFORE YOU READ Setting Purposes for Reading Acts of Courage As you read this excerpt, reflect on how Don Quixote is a hero in his own mind, and how this information is enough to render his acts courageous.

197 Setting Purposes for Reading
BEFORE YOU READ Setting Purposes for Reading Parody A parody is a humorous imitation of a literary work that aims to illustrate the work’s shortcomings. A parody may imitate the plot, characters, or style of another work, but usually exaggerates those characteristics. As you read, think about why this work is a parody of chivalry and stories about knights.

198 BEFORE YOU READ Evaluating Characters When you evaluate characters, you make judgments or form opinions about them by paying close attention to their actions, statements, thoughts, and feelings. As you read this excerpt, notice how Cervantes provides details about the characters’ personalities, physical attributes, and ways of thinking about life, particularly knightly life.

199 Reading Tip: Looking for Clues
BEFORE YOU READ Evaluating Characters Reading Tip: Looking for Clues As you read, think about the clues the author gives about each character’s personality. Some clues will be subtle, while others will be directly stated.

200 BEFORE YOU READ interminable adj. having or seeming to have no end (p. 1012) The students found the exam to be interminable. renown n. a state of being widely acclaimed (p. 1012) In the 1920’s my aunt was a singer of worldwide renown. Click a vocabulary term to listen to the definition.

201 BEFORE YOU READ redress v. to correct or compensate for a wrong or loss (p. 1013) The man felt there was no way to redress the tragic loss of his dog. discourteous adj. impolite (p. 1015) The angry pedestrian was discourteous to the driver of the car that hit him. Click a vocabulary term to listen to the definition.

202 BEFORE YOU READ enmity n. hatred or ill will (p. 1017) The organization has enmity toward anyone who abuses animals. Click a vocabulary term to listen to the definition.

203

204 READING THE SELECTION Acts of Courage Keep the following questions in mind as you read: How do the characters display courage? When a character feels courageous, does he also appear this way to an outside observer?

205 READING THE SELECTION Answer: Don Quixote displays courage by battling giants and other enemies. When he feels particularly brave, such as when he attacks the windmill that he thinks is a giant, he appears to others as simply absurd and insane.

206 READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Evaluating Characters Read the second column on page What do we learn from the description of Don Quixote’s eating habits and clothing preferences? Answer: He is idle and decadent. He amuses himself with tasty and extravagant items.

207 READING THE SELECTION Viewing the Art Look at the painting on page How do the figures in the painting reflect the qualities of knighthood in the passage? Answer: Answers may vary, but you should refer to specific parts of the painting and selection.

208 READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Evaluating Characters Read the text highlighted in blue on page Do you think Don Quixote is behaving like a typical knight? Explain. Answer: Don Quixote spends his time reading about knights and their escapades. An actual knight would live these adventures instead of reading about them.

209 READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Parody Read the text highlighted in purple on page What is Cervantes conveying about Don Quixote here? Answer: Cervantes exaggerates to show Don Quixote’s humorous and desperate state of mind, a condition that contrasts with a knight’s usual state.

210 READING THE SELECTION Acts of Courage Read the text highlighted in tan on page Do you think Don Quixote is ready to perform acts of courage? Explain. Answer: You may say that Don Quixote has read frivolous stories and does not seem well prepared for or practiced in adventure.

211 READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Parody Read the text highlighted in purple on page How is Cervantes parodying typical knight behavior with Don Quixote’s behavior here? Answer: Cervantes ironically says that Don Quixote “ingeniously” made a half-visor from pieces of pasteboard. This is not something a real knight would wear.

212 READING THE SELECTION Viewing the Art Look at the painting on page What aspects of architectural study can you see in the painting? Answer: You may refer to the window, trim, or furniture.

213 READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Evaluating Characters Read the second column on page What does Don Quixote’s approach to the farm girl tell you about him? Answer: He is so wrapped up in his fantasy that he transforms everything around him—even people—to suit his purpose.

