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Iron Age Chronology Iron Working Life in the Iron Age Iron Age European Sites For reference see:

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Presentation on theme: "Iron Age Chronology Iron Working Life in the Iron Age Iron Age European Sites For reference see:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Iron Age Chronology Iron Working Life in the Iron Age Iron Age European Sites For reference see:

2 Chronology The Early Iron Age in central Europe, dating from c.800 b.c. to c.500 b.c., is known as the Hallstatt period. The Early Iron Age in central Europe, dating from c.800 b.c. to c.500 b.c., is known as the Hallstatt period. Celtic migrations, beginning in the 5th cent. b.c., spread the use of iron into W Europe and to the British Isles. Celtic migrations, beginning in the 5th cent. b.c., spread the use of iron into W Europe and to the British Isles. The Late Iron Age in Europe, which is dated from this period, is called La Tène. The Late Iron Age in Europe, which is dated from this period, is called La Tène.

3 Iron Age Iron Age, marks the period of development of Technology, when the working of iron came into general use, replacing bronze as the basic material for implements and weapons. Iron Age, marks the period of development of Technology, when the working of iron came into general use, replacing bronze as the basic material for implements and weapons. It is the last stage of the archaelogical sequence known as the three-age system (Stone Age, Bronze Age, & Iron Age). It is the last stage of the archaelogical sequence known as the three-age system (Stone Age, Bronze Age, & Iron Age).

4 Development of Iron Furnaces were developed that could reach the high melting temperature of that metal. Iron technology had spread throughout the classical world by about 500 BC. Furnaces were developed that could reach the high melting temperature of that metal. Iron technology had spread throughout the classical world by about 500 BC. Early steels were discovered by adding small amounts of carbon to iron as it was hammered over a charcoal fire. Early steels were discovered by adding small amounts of carbon to iron as it was hammered over a charcoal fire. Mining became well developed and included the use of pumps to keep mines from flooding. Mining became well developed and included the use of pumps to keep mines from flooding.

5 Bronze vs. Iron Bronze could be melted and poured into moulds, whereas iron could not because the process made it too brittle to use as weapons or tools. Bronze could be melted and poured into moulds, whereas iron could not because the process made it too brittle to use as weapons or tools. Iron had to be heated slowly and hammered into shape, then sunk into cold water to prevent it weakening. Iron had to be heated slowly and hammered into shape, then sunk into cold water to prevent it weakening. This process reached originated in Asia Minor around 1400BC and was brought to Scotland around 700BC by the Celts. This process reached originated in Asia Minor around 1400BC and was brought to Scotland around 700BC by the Celts.

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7 Uses of Iron Metalware was used for pots and dishes, sometimes with unforeseen disastrous results such as lead poisoning. Metalware was used for pots and dishes, sometimes with unforeseen disastrous results such as lead poisoning. Technology also advanced weaponry with the development of catapults, better swords, and body armor. Technology also advanced weaponry with the development of catapults, better swords, and body armor. Also ornamental items, such as jewelry, hair pins, etc. Also ornamental items, such as jewelry, hair pins, etc.

8 Armament sword scabbard hilt

9 Horsemanship Bridle fittings

10 Ornaments, Jewelry Safety pins

11 Life in the Iron Age Different settlements Different settlements Hillforts Hillforts Single farming units Single farming units Within the hillfort proper, families would have lived in roundhouses. Within the hillfort proper, families would have lived in roundhouses. A roundhouse is a teepee-like structure covered by a daub (a mixture of soil, straw, animal manure and soil). A roundhouse is a teepee-like structure covered by a daub (a mixture of soil, straw, animal manure and soil). Inside the roundhouse, a fire would burn constantly. The fire would be the source of light and heat for the structure, as well as the means to cook the food. Inside the roundhouse, a fire would burn constantly. The fire would be the source of light and heat for the structure, as well as the means to cook the food. The making of iron objects would have formed a central part of the settlement's existence. The making of iron objects would have formed a central part of the settlement's existence. The majority of entrances to roundhouses face to the east. The majority of entrances to roundhouses face to the east.

12 Iron Age Round House Above is a reconstruction from archaeological excavations in Northumbria. Inland round houses in low-lying areas used wood for the low walls, but in this picture, as with the site at Waddon, local stone has been used.

