Facilitate optimal health and well-being for children and their family Focus on the growth and development of children Focus on the prevention of diseases of children Focus on the treatment of diseases of children
Rank order of death of children under 5 in developing country,2002 rankCause of deathcases （thousand） constitution（％） 1Perinatal death 2375 23.1 2Lower respiratory infection 1856 18.1 3diarrhea 1566 15.2 4malaria 1098 10.7 5measles 551 5.4 6Birth defect 386 3.8 7HIV/AIDS 370 3.6 8pertussis 301 2.9 9tetanus 185 1.8 10PEM 138 1.3
The infant mortality rate (IMR) is the ratio of the number of deaths among children less than one year old during a given year to the number of live births during the same year.
The death of an infant is often dependent on external factors, especially in developing countries. Poor water quality, an inadequate food supply, substandard health services, and a high level of infectious diseases such as malaria all contribute to a high IMR.
The IMR is therefore considered a good indicator of the level of health in a community The current worldwide average is just under sixty per thousand live births
IMR for selected regions and countries, 1998 Region or country IMR per thousand live births SOURCE: UNICEF (2000) The State of the World's Children. Singapore 5 Norway 5 Sweden 5 Japan 6 Finland 6 Australia 6 Austria 6 France 6 UK 6 Netherlands 6 Cuba 7 USA 7 Liberia 157 Afghanistan 165 Haiti 169 Angola 170 Sierra Leone 182
Infant Mortality Rate YearInfant Mortality Data Source Rate(‰) Before liberation 200 Before 1949About 200 其中：市 120 左右 of which: CityAbout 120 195880.8 Reported by Most Cities and Counties in 19 Covinces (Beijing and etc) 1973-75 47 Retrospective Survey on Tumor Death in China 198134.7 The 3rd National Population Census 199150.2 The Surveillance Region of Maternal and Child Health 200032.2 The Surveillance Region of Maternal and Child Health 200421.5 The Surveillance Region of Maternal and Child Health 2007 15.3
GOBI-FFF UNICEF--United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund G-- Growth monitoring O-- Oral rehydration treatment B-- Breast feeding I -- Immunization F -- Food nutrition F -- Family planning F -- Female education
Characteristics of pediatrics preclinical medicine
Physiology HR: 1m-1y： 110-130bpm >8y: 70-90bpm BR: neonate: 40-45bpm >8y: 18-20bpm BP (mmHg): SBP: = age ×2+80
Pathology Pneumococcal infection Vitamin D deficiency
clinical medicine disease pattern clinical manifestation
Age Period Birth 28day 1y 2y 3y 6y 12y 18y Neonatal Infant Period Toddler Age Preschool School Age Adolescence
Childhood Age Staging Fetal period first trimester of pregnancy first 12 weeks second semester of pregnancy 13~28weeks third semester of pregnancy 29~40weeks
mother ’ s medical history (chronic medical conditions, medications taken during pregnancy thalidomide event ) smoking, dietary habits occupational exposures to chemicals infections
Immunizations Routine immunization dramatically decreased morbidity and mortality from a variety of infectious diseases Active immunization attenuated or inactivated organisms, their components, or their products