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Unification Italy & Germany.

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Presentation on theme: "Unification Italy & Germany."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unification Italy & Germany


3 Italian Unification North: Austria ruled Venetia and Lombardy and dominated Tuscany, Modena, Parma & Lucca South: Spain ruled Kingdom of the Two Sicilies Kingdom of Sardinia: strongest Italian state and run by an Italian dynasty.

4 Factors Favoring Italian Unification
Common culture, history, traditions, language (though diff. dialects) Common Religion: Roman Catholic Dislike for Austria who prevented earlier attempt to unite

5 Roadblocks to Italian Unification
Opposition by state rulers who were backed by Austria, so wanted Austria to remain powerful Pope feared losing power over Papal States Disagreement over type of government once united: democratic republic (favored by Mazzini), constitutional monarchy (favored by Cavour), confederation under Pope Foreign Opposition: Austria would lose territory and influence France feared a powerful neighbor

6 Wars to Win Italian Unification
Austro-Sardinian Wars (1859): Napoleon III helped b/c of promise of Nice and Savoy, and Sardinia got Lombardy Conquest of 2 Sicilies by Garibaldi (1861): Kingdom of Italy declared, but Rome not capital because in hands of Pope & protected by French troops Austro-Prussian War (1866): Italy allied with Prussia and gained Venetia Franco-Prussian War ( ): French troops removed from Italy to fight Germany, Rome now capital World War I ( ): Italy claimed rest of land still under Austrian rule.

7 Alliance with Napoleon III
Cavour saw Austria as the biggest roadblock to unification Napoleon thought France could be strongest nation in Europe of Austria weakened Secretly agreed for France to drive Austria out of N. Italy in return for Nice and Savoy

8 Austro-Sardinian War 1859 French-Sardinian Army defeat Austria
N. Italy hold revolts against Austria and demands to be ruled by Sardinia Napoleon panics, not wanting a strong Italy Cavour had kept good relations with rest of Europe, so Napoleon could not go to war with Sardinia 1860 N. Italy is annexed by Sardinia

9 Leaders in Italian Unification
Soul: Mazzini Sword: Garibaldi Brains: Cavour

10 The Brain Cavour– named prime minister to King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia He believes nationalism can only happen through smart diplomacy and well-chosen alliances

11 The Soul Mazzini had led first efforts of unification in 1840’s
Inspired city-states to unify

12 The Sword Garibaldi was leading a small group of nationalists in the south, with the financial support if Cavour In 1860, he and his 1100 soldiers the “Red Shirts” won Sicily In 1861, the Italian parliament met and named Victor Emmanuel II king of Italy

13 Italy is Unified! In 1866 Venetia joins Italy
In 1871, Pope finally allows Papal States, including Rome to become part of Italy. Final Unification


15 Realpolitik German plan for government that meant: Calculating politics in which idealism played no part. Utopian Socialism was its nemesis.

16 Factors Favoring German Unification
Common language, history, culture, traditions Industrial Revolution: Roads, railroads, growing trade united German states Zollverein– customs union, NO tariffs within German Confederation EXCEPT Austria

17 Roadblocks to German Unification
Opposition by state rulers who feared losing power Religion: Protestant North, Catholic South Jealousy & fear of Prussia; largest state Rivalry between Austria and Prussia over control of smaller German states Opposition from France who feared a powerful bordering neighbor

18 Austria v. Prussia 39 German states, including Austria and Prussia formed a confederation Austria considered natural leader b/c former home of HRE Prussia was more industrially developed Prussia had strongest army in central Europe

19 Wars of German Unification
Wars to win Unification 1863 v. Denmark for territory; Schleswig- Holstein 1866 Austro-Prussian War. Germans defeated Austria, and were very lenient in treaty, to keep Austria as ally in future war with France. Franco-Prussian War. Only a war against a foreign enemy could unite Protestant North with Catholic South. Bismarck wanted Germany united! World War I

20 War with Denmark 1864 Bismarck fights a quick war with Denmark to increase the feeling of nationalism and support for Prussia Outcome: annex two small states, Schleswig and Holstein

21 Austro-Prussian War 1866 Bismarck’s cunning way managed to provoke Austria into declaring war against Prussia– important that Prussia not appear the aggressor Due to Prussia’s superior industrialization, their RR moved troops to Austria faster than Austria could defend itself Superior equipment from industrialization proved no match for Austria

22 Results of War with Austria
Austria is humiliated Lost some German lands to Prussia Forced to withdraw from the German Confederation Prussia now controlled all of North Germany Austria becomes Austria-Hungary 1867

23 Franco-Prussian War 1870 Bismarck deliberately gave misleading stories to newspapers to provoke France into declaring war (Prussia the victim) Purpose is to give N. German protestants and S. German Catholics a common enemy France is defeated

24 Results of Franco-Prussian War
Prussia humiliated France in the peace treaty (keep an eye on the karma after WWI) During the war even Napoleon III had been captured and held prisoner Forced to pay 5 billion francs Took Alsace and Lorraine (France’s richest coal and iron deposits)

25 Leaders of the German Unification
Three major players: The Soul: Kaiser Wilhelm II The Sword: von Moltke The Brain: Bismarck

26 The Brain & The Soul 1862 King William I chose Bismarck as his prime minister. Bismarck was a exceptionally skilled at realpolitik and wanted to unite Germany under Prussia. Bismarck says unification can only by “Blood and Iron” (War and Industrialization)

27 Germany is Unified! January18, 1871--The Second Reich
Will be ruled under Kaiser William I German industrialization quickly surpassed even Britain to become the second largest producer of manufactured goods (after U.S.)

28 The Road to WWI has begun
France had total disdain for Germany and insists they will get Alsace and Lorraine back There are 6 Great Powers in Europe Most Powerful– Germany & Britain Medium– France Weak– Russia, Italy & Austria

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