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War in Europe  Operation Torch Eastern Europe Africa Pacific Western Europe 1940193919421941 Phony War 1944194319451938 Battle of Britain Guadalcanal.

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Presentation on theme: "War in Europe  Operation Torch Eastern Europe Africa Pacific Western Europe 1940193919421941 Phony War 1944194319451938 Battle of Britain Guadalcanal."— Presentation transcript:

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2 War in Europe

3  Operation Torch Eastern Europe Africa Pacific Western Europe Phony War Battle of Britain Guadalcanal  Pearl Harbor bombing  Poland invaded  Battle of the Bulge  D-Day Invasion  US embargo  Indochina invaded  Doolittle Raid  Battle of Stalingrad  Battle of Midway  Battle of El Alamein  Battle of Monte casino  VJ Day  VE Day  Finland invaded  Italy invaded Siege of Leningrad Battle of France   Austria annexed  Egypt invaded

4 Western Front

5 Path to War in Europe Rearming Germany Occupation of Rhineland Annexation of Austria (Anschluss) Annexation of Sudetenland –Munich Conference/appeasement Non-Aggression Pact Invasion of Poland – Great Britain & France declare war on Germany Neville Chamberlain Prime Minister of Great Britain

6 Course of War Allies expected invasion of France -“Phony War” 8 months of no action on Western Front Ger. Invades Denmark & Norway secure supply of Norwegian iron Invasion of France, Belgium & Netherlands avoided Maginot Line & troops at Belgian border by cutting through Luxembourg & Ardennes forest Allied troops trapped on beaches of Dunkirk French Premier Henri-Louis Pétain surrendered 42 days after attack Germany occupied northern 3/5 of France Southern France (Vichy France) set up as dependent ally Battle of Britain (the Blitz) Bombing raids on British airfields, factories & radar in preparation for invasion (Operation Sea Lion) Churchill launched bombing raid of Berlin to anger Hitler Hitler focused all of the bombing raids on London, saving the RAF Sea Lion ended after ~14 months

7 US involvement in Europe 1937 Neutrality Act –US wouldn’t sell goods or loan money to countries at war 1939 Cash and Carry Policy –US would sell war materials if countries picked them up 1940 National Guard, Reserves inducted –1 st peacetime draft March 1941 Lend-Lease Act –US would loan or lease goods to countries whose defense was necessary for defense of US

8 Eastern Front

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10 Operation Barbarossa Invasion June 22, 1941 included >4 million troops, >3000 tanks and ~700,000 horses Stalin got at least 84 intelligence reports predicting invasion but didn’t believe them Three-pronged attack toward Leningrad, Moscow & Ukraine Stalin expected Hitler to head for Ukraine but he went for Moscow 1942 Stalin predicted attack toward Moscow, but Germans attacked Ukraine 90% of Soviet tanks destroyed in first few weeks of operation Laid siege to Leningrad instead of conquering (had 20 days of food; siege lasted 900 days) Germans were greeted as liberators at first How could Hitler lose? Stalin’s “Not one step back” policy. Soviets used scorched earth tactics Relied heavily on women soldiers Soviet train tracks caused German supply problems Mud slowed advance in spring and fall Goering had promised resupply by Luftwaffe, but this was impossible Stalin dismantled factories and moved them east of Urals Hitler couldn’t resist attacking Stalingrad Brought in special forces from Siberia Had equipment suited for arctic conditions

11 Eastern Front

12 Casualties by theater

13 Western Front (again)

14 North African Campaign Mussolini wanted control of Suez Canal British pushed Italians East Germans under Erwin Rommel (Desert Fox) reinforced Italians & got within 60 mi. of canal Hitler sent no reinforcements to Rommel because of Barbarossa British forced Germans retreat at El Alamein US and British forces invaded Morocco & Algeria and trapped Axis forces at Tobruk Rommel surrendered May 1943 Allies invaded Sicily in July & Italians overthrew and executed Mussolini

15 Eastern Task Force Western Task Force Center Task Force Montgomery Clark 1 th Abn Div 15 th Army Grp Alexander 15 th Army Grp Alexander 188 Patton 75 Montgomery