214 READING THE SELECTION Acts of Courage Read the text highlighted in tan on page What kind of person does Don Quixote choose as a squire? Is he a suitable choice? Why or why not? Answer: He chooses a lower class honest laborer. As a knight in training, his honesty will serve him well, but his intelligence is lacking.

215 READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Evaluating Characters Read the text highlighted in blue on page What do Panza’s and Don Quixote’s actions here tell you about them? Answer: Sneaking away is not typical behavior—one expects a knight to leave openly and with pomp. These are unusual, almost childish knights.

216 READING THE SELECTION Viewing the Art Look at the painting on page Does this painting represent the spirit of adventure? Why or why not? Answer: You may point to the road (beginning of a journey), sword (knight’s weapon), tired animals (not so glamorous), etc.

217 READING THE SELECTION Acts of Courage Read the text highlighted in tan on page Do you think Don Quixote is behaving courageously here or foolishly? Explain.

218 READING THE SELECTION Answer: Don Quixote is convinced that the windmills are monsters to fight. His intentions are courageous. However, he is foolish because his behavior is based on a misconception.

219 READING THE SELECTION Viewing the Art Look at the painting on page What does this painting tell you about the character Sancho Panza? Answer: You should point to his size and pampered look, and say that he is concerned with the indulgent side of life, i.e., food and drink.

220 READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Parody Read the text highlighted in purple on page How does this scene parody traditional tales of knighthood? Answer: In a traditional tale, the foe would not be a windmill or an inanimate object, and the knight would not have mistaken a windmill for an enemy. A true knight would not need a reprimand from his squire.

221 READING THE SELECTION Acts of Courage Read the fourth paragraph on page When Don Quixote says, “I propose to tear down just such a limb from the first oak we meet,” how courageous is he? Has your opinion changed from earlier in the story?

222 READING THE SELECTION Answer: He could be viewed as more courageous, because even after the windmill fiasco, he is undaunted and still believes he can achieve great things.

223 READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Evaluating Characters Read the text highlighted in blue on page What characters traits does Don Quixote reveal here? Answer: He is heroic and moral. He suffers his injury bravely as a knight should.

224

225 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Respond (a) How did you react to the character of Don Quixote? (b) Is he someone you would consider heroic? Explain. Answer: (a) Answers may vary. (b) Answers will vary, but should be supported by text details.

226 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret (a) What causes Don Quixote to lose his wits? (b) How do you know that Cervantes is parodying the style of Feliciano de Silva?

227 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret Answer: (a) Sleep deprivation “addles his brains.” (b) The language in the “quotation” is unlike that of Cervantes’s own book, and the quotation itself makes no sense.

228 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret (a) How does Don Quixote persuade Sancho Panza to become his squire? (b) How would you describe Sancho Panza’s philosophy of life?

229 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret Answer: (a) He promises him an island to govern. (b) He is concerned with the basics of life: food and comfort.

230 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret (a) What is Don Quixote’s purpose in becoming a knight errant? (b) Satire holds up something or someone to ridicule or critique. What is the target of Cervantes’s satire when the narrator describes Don Quixote’s lofty goals?

231 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret Answer: (a) To increase his renown and serve the state by redressing wrongs (b) The whole concept of knight-errantry and those who idealize it

232 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret (a) How do Don Quixote and Sancho Panza each view the windmills? (b) What might the windmills symbolize? Explain. Answer: (a) Don Quixote sees evil giants, and Sancho Panza sees windmills. (b) People’s problems or dangers

233 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate Cervantes’s depiction of his hero is the source of the English word quixotic, which describes a person caught up in the romantic pursuit of unreachable goals without regard for practicality. (a) What do you think are the dangers of seeing the world in this way? (b) Are there any advantages? Explain.

234 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate Answer: (a) It leaves a person unprepared for life’s realities. (b) Enthusiasm and motivation in the pursuit of a goal

235 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate Through the character of Don Quixote, what might Cervantes be suggesting about people who “live in the past”? Answer: It is not an answer to current problems and may not have originally been wonderful.

