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Slide 1 Roman Modification, Hannibal, and the Punic Wars Major Carlos Rascon Major Carlos Rascon.

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Presentation on theme: "Slide 1 Roman Modification, Hannibal, and the Punic Wars Major Carlos Rascon Major Carlos Rascon."— Presentation transcript:

1 Slide 1 Roman Modification, Hannibal, and the Punic Wars Major Carlos Rascon Major Carlos Rascon

2 Slide 2 Learning Objectives Know and explain the organization of the Roman Army, with emphasis on the legionary system Know and explain the organization of the Roman Army, with emphasis on the legionary system Know and explain the First Punic War with emphasis on the campaign against King Pyrrhus Know and explain the First Punic War with emphasis on the campaign against King Pyrrhus Know and Explain the Second Punic War to include the battles of Trebia, Lake Trasimene, and Cannae Know and Explain the Second Punic War to include the battles of Trebia, Lake Trasimene, and Cannae

3 Slide 3 Learning Objectives Cont. Evaluate Hannibal as a Captain Evaluate Hannibal as a Captain Know and explain Hannibal’s failure to gain strategic victory despite tactical success Know and explain Hannibal’s failure to gain strategic victory despite tactical success Know and explain the Battle of Zama and Scipio’s impact on the outcome Know and explain the Battle of Zama and Scipio’s impact on the outcome

4 Slide 4 References and Texts 1. Dupuy and Dupuy, The Encyclopedia of Military History 1. Dupuy and Dupuy, The Encyclopedia of Military History 2. Jones, The Art of War in the Western World, pp.26-45, Jones, The Art of War in the Western World, pp.26-45, Montross, War Through the Ages, pp Montross, War Through the Ages, pp Preston and Wise, Men in Arms, pp Preston and Wise, Men in Arms, pp

5 Slide 5 Roman Military

6 Slide 6 Roman Military Organization Chain of Command Centurian-Controlled 100 men Centurian-Controlled 100 men 2 Centuries-Maniple 2 Centuries-Maniple Cohort-Maniple from each of 3 lines Cohort-Maniple from each of 3 lines Legion- 10 Cohorts Legion- 10 Cohorts Corps- 2 Legions Corps- 2 Legions Consular Army- 2 Corps Consular Army- 2 Corps

7 Slide 7 Military Organization and Legionary System Legionary Composition- A citizens Army Three lines Three lines First two: 20 maniples spaces in a checkerboard fashion. Carried 7ft javelins and a 2ft sword First two: 20 maniples spaces in a checkerboard fashion. Carried 7ft javelins and a 2ft sword Video 1min-(Short Sword) Video 1min-(Short Sword) Third: 120 and 60 man maniples. Carried a 12ft Spear plus a sword and javelin Third: 120 and 60 man maniples. Carried a 12ft Spear plus a sword and javelin Supported by cavalry, archers, and skirmishers Supported by cavalry, archers, and skirmishers

8 Slide 8 Military and Legionary System Cont. Highly disciplined Harshest discipline ever inflicted on a citizen Army Harshest discipline ever inflicted on a citizen Army Very well trained Very well trained

9 Slide 9 First Punic War

10 Slide 10 First Punic War Causes 1. Carthage- Mediterainian Sea Power 2. Rome- Land Power with no Navy 3. Warring Factions in Sicilly One wanted Roman support One wanted Roman support One wanted Carthaginian support One wanted Carthaginian support 4. Rome takes the battle to Carthage to avoid an outside influence so close

11 Slide 11 First Punic War Causes Cont. 5. Pyhrrus is hired by an Italian city-state for protection against Romans Greek soldier/king Greek soldier/king Brings infantry and 3000 cavalry Brings infantry and 3000 cavalry Defeats Romans in 280 B.C. Defeats Romans in 280 B.C. Defeated by Romans in 275 B.C. Defeated by Romans in 275 B.C. Returns to Greece and is killed Returns to Greece and is killed Quoted- “What a fine field of battle I leave here for Rome and Carthage” Quoted- “What a fine field of battle I leave here for Rome and Carthage”

12 Slide 12 Romans build a Navy Utilized a Carthaginian ship that had washed ashore as a model Utilized a Carthaginian ship that had washed ashore as a modelWeaknesses- Not a good handling vessel Not a good handling vessel Tough to maneuver in close boat combat Tough to maneuver in close boat combatStrength- Utilized the Corvus-huge hook used to grapple an enemy boat Utilized the Corvus-huge hook used to grapple an enemy boat