13 Activity areas in roundhouse

14 Life in the Iron Age (con’d) Archaeologists discovered the head of a worker bee dating back to the Iron Ages and postulate that apiculture may have been practiced. Archaeologists discovered the head of a worker bee dating back to the Iron Ages and postulate that apiculture may have been practiced. Charcoal has been made for over 4,000 years in Britain. Charcoal has been made for over 4,000 years in Britain. Some forts were protected by a "chevaux-de-frise": a group of upright stones in front of the hillfort meant to make access by man or horse arduous. Some forts were protected by a "chevaux-de-frise": a group of upright stones in front of the hillfort meant to make access by man or horse arduous. Local rivers were used to transport goods in boats built to hold up to 5.5 tons of material Local rivers were used to transport goods in boats built to hold up to 5.5 tons of material Meat and fish were preserved by using salt extracted from seawater by a lengthy process. Meat and fish were preserved by using salt extracted from seawater by a lengthy process. The first Iron Age settlement to be excavated was at Standlake in Oxfordshire. The first Iron Age settlement to be excavated was at Standlake in Oxfordshire. Archaeologists estimate the population of Britain during the Iron Age to be approximately one million. Archaeologists estimate the population of Britain during the Iron Age to be approximately one million.

15 Iron Age A - Hallstat culture This is the first Celtic migration, supplanting (rather than absorbing?) the previous natives and bringing the technology of iron. This is the first Celtic migration, supplanting (rather than absorbing?) the previous natives and bringing the technology of iron. They also used bronze, making them multi-metal technologists and being able to suit a wider range of materials to the task. They also used bronze, making them multi-metal technologists and being able to suit a wider range of materials to the task. There was a military aristocracy in place and similar archaeological evidence exists on both sides of the Irish Sea. There was a military aristocracy in place and similar archaeological evidence exists on both sides of the Irish Sea.

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17 Hallstatt, Austria Located in a seemingly inhospitable area, high in the Salzkammergut in Austria, Hallstatt was a thriving salt-mining and trading center in antiquity. Located in a seemingly inhospitable area, high in the Salzkammergut in Austria, Hallstatt was a thriving salt-mining and trading center in antiquity. The wealth in the Hallstatt- and La Tène- period tombs attests to the success of the enterprise. The wealth in the Hallstatt- and La Tène- period tombs attests to the success of the enterprise. The finds from this site became eponymous for the period. The finds from this site became eponymous for the period.

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19 Site Cemetary Cemetary  View of Lake and Mines in background

20 Hallstatt Finds Among the enormous number of finds from the salt mines and the cemetery at Hallstatt are wood and textile objects preserved in salt, pottery, bronze vessels, jewelry, wagons and weapons. Among the enormous number of finds from the salt mines and the cemetery at Hallstatt are wood and textile objects preserved in salt, pottery, bronze vessels, jewelry, wagons and weapons. The sword scabbard is atypical in that it is incised with a figural scene. The interpretation of the figures is not entirely clear. The sword scabbard is atypical in that it is incised with a figural scene. The interpretation of the figures is not entirely clear.

21 Hochdorf, Germany The Hallstatt tribes were rural societies, which were organized into isolated farmsteads and hamlets subjected to ‘central places’, controlled by fortified settlements. The Hallstatt tribes were rural societies, which were organized into isolated farmsteads and hamlets subjected to ‘central places’, controlled by fortified settlements. Many authors consider that these settlements would be regional centres (controlling an area of 50 km around them), which would be, at the same time, forts, where people from the countryside would find protection in case of war, and also the place where the chief, the aristocracy and craftsmen would live. Many authors consider that these settlements would be regional centres (controlling an area of 50 km around them), which would be, at the same time, forts, where people from the countryside would find protection in case of war, and also the place where the chief, the aristocracy and craftsmen would live. Thus, the fortified settlements would be understood as proto-urban centres, which would concentrate: the craft production, food storage and redistribution of resources, trade exchanges and the political power in these societies. Thus, the fortified settlements would be understood as proto-urban centres, which would concentrate: the craft production, food storage and redistribution of resources, trade exchanges and the political power in these societies.

22 Hochdorf, Germany

23 Construction of grave Grave Chamber Enclosing the grave chamber

24 Finishing Barrow The barrow, ready for burial The barrow, after closing chamber

25 Horchdorf Finds Drinking Horn Gold fibulae Gold shoe ornaments Gold bowl Knife Belt cover Neck ring Birch bark hat

26 The Wagon The Hochdorf wagon takes up nearly half the space in the burial chamber. It was made of wood and almost completely covered with iron bands and fittings, some functional, most decorative or, at most, reinforcing. The wagon clearly did not transport the deceased into the tomb because the body is approx. sixteen cm longer than the wagon box. Since the chamber is cut ca. two m into the ground and lined with wood, the wagon had to be transported over the sides and placed inside the wood- clad chamber after the textiles that covered the floor had been put in place. That this was done in pieces is demonstrated by the fact that neither the horse fittings, the pole, nor the wheels were attached to the wagon box in positions suitable for driving.