16 8 5 Clark 15 th Army Grp Alexander th Army Grp Montgomery 15 th Army Grp Alexander Montgomery 8 15

17 th Army Grp Montgomery th Army Grp Alexander 8 12 th Army Grp Bradley 6 th Army Grp Devers 5 21 th Army Grp Montgomery 9 12 th Army Grp Bradley th Army Grp Clark 15 8

18 1 15 th Army Grp Clark 8 6 th Army Grp Devers 21 th Army Grp Montgomery th Army Grp Bradley

19 The Yalta Conference Hitler was nearly defeated U.S wanted help in defeating Japan Stalin wanted control of eastern Europe Allies agree to UN Allies divide Germany into zones of occupation GB & US allowed USSR to stay in eastern Europe, but he promised free elections Allies agreed that Germany would pay reparations to USSR

20 Potsdam Conference Hitler and Roosevelt are dead U.S. has tested a nuclear weapon Japan is on the verge of defeat Truman isn’t inclined to compromise Allies are less willing to impose reparations on Germany Allies issue a joint ultimatum to Japan – unconditional surrender or total destruction

21 War Crimes Trials German & Japanese officers tried for acts of extreme cruelty during wartime. Called “crimes against peace”, “war crimes” and “crimes against humanity”;“following orders” did not justify acts of extreme brutality Nuremberg Trials-22 tried /19 were convicted. Subsequent trials prosecuted nearly 1000 other Nazi defendants. Tokyo Trials-28 defendants were tried and all who survived were convicted.. Asian countries occupied by Japan held similar trials against an estimated 5000 defendants. International Criminal Court (ICC) established; US doesn’t support International Military Tribunal of the Far East International Military Tribunal

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24 German Zones of Occupation British Zone American Zone French Zone Soviet Zone Allied Administration Territories Lost Annexed by Poland Annexed by the Soviet Union

25 Consequences of WWII USSR becomes superpower – Bipolar World USSR sets up communist governments in Eastern Europe Beginning of Cold War Beginning of international Court Beginning of Nuclear Era Strengthened independence movements in European colonies – helps bring an end to colonial empires

26 Alliances North Atlantic Pact (1949) forms NATO GB, FR, Benelux, US, Can, Ice, Den, Nor, It, Port. US institutes peacetime draft Warsaw Pact (1955) USSR and satellites Served to repress internal revolt

27 ObjectivesKey InfoMajor Battles Western Front Ger  unification of German people  reacquire former German territory  revenge for T of V No western front June 1940-June 1943 Britain Normandy (D-Day) reopened western front Bulge – last German offensive of war Eastern Front Ger  lebensraum  control of Slavic lands for food  access to Caucasian oil  destruction of communism Italy  take territory not included in T of V Stalin had purged most army officers in 1930’s which weakened Red Army; anti-Stalin mood Operation Barbarossa – invasion of USSR Hitler hadn’t expected: Soviet women in army, factories moved east of Urals, disregard of casualties, winter/equipment failures, success of partisan groups Reinforcements from Soviet far east, allies Cost Germany the war Operation Bagration – Soviet invasion of Eastern Europe; concentration camps discovered Leningrad – bloodiest battle in history Stalingrad – turning point Kursk Smolensk Kiev North Africa Axis – control of Suez Canal, Colonies Allies: launch point for Italian invasion Mussolini’s invasions of Greece and Egypt created problems for Germany because Hitler had to commit troops to bail Italian army out. Operation Torch – allied invasion of North Africa which led to invasion of Sicily and overthrow of Mussolini El Alamein (x2) – turning point Tobruk Montecasino – fall of Winter Line Anzio Asia/ Pacific Japan – obtain colonies for:  Access to raw materials/mkts  Food supplies  Reduce population pressures Guadalcanal beginning of “island hopping” strategy of working closer to Japan to launch attack Japanese fought to last man so battles had high casualties Pearl Harbor –US enters war Guadalcanal Midway – turning point of war Iwo Jima Coral Sea Leyte Gulf Okinawa – last battle of war Doolittle Raid Hiroshima / Nagasaki – only use of nukes WWII Major Theaters of War


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