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KING ARTHUR INTRODUCING KING ARTHUR Historical Arthur Dark Ages Literary Arthur Medieval.

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Presentation on theme: "KING ARTHUR INTRODUCING KING ARTHUR Historical Arthur Dark Ages Literary Arthur Medieval."— Presentation transcript:

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2 KING ARTHUR

3 INTRODUCING KING ARTHUR Historical Arthur Dark Ages Literary Arthur Medieval

4 ArthurArthur as presented in the legends was NOT a real person. ThereThere was, however, a chieftan named Arthur. HistoricalHistorical Arthur lived in the Dark Ages, at the end of the 5 th 5 th and beginning of the 6 th 6 th centuries. LiteraryLiterary Arthur comes from medieval times, during the 12 th century.

5 History of Arthur Celtic mythology Romantic themes +Fairylike elements ____________________ Arthurian Legend

6 IMPORTANT CHARACTERS Uther Pendragon – Arthur’s biological father.Uther Pendragon – Arthur’s biological father. Igraine – Arthur’s biological motherIgraine – Arthur’s biological mother Sir Ector - Arthur’s adoptive fatherSir Ector - Arthur’s adoptive father Merlin – Arthur’s counselor, prophet, magician, & wizard; he placed Arthur with Sir Ector.Merlin – Arthur’s counselor, prophet, magician, & wizard; he placed Arthur with Sir Ector. Morgan le Fay – Arthur’s half sister; healer & shape-changer; an adversary of both Arthur & Guinevere; she took Arthur to the barge that would take him to Avalon to be healed.Morgan le Fay – Arthur’s half sister; healer & shape-changer; an adversary of both Arthur & Guinevere; she took Arthur to the barge that would take him to Avalon to be healed. Morgause – Arthur’s half sister; married to King Lot; mother of Gawain, Gaheris, Agravain, Gareth, & Mordred.Morgause – Arthur’s half sister; married to King Lot; mother of Gawain, Gaheris, Agravain, Gareth, & Mordred.

7 Sir Kay – son of Sir Ector; raised as Arthur’s step-brother.Sir Kay – son of Sir Ector; raised as Arthur’s step-brother. Mordred – Arthur’s nephew; seized Guinevere & rebelled against Arthur; killed by Lancelot after the last battle.Mordred – Arthur’s nephew; seized Guinevere & rebelled against Arthur; killed by Lancelot after the last battle. Guinevere – Arthur’s wife; Lancelot’s lover.Guinevere – Arthur’s wife; Lancelot’s lover. Lancelot – Arthur’s chief knight & rival for Guinevere’s love.Lancelot – Arthur’s chief knight & rival for Guinevere’s love. The Lady of the Lake – aka Vivienne; gave Excalibur to Arthur; enchanted & imprisoned Merlin.The Lady of the Lake – aka Vivienne; gave Excalibur to Arthur; enchanted & imprisoned Merlin. Joseph of Arimathea – soldier of Pontius Pilate who was given the cup (Holy Grail) from the Last Supper; settled in Glastonbury.Joseph of Arimathea – soldier of Pontius Pilate who was given the cup (Holy Grail) from the Last Supper; settled in Glastonbury.

8 IMPORTANT PLACES Camelot – King Arthur’s kingdom. Tintagel Castle – conception place of Arthur. Isle of Avalon – island to which Arthur is sent to recover from the last battle. Glastonbury – claimed by some to be the actual Isle of Avalon, as it was once surrounded by marshes.

9 IMPORTANT OBJECTS Excalibur – Arthur’s magical sword; given to him by The Lady of the Lake.Excalibur – Arthur’s magical sword; given to him by The Lady of the Lake. The Holy Grail – the cup used by Christ at the Last Supper; used by Joseph of Arimathea to catch Christ’s blood when he was on the cross.The Holy Grail – the cup used by Christ at the Last Supper; used by Joseph of Arimathea to catch Christ’s blood when he was on the cross. The Round Table – the table given as part of Guinevere’s dowry & used by Arthur and his knights. Each knight’s name was magically inscribed on the table. Everybody was equal.The Round Table – the table given as part of Guinevere’s dowry & used by Arthur and his knights. Each knight’s name was magically inscribed on the table. Everybody was equal.

10 Knights of the Round Table Sir GalahadSir Galahad Sir Lancelot du LacSir Lancelot du Lac Sir GawainSir Gawain Sir PercivaleSir Percivale Sir LionellSir Lionell Sir Tristram de LyonesSir Tristram de Lyones Sir GarethSir Gareth Sir BedivereSir Bedivere Sir BleoberisSir Bleoberis Sir La Cote Male TaileSir La Cote Male Taile Sir LucanSir Lucan Sir KaySir Kay Sir PalomedesSir Palomedes Sir LamorakSir Lamorak Sir Bors de GanisSir Bors de Ganis Sir SaferSir Safer Sir PelleasSir Pelleas Sir Ector de MarisSir Ector de Maris Sir DagonetSir Dagonet Sir DegoreSir Degore Sir Brunor le NoirSir Brunor le Noir Sir Le Bel DesconneuSir Le Bel Desconneu Sir AlymereSir Alymere Sir MordredSir Mordred

11 Chivalry knighthood & its code of honor Invincible strength ValorJusticeModesty Loyalty to superiors Courtesy to equals Compassion to weakness Devotedness to the church

12 Knight  Mounted warrior  Man of rank, or in service of a man of rank  Generally possesses some independent means of support, but relies on the gratitude of those he has served Knights errant -- wandering knights who traveled the country in quest of adventure