13 Slide 13 First Punic War 1. Romans win decissive victories at Mylae, 260 B.C. Mylae, 260 B.C. Cape Encomus 256 B.C. Cape Encomus 256 B.C. Romans go ashore and set down surrender terms Romans go ashore and set down surrender terms

14 Slide 14 First Punic War Cont. 1.Carthaginians react by hiring Xanthippus Xanthippus is a Spartan warrior Xanthippus is a Spartan warrior Defeats Romans in Africa Defeats Romans in Africa 2. Carthaginian Fleet is destroyed in 241 B.C. during the Battle of Aegusa 3. Rome wins the First Punic War

15 Slide 15 Hannibal Took control of Spain in 221 B.C. Good field commander (could win battles) Good field commander (could win battles) Bad tactician Bad tactician One officer told him, “You know how to win victories, but not how to use them.” One officer told him, “You know how to win victories, but not how to use them.”

16 Slide 16 Second Punic War Causes 1. Roman intersest in Spain 2. Recouperate losses from the First Punic War 3. Hannibal’s leadership

17 Slide 17 Second Punic War 1. Hannibal takes the intitiative Told Saguntum (only Roman city in Spain) to surrender Told Saguntum (only Roman city in Spain) to surrender Upon refusal, he took it Upon refusal, he took it Knew Romans would respond Knew Romans would respond Advanced from Spain into Northern Italy Advanced from Spain into Northern Italy

18 Slide 18 Second Punic War

19 Slide 19Trebbia

20 Slide 20 Trebbia- December 218 B.C. Romans crossed river-extremely cold Romans crossed river-extremely cold Hannibal attacked Hannibal attacked Mago (Hannibal’s brother) attacks upstream Mago (Hannibal’s brother) attacks upstream Only 10,000 of 40,000 Romans escape Only 10,000 of 40,000 Romans escape 5,000 Carthaginian casualties 5,000 Carthaginian casualties Hannibal wins Hannibal wins

21 Slide 21 Lake Trasimene

22 Slide 22 Lake Trasimene 217 B.C. Hannibal moves south to sever Roman’s lines of communications back to Rome Hannibal moves south to sever Roman’s lines of communications back to Rome Romans use a quick attack Romans use a quick attack -sacrafice security for speed -sacrafice security for speed Hannibal sets up an ambush Hannibal sets up an ambush -Heavy infantry halts Roman advance -Heavy infantry halts Roman advance -seals the rear with cavalry -seals the rear with cavalry

23 Slide 23 Lake Trasimene Cont. -Attack causes panic -Attack causes panic -only 10,000 of 30,000 Romans escape -only 10,000 of 30,000 Romans escape Hannibal wins again Hannibal wins again

24 Slide 24 Second Punic War Cont. Fabius Cunctator takes power in Rome 217 B.C. Takes a delayed approach against Hannibal Takes a delayed approach against Hannibal Wants to rebuild the Army Wants to rebuild the Army Hannibal takes advantage of the situation Continues to destroy the countryside Continues to destroy the countryside Romans turn on Fabius Romans turn on Fabius

25 Slide 25 Cannae 216 B.C. Hannibal still on the march Hannibal still on the march Romans attempt to siege Carthaginian camp 11,000 men sent 11,000 men sent Planned a war of attrition Planned a war of attrition Hannibal halts the Roman phalanx and slaughters them Hannibal halts the Roman phalanx and slaughters them 70,000 Roman casualties- 6,000 Carthaginian 70,000 Roman casualties- 6,000 Carthaginian

26 Slide 26Zama

27 Slide 27 Zama 202 B.C. Scipio is leader of the Roman Army Had good success in Spain while Hannibal was on his conquest through Italy Had good success in Spain while Hannibal was on his conquest through Italy Attacks Carthage in Africa Attacks Carthage in Africa Hannibal is recalled to defend Carthage Hannibal’s Army is weakened Hannibal’s Army is weakened 40,000 Carthaginians vs 40,000 Romans 40,000 Carthaginians vs 40,000 Romans

28 Slide 28 Zama Cont. Scipio uses the Cohort (more maneuverable than the Legion) Scipio uses the Cohort (more maneuverable than the Legion) Transitioned from defense to offense and defeated Hannibal Transitioned from defense to offense and defeated Hannibal 20,000 Carthaginians dead and 15,000 captured 20,000 Carthaginians dead and 15,000 captured 5,500 Roman casualties 5,500 Roman casualties Hannibal escapes Hannibal escapes Hannibal is defeated! Hannibal is defeated! Second Punic War ends Second Punic War ends

29 Slide 29 Questions


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