236 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Connect Acts of Courage Do you agree that Don Quixote is a courageous yet sympathetic character, or do you think that he is merely a buffoon? Explain your opinion. Answer: Most will probably find him to be a sympathetic character.

237 AFTER YOU READ Parody A parody seeks to poke fun at or critique some aspect of society. Cervantes uses parody in Don Quixote to offer his critique of a life and time dominated by greed and violence, as well as to poke fun at popular novels about chivalry, such as Amadís de Gaula.

238 AFTER YOU READ Parody How does Cervantes use Don Quixote’s madness to help him parody aspects of life? Answer: It is a sort of higher wisdom. In his madness, Don Quixote sees meek people as good. He can call the rich “monsters” and get away with it.

239 AFTER YOU READ Parody What are some particular incidents in this selection that use humor to show that Don Quixote is not an ideal knight like those in Arthurian legends or others in chivalric romances?

240 AFTER YOU READ Parody Answer: He thinks windmills are giants, whereas the ideal knight would see a windmill realistically.

241 AFTER YOU READ Parody How do the names used throughout Don Quixote contribute to its humor and its use of parody? Answer: His exact name is unknown and disputed, contrasting with his high self-image. His lady’s and horse’s names are exaggerated and comical.

242 AFTER YOU READ Review: Foil As you learned on page 834, every character in literature has certain personality traits or qualities that are revealed to us in the course of a literary work. Sometimes a writer creates characters who are foils for one another—those who have opposite personality traits and are best understood in contrast with each other.

243 AFTER YOU READ Review: Foil For example, one character may be calm, while the foil may be hot-tempered. By showing us the two figures side by side in the same situations, the author stresses their differences and helps the reader see their individual qualities more clearly.

244 AFTER YOU READ Review: Foil Partner Activity Pair up with a classmate and discuss the questions on the following slides about the use of foils in Don Quixote:

245 How do Don Quixote’s traits compare with those of Sancho Panza?
AFTER YOU READ Review: Foil How do Don Quixote’s traits compare with those of Sancho Panza? Answer: Don Quixote is idealistic and impractical. Sancho Panza has too little wit or imagination to dream.

246 AFTER YOU READ Review: Foil In the code of medieval chivalry, a squire served as an apprentice or knight-in-training. How does the portrayal of Sancho Panza by Cervantes mock the role of the squire in medieval courtly romances?

247 AFTER YOU READ Review: Foil Answer: Sancho Panza does not belong to the appropriate class nor does he have any appropriate qualities, except loyalty.

248 AFTER YOU READ Evaluating Characters Most people in Don Quixote’s time thought of the ideal knight as being physically strong, capable, and honorable. Don Quixote, however, is elderly, weak, and somewhat delusional.

249 AFTER YOU READ Evaluating Characters Furthermore, as his squire, he chooses Sancho Panza, who is married, poor, and concerned with providing enough food and money for his family. The characters in Don Quixote in some ways highlight the qualities that traditional knights did not aspire to possess.

250 Answer: It would not have been a comical parody of the genre.
AFTER YOU READ Evaluating Characters How might the story be different if Don Quixote or Sancho Panza were ideal types? Answer: It would not have been a comical parody of the genre.

251 AFTER YOU READ Evaluating Characters Why do you think Don Quixote chose Sancho Panza instead of a more suitable candidate?

252 AFTER YOU READ Evaluating Characters Answer: To contrast with Don Quixote’s imagination and belief. Don Quixote probably had limited options for potential squires, as most people would be hesitant to accompany a delusional man on an imaginary journey.

253 AFTER YOU READ Practice Practice with Synonyms Find the synonym for each vocabulary word listed on the following slides.

