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Operating and Financial Leverage Chapter 5. Chapter 5 - Outline What is Leverage? Break-Even (BE) Point Operating Leverage Financial Leverage Leverage.

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Presentation on theme: "Operating and Financial Leverage Chapter 5. Chapter 5 - Outline What is Leverage? Break-Even (BE) Point Operating Leverage Financial Leverage Leverage."— Presentation transcript:

1 Operating and Financial Leverage Chapter 5

2 Chapter 5 - Outline What is Leverage? Break-Even (BE) Point Operating Leverage Financial Leverage Leverage Means Risk Combined or Total Leverage

3 What is Leverage? Use of special forces and effects to magnify or produce more than the normal results from a given course of action Leverage involves using fixed costs to magnify the potential return to a firm Can produce beneficial results in favorable conditions Can produce highly negative results in unfavorable conditions

4 Leverage in a Business Determining type of fixed operational costs Plant and equipment Can reduce expensive labor in production of inventory Expensive labor Lessens opportunity for profit but reduces risk exposure Determining type of fixed financial costs Debt financing Can produce substantial profits, but failure to meet contractual obligations can result in bankruptcy Selling equity May reduce potential profits for existing shareholders, but reduces their risk exposure

5 Break-Even (BE) Point Quantity where Total Revenue equals Total Cost Company has no Profit or Loss BE = FC / (P – VC) A leveraged firm has a high BE point A non-leveraged firm has a low BE point

6 FIGURE 5-1 Break-even chart: Leveraged firm

7 FIGURE 5-2 Break-even chart: Conservative firm

8 TABLE 5-2 Volume-cost-profit analysis: Leveraged firm

9 TABLE 5-3 Volume-cost-profit analysis: Conservative firm

10 FIGURE 5-3 Nonlinear break-even analysis

11 Operating Leverage Measure of the amount of fixed operating costs used by a firm. Degree of Operating Leverage (DOL) = %  in EBIT (or Operating Income) / %  in Sales DOL = Q(P-VC) / (Q(P-VC) –FC) Operating Leverage measures the sensitivity of a firm’s operating income to a  in sales.

12 TABLE 5-4 Operating income or loss

13 Financial Leverage Measure of the amount of debt used by a firm Degree of Financial Leverage (DFL) = %  in EPS / %  in EBIT (or Operating Income) DFL = EBIT / (EBIT –I) Financial Leverage measures the sensitivity of a firm’s earnings per share to a  in operating income

14 Leverage Means Risk Leverage is a double-edged sword It magnifies profits as well as losses An aggressive or highly leveraged firm has high fixed costs (and a relatively high break-even point) A conservative or non-leveraged firm has low fixed costs (and a relatively low break-even point) Many Japanese firms tend to be highly leveraged

15 FIGURE 5-4 Financing plans and earnings per share

16 TABLE 5-5 Impact of financing plan on earnings per share

17 Financial Leverage Reflects the amount of debt used in the capital structure of the firm Determines how the operation is to be financed Determines the performance between two firms having equal operating capabilities BALANCE SHEET Assets Liabilities and Net Worth Operating leverage Financial leverage

18 TABLE 5-6 Income statement

19 Combined or Total Leverage Represents maximum use of leverage Degree of Combined or Total Leverage (DCL or DTL) = %  in EPS / %  in Sales DCL= Q(P-VC)/(Q(P-VC)-FC-I) = (S-TVC) /( S-TVC –FC- I) Short-cut formula: DCL or DTL = DOL x DFL

20 TABLE 5-7 Operating and financial leverage

21 Combining Operating and Financial Leverage Combined leverage: when both leverages allow a firm to maximize returns Operating leverage: Affects the asset structure of the firm Determines the return from operations Financial leverage: Affects the debt-equity mix Determines how the benefits received will be allocated


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