27 The Couch The "chieftain" was laid out on the couch, with his head toward the south, on thick layers of plant material and animal furs. The entire couch, as restored. Length: 2.75 m.

28 The Cauldron Height: 80 cm (without lions). Diameter: Ca. 104 cm. Capacity: 500 liters. Bronze Cast Bronze lion

29 The Chieftan: What do we know about him? Reconstruction of tomb before closing

30 What do we know about him? 40 years old when he died. 40 years old when he died. No cause of death determined. No cause of death determined. Over 6 feet tall, above average for the day. Over 6 feet tall, above average for the day. Body embalmed before burial. Body embalmed before burial. Grass growing in chamber-at least four weeks between death and complete chamber. Grass growing in chamber-at least four weeks between death and complete chamber. No hair on body (preservation treatments?) No hair on body (preservation treatments?)

31 Iron Age B - La Tène Celt influx to Britain, a more warlike race. Celt influx to Britain, a more warlike race. There was a major silting of lowland river bottoms; was this a result of an increase in mining/streaming (as was to happen in the Middle Ages and Tudor times) or as a result of deforestation and/or the spread of blanket bog with the ending of the closed forest? There was a major silting of lowland river bottoms; was this a result of an increase in mining/streaming (as was to happen in the Middle Ages and Tudor times) or as a result of deforestation and/or the spread of blanket bog with the ending of the closed forest?

32 La Tene, Switzerland La Tene refers to the spot outside of Lake Neuchatel that, in 1858, receded to a very low level. La Tene refers to the spot outside of Lake Neuchatel that, in 1858, receded to a very low level. The result was the exposure of the ribs of some construction. When the area was excavated, the second great period of the development of the Celts was revealed. The result was the exposure of the ribs of some construction. When the area was excavated, the second great period of the development of the Celts was revealed. The La Tene eras were divided into three sections, one, two, and three. This is a classification and designation developed by archaeologists that refer to the periods in general, and the remarkable aspects of it. The La Tene eras were divided into three sections, one, two, and three. This is a classification and designation developed by archaeologists that refer to the periods in general, and the remarkable aspects of it. Its dating period begins in the middle of the fifth century BC, and continues until the Roman conquest of Gaul, when its development stopped. Roughly, the periods of La Tene runs as follows: La Tene One, from 600 to 500 BC;,La Tene Two from 450 to 100 BC; and La Tene Three from 100 BC until the Roman destruction of the culture. Its dating period begins in the middle of the fifth century BC, and continues until the Roman conquest of Gaul, when its development stopped. Roughly, the periods of La Tene runs as follows: La Tene One, from 600 to 500 BC;,La Tene Two from 450 to 100 BC; and La Tene Three from 100 BC until the Roman destruction of the culture.

33 La Tène Art This style originates from the northern part of the Danube and centered in Germany. This was a time of great experimentation and diverse art forms, such as ornaments. The Celts were very artistic and not only worked with different mediums, they also varied their genre. The Celts had great craftsmanship in making sculptures, woodwork figurines such as “stylized animals”, and pottery. This style originates from the northern part of the Danube and centered in Germany. This was a time of great experimentation and diverse art forms, such as ornaments. The Celts were very artistic and not only worked with different mediums, they also varied their genre. The Celts had great craftsmanship in making sculptures, woodwork figurines such as “stylized animals”, and pottery. La Tène art was influenced by many different cultures. The main influences came from Greek and Etruscan art from seventh and fourth centuries BC. Celtic art was also influenced by the Steppe art from, derived from the Nomadic Scythians. It was through the Scythians the Celts became acquainted with animal art forms and began to make wooden figurines. La Tène art was influenced by many different cultures. The main influences came from Greek and Etruscan art from seventh and fourth centuries BC. Celtic art was also influenced by the Steppe art from, derived from the Nomadic Scythians. It was through the Scythians the Celts became acquainted with animal art forms and began to make wooden figurines. Soon, the Celts emerged into “figurative art” around the third and first centuries BC, with the representation of art work on coins, another demonstration of their amazing abilities with metal. The Celts also made armor and decorative and artistic ornaments for their horses too, starting in the third century BC. But, this art form began to decline and eventually died out starting in the second century BC due to Julius Caesar and his warfare. Soon, the Celts emerged into “figurative art” around the third and first centuries BC, with the representation of art work on coins, another demonstration of their amazing abilities with metal. The Celts also made armor and decorative and artistic ornaments for their horses too, starting in the third century BC. But, this art form began to decline and eventually died out starting in the second century BC due to Julius Caesar and his warfare.

34 La Tene Sword


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