254 AFTER YOU READ Practice interminable foul endless

255 AFTER YOU READ Practice 2. renown fame renew

256 AFTER YOU READ Practice 3. redress remedy outfit

257 AFTER YOU READ Practice 4. discourteous rude lost

258 AFTER YOU READ Practice 5. enmity unified hatred

259 AFTER YOU READ Academic Vocabulary These words will help you think, write, and talk about the selection. tradition n. customs practiced from generation to generation resolve v. to make a firm decision about something; to determine

260 1. What is one way that Don Quixote follows tradition in this story?
AFTER YOU READ Academic Vocabulary Practice and Apply 1. What is one way that Don Quixote follows tradition in this story? Answer: He sets out on a journey, he becomes a knight errant, he tries to right wrongs, and he meets a woman.

261 2. What causes Sancho Panza to resolve to be Don Quixote’s squire?
AFTER YOU READ Academic Vocabulary Practice and Apply 2. What causes Sancho Panza to resolve to be Don Quixote’s squire? Answer: Quixote promises him an island of which he will be governor.

262 Writing About Literature
AFTER YOU READ Writing About Literature Apply Theme As explained earlier, a quixotic character is one who is foolishly impractical. Write your own adventure involving a quixotic character, set either in Don Quixote’s time or in the present.

263 Writing About Literature
AFTER YOU READ Writing About Literature Before you begin drafting, outline your story’s beginning, middle, and end. Jot down some notes about the main character’s personality, what he or she looks like, and the conflict that the character will go through in the story.

264 Writing About Literature
AFTER YOU READ Writing About Literature You may want to use a chart similar to the one below.

265 Writing About Literature
AFTER YOU READ Writing About Literature If you are comfortable parodying an aspect of contemporary life, add this to your story. Once you have completed the diagram from the previous slide, begin drafting.

266 Writing About Literature
AFTER YOU READ Writing About Literature After completing your draft, choose a peer reviewer and exchange stories. Evaluate each other’s work for clarity and flow. Discuss areas of your partner’s draft that may need clarification or more description. Then proofread and edit your own draft for errors in spelling, grammar, and punctuation.

267 AFTER YOU READ Learning for Life In small groups, conduct a mock interview with Don Quixote. Brainstorm and formulate interview questions, possible responses by Don Quixote, and the interview host’s words. Choose one group member to conduct the interview, one to be Don Quixote, and one to be the stage manager. Practice the interview before presenting it to your classmates.

268

269 Using Main and Subordinate Clauses
GRAMMAR WORKSHOP Sentence Structure Using Main and Subordinate Clauses Connecting to Literature In “Arthur Becomes King,” T. H. White uses sentences that include both main and subordinate clauses. A main, or independent, clause has a subject and a predicate, expresses a complete thought, and can stand alone as a sentence. A subordinate, or dependent, clause has a subject and a predicate, but does not express a complete thought, and thus cannot stand alone as a sentence.

270 Using Main and Subordinate Clauses
GRAMMAR WORKSHOP Sentence Structure Using Main and Subordinate Clauses “Let me help you up, Sir Ector, because you are making me unhappy.” — T. H. White, from “Arthur Becomes King” Connecting to Literature In the sentence above, “Let me help you up, Sir Ector” is the main clause, and “because you are making me unhappy” is the subordinate clause.

271 Using Main and Subordinate Clauses
GRAMMAR WORKSHOP Sentence Structure Using Main and Subordinate Clauses Here is how to identify main and subordinate clauses and turn them into complete sentences. Main clause The story was written by T. H. White Explanation Because the clause has a subject—story—and a predicate —was written—and expresses a complete thought, it can stand alone as a complete sentence.

272 Using Main and Subordinate Clauses
GRAMMAR WORKSHOP Sentence Structure Using Main and Subordinate Clauses Solution To create a sentence, add a period to the main clause. The story was written by T. H. White.

273 Using Main and Subordinate Clauses
GRAMMAR WORKSHOP Sentence Structure Using Main and Subordinate Clauses Subordinate clause Because the story was interesting Explanation The clause has a subject—story—and a predicate—was—but does not express a complete thought. Solution To create a sentence, combine the subordinate clause with a main clause. Because the story was interesting, I wanted to read more of the author’s work.