13 Knight Training

14 AGE 7  Become a page or varlet Taken from home to the court or castleTaken from home to the court or castle Taught first articles of religion, respect, and reverence for their lordsTaught first articles of religion, respect, and reverence for their lords Initiated in ceremonies of the courtInitiated in ceremonies of the court Carve, wait at table, and perform menial tasksCarve, wait at table, and perform menial tasks Taught falconry, dancing, harp playing, hunting, fishing, wrestling, tilting with spears, & performing military exercises on horsebackTaught falconry, dancing, harp playing, hunting, fishing, wrestling, tilting with spears, & performing military exercises on horseback

15 AGE 14  Become a squire Taught to vault on a horse, to run, to scale walls, to spring over ditches – all in heavy armorTaught to vault on a horse, to run, to scale walls, to spring over ditches – all in heavy armor Taught to wrestle, to wield the battle-axe without raising the visor or taking a breathTaught to wrestle, to wield the battle-axe without raising the visor or taking a breath Taught to perform gracefully on horsebackTaught to perform gracefully on horseback Taught courtesy or refinements of civilizationTaught courtesy or refinements of civilization Encouraged to bestow his attentions on a young lady of the courtEncouraged to bestow his attentions on a young lady of the court

16 AGE 21  Initiation to the Knighthood Preparation for the Ceremony: Fast and spend whole nights in prayerFast and spend whole nights in prayer Confession and communionConfession and communion Clothed in snow-white garmentClothed in snow-white garment Go to church or hall where the ceremony is to be heldGo to church or hall where the ceremony is to be held Wear a knightly sword suspended from neckWear a knightly sword suspended from neck

17 Ceremony: OfficiatingOfficiating priest takes the sword, blesses it, and returns it CandidateCandidate folds arms, kneels before presiding knight and answers questions about motives for becoming a knight TakesTakes an oath ReceivesReceives armor and sword KneelsKneels before presiding knight who administers the accolade (3 strokes of a flat sword on the neck or shoulder) and says, “In the name of God, of St. Michael, and of St. George, I make thee a knight; be valiant, courteous, and loyal.” ReceivesReceives helmet, shield, and spear

18 The emblem of the Knights of the Round Table worn round the necks of all the Knights was given to them by King Arthur as part of the ceremony of their being made a knight. The Order's dominant idea was the love of God, people, and noble deeds. The cross in the emblem was to remind them that they were to live pure and stainless lives, to strive after perfection and thus attain the Holy Grail. The Red Dragon of King Arthur represented their allegiance to the King. The Round Table was illustrative of the Eternity of God, the equality, unity, and comradeship of the Order, and singleness of purpose of all the Knights.

19 RULES/CODES for KNIGHTS To never do outrage nor murderTo never do outrage nor murder Always to flee treasonAlways to flee treason To by no means be cruel but to give mercy unto him who asks for mercyTo by no means be cruel but to give mercy unto him who asks for mercy To always do ladies, gentlewomen and widows succor (to go to the aid of one in distress; to help)To always do ladies, gentlewomen and widows succor (to go to the aid of one in distress; to help) To never force ladies, gentlewomen or widowsTo never force ladies, gentlewomen or widows Not to take up battles in wrongful quarrels for love or worldly goodsNot to take up battles in wrongful quarrels for love or worldly goods To never lay down armsTo never lay down arms To seek after wondersTo seek after wonders

20 When called upon, to defend the rights of the weak with all one's strengthWhen called upon, to defend the rights of the weak with all one's strength To injure no oneTo injure no one Not to attack one anotherNot to attack one another To fight for the safety of one's countryTo fight for the safety of one's country To give one's life for one's countryTo give one's life for one's country To seek nothing before honourTo seek nothing before honour Never to break faith for any reasonNever to break faith for any reason To practice religion most diligentlyTo practice religion most diligently To grant hospitality to anyone, each according to his abilityTo grant hospitality to anyone, each according to his ability Whether in honour or disgrace, to make a report with the greatest fidelity to truth to those who keep the annalsWhether in honour or disgrace, to make a report with the greatest fidelity to truth to those who keep the annals

21 Famous Works which include Arthur Historia Regum Brittaniae written by Geoffrey of Monmouth. ALL LATER VERSIONS OF THE LEGEND ARE BASED ON THIS WORK Historia Regum Brittaniae written by Geoffrey of Monmouth. ALL LATER VERSIONS OF THE LEGEND ARE BASED ON THIS WORK Roman de Brut by Layamon (1st English Arthurian story) Roman de Brut by Layamon (1st English Arthurian story) 1370 – Sir Gawain and the Green Knight anonymous1370 – Sir Gawain and the Green Knight anonymous 1485 – Morte d’ Arthur (Death of Arthur) by Sir Thomas Malory1485 – Morte d’ Arthur (Death of Arthur) by Sir Thomas Malory – The Faeire Queene by Edmund Spenser – The Faeire Queene by Edmund Spenser – Idylls of the King by Alfred, Lord Tennyson – Idylls of the King by Alfred, Lord Tennyson 1880 – A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court by Mark Twain1880 – A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court by Mark Twain 1882 – Parsifal an opera by Richard Wagner1882 – Parsifal an opera by Richard Wagner – The Once and Future King by T.H. White – The Once and Future King by T.H. White 1960 – Camelot a musical by Lerner & Loewe1960 – Camelot a musical by Lerner & Loewe

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