274 Using Main and Subordinate Clauses
GRAMMAR WORKSHOP Sentence Structure Using Main and Subordinate Clauses Exercise Rewrite the following sentences to make complete sentences. If the sentence is already complete, write “correct.” Since the boy was able to pull the sword out easily, unlike the others who tried. Answer: Since the boy was able to pull the sword out easily, unlike the others who tried, he became king.

275 Using Main and Subordinate Clauses
GRAMMAR WORKSHOP Sentence Structure Using Main and Subordinate Clauses Exercise Rewrite the following sentences to make complete sentences. If the sentence is already complete, write “correct.” While it was clear that he was the new king. Answer: While it was clear that he was the new king, Wart was unhappy.

276 Using Main and Subordinate Clauses
GRAMMAR WORKSHOP Sentence Structure Using Main and Subordinate Clauses Exercise Rewrite the following sentences to make complete sentences. If the sentence is already complete, write “correct.” Sir Ector and the other men were amazed by the feat. Answer: Correct

277 Using Main and Subordinate Clauses
GRAMMAR WORKSHOP Sentence Structure Using Main and Subordinate Clauses Exercise Rewrite the following sentences to make complete sentences. If the sentence is already complete, write “correct.” After Wart pulled the sword. Answer: After Wart pulled the sword, Sir Kay and Sir Ector knelt.

278 Using Main and Subordinate Clauses
GRAMMAR WORKSHOP Sentence Structure Using Main and Subordinate Clauses Vocabulary Terms A main clause has a subject and a predicate, expresses a complete thought, and can stand alone as a sentence. A subordinate clause has a subject and a predicate, but does not express a complete thought and cannot stand alone as a sentence.

279 Using Main and Subordinate Clauses
GRAMMAR WORKSHOP Sentence Structure Using Main and Subordinate Clauses Test-Taking Tip To identify main and subordinate clauses on a test, separate the clause from the rest of the sentence. If it makes sense on its own, it is a main clause.

280 The Once and Future King
Unit 5, Part 1 BELLRINGER The Once and Future King This is the title of the book from which this excerpt is taken. What might this title mean? Arthur Becomes King Bellringer

281 Heroes from the Fifteenth Century to the Present
Unit 5, Part 1 BELLRINGER Heroes from the Fifteenth Century to the Present What character traits do you associate with a hero? Are there differences in the way you think of past heroes and heroes today? Le Morte d’Arthur Bellringer

282 A Knight’s Qualities and Way of Life
Unit 5, Part 1 BELLRINGER A Knight’s Qualities and Way of Life What qualities do you associate with a knight? What kind of life does a knight live? Do you find legends about knights entertaining? Don Quixote Bellringer

283 Unit 5, Part 1 BELLRINGER OPTION TRANSPARENCY Click on the image to see a full version of the Bellringer Option Transparency. Arthur Becomes King Bellringer Option

284 Unit 5, Part 1 BELLRINGER OPTION TRANSPARENCY Click on the image to see a full version of the Bellringer Option Transparency. Le Morte d’Arthur Bellringer Option

285 Unit 5, Part 1 BELLRINGER OPTION TRANSPARENCY Click on the image to see a full version of the Bellringer Option Transparency. Don Quixote Bellringer Option

286 Why is there no king after the death of King Uther?
CHECKPOINT QUESTIONS Why is there no king after the death of King Uther? Uther’s sons were fighting for the crown. Uther did not want anyone to assume the crown upon his death. He had no heirs. The citizens could not vote for a new king.

287 CHECKPOINT QUESTIONS What other information besides the death of Uther did the gray friar tell King Pellinore? the existence of a sword in an anvil and stone the rise of enemy agitators the results from the recent battles in France the develop of new weapons

288 What reason does Merlyn give for leaving?
CHECKPOINT QUESTIONS What reason does Merlyn give for leaving? He has lost his magical abilities. He is going to London to have a try at the sword. He is no longer wanted. He has outlived his usefulness there.

289 Where in London did the group stay?
CHECKPOINT QUESTIONS Where in London did the group stay? at the finest hotel in London at an inn on property that Sir Ector owned at the house of Wart’s parents in the doorways of shops

290 What request does Sir Ector ask of the Wart at the end of the section?
CHECKPOINT QUESTIONS What request does Sir Ector ask of the Wart at the end of the section? That Wart forever address him as “father” That Wart become commander-in-chief of the army That Kay inherit enough money to live out his life in comfort That Kay could manage the future king’s estate.

291 Why did king Uther call a truce with the Duke of Tintagil?
CHECKPOINT QUESTIONS Why did king Uther call a truce with the Duke of Tintagil? He was tired of fighting and did not want to die. He learned about the beauty of the duke’s wife. He knew that he could never defeat the duke’s forces. He had grown quite fond of the duke.

292 Who raised Arthur when he was a baby?
CHECKPOINT QUESTIONS Who raised Arthur when he was a baby? Sir Ulfius Sir Ector and his wife the duke of Tintagil Merlin

293 CHECKPOINT QUESTIONS How did Arthur prove to Sir Ector and Kay that he had pulled the sword from the stone? Arthur won a jousting contest. Arthur reminded them that he was the son of King Uther. Arthur called on Merlin to prove his deed was true. He reinserted the sword and removed it again.

294 What proposition does Morgan le Fay make to Sir Launcelot?
CHECKPOINT QUESTIONS What proposition does Morgan le Fay make to Sir Launcelot? to summon Merlin or be enchanted with everlasting sleep to choose one of her four queens as a paramour or die to help her defeat Arthur’s knights or die to marry her or be banished from England

295 How does Sir Launcelot provide for Sir Kay’s safe journey home?
CHECKPOINT QUESTIONS How does Sir Launcelot provide for Sir Kay’s safe journey home? He exchanges armor with Sir Kay. He publicly threatens anyone who might attack Sir Kay. He loans Sir Kay his horse. He asks Merlin to watch over Sir Kay.

296 What did Don Quixote buy with three-quarters of his income?
CHECKPOINT QUESTIONS What did Don Quixote buy with three-quarters of his income? clothes weapons food slippers

297 Which of Don Quixote’s possessions was named Rocinante?
CHECKPOINT QUESTIONS Which of Don Quixote’s possessions was named Rocinante? his horse his sword his favorite book his estate

298 Donkeys were believed to bring bad luck.
CHECKPOINT QUESTIONS Why did Don Quixote hesitate a little when Sancho Panza said he will be bringing along a donkey? Donkeys were believed to bring bad luck. Don Quixote never heard of a knight-errant’s squire riding a donkey. He disliked donkeys. He knew that a donkey could not keep up with his fast horse.

299 What, in reality, were the giants that Don Quixote attacked?
CHECKPOINT QUESTIONS What, in reality, were the giants that Don Quixote attacked? strange looking rocks church steeples tall trees windmills

300 After losing his lance, what did Don Quixote plan to do?
CHECKPOINT QUESTIONS After losing his lance, what did Don Quixote plan to do? tear a limb from an oak tree to use as a club steal a new weapon from the first knight they encounter defeat the giants and take their weapons rely on the strength of his body

301 Unit 5, Part 1 Literary Terms Handbook Test-Taking Skills Handbook
REFERENCE Literary Terms Handbook Test-Taking Skills Handbook Reading Handbook Daily Language Practice Transparencies Foldables Writing Handbook Grammar and Writing Workshop Transparencies Business Writing Language Handbook

302 Unit 5, Part 1 To navigate within this Presentation Plus! product:
HELP To navigate within this Presentation Plus! product: Click the Forward button to go to the next slide. Click the Previous button to return to the previous slide. Click the Section Back button to return to the beginning of the section you are in. If you are viewing a feature, this button returns you to the main presentation. Click the Home button to return to the Chapter Menu. Click the Help button to access this screen. Click the Speaker button to listen to available audio. Click the Speaker Off button to stop any playing audio. Click the Exit button or press the Escape key [Esc] to end the chapter slide show. Presentation Plus! features such as the Reference Handbook, Literature Online, and others are located in the left margin of most screens. Click on any of these buttons to access a specific feature. Help


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