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The Development of Waste-to-Energy Technologies around the World Waste to Energy Workshop - QCAT ENERGY TECHNOLOGY San Shwe Hla| Senior Research Scientist.

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Presentation on theme: "The Development of Waste-to-Energy Technologies around the World Waste to Energy Workshop - QCAT ENERGY TECHNOLOGY San Shwe Hla| Senior Research Scientist."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Development of Waste-to-Energy Technologies around the World Waste to Energy Workshop - QCAT ENERGY TECHNOLOGY San Shwe Hla| Senior Research Scientist 23 rd June 2014

2 About today presentation The Development of Waste-to-Energy Technologies around the World| San Shwe Hla | Page 2  Current Status for MSW Generation/Management around the World  Development of Waste-to-Energy Technologies  Brief History of Waste-to-Energy Process and Environmental impacts  Conventional and Advanced Incineration Technologies  Novel Gasification-based WtE Technologies  Comparison between Conventional and Novel WtE Technologies  Main Drivers for Practices of WtE  Summary and Conclusions  (Notes: Economic of WtE is not included)

3 What a Waste! The Development of Waste-to-Energy Technologies around the World | San Shwe Hla | Page 3  Waste is an unavoidable by-product of our modern days living.  Waste generation increases as GDP increases.  MSW generated continues to increase.  Current global MSW generation levels are approximately 1.3 billion tonnes per year. Reference: Tanaka, M. 2009; Hoornweg & Bhada-Taka, 2012; US EPA, 2013:

4 MSW generation per capita, selected countries Reference: National Waste Report, 2010: The Development of Waste-to-Energy Technologies around the World | San Shwe Hla | Page 4

5 What is Municipal Solid Waste (MSW)? This is domestic waste that is generated by household kerbside- collected material and local government street sweeping, maintaining litter bins and public parks and gardens. It includes - food wastes - containers (product packaging) - yard wastes - other miscellaneous inorganic wastes. Such as o appliances o newspapers o clothing o boxes o office and classroom paper o furniture o wood pallets o rubber tires o cafeteria wastes Typical MSW composition (Australia) Reference: Australian Bureau of Statistics: Australia’s Environment: Issues & Trends, 2006 The Development of Waste-to-Energy Technologies around the World | San Shwe Hla | Page 5

6 The functional elements of MSW Recycling/ Reused/ Composting Landfilling/ Dumping Thermo-chemical Treatment Incineration Some Novel Technologies Landfill gas capture – Some of methane released in Landfill sites are captured in the modern sanitary landfills that are provided with a gas collection network The Development of Waste-to-Energy Technologies around the World | San Shwe Hla | Page 6

7 The Management of MSW in Europe Reference: European Waste to Energy Plant Market, 2013 The Development of Waste-to-Energy Technologies around the World | San Shwe Hla | Page 7

8 The Management of MSW in Selected countries Reference: MSW Management in Asia & the Pacific Islands, 2014 TEPA, McCrea et al, 2008 US EPA 2013 National Waste Report 2010 (Environment Protection and Heritage Council (EPHC), 2010) Victorian Local Government Annual Survey ( )- Published by Sustainable Victoria NSW Local Government Waste and Resource Recovery Data Report State of Waste and Recycling in Queensland 2012 (Department of environment and Heritage Protection) The Development of Waste-to-Energy Technologies around the World | San Shwe Hla | Page 8

9 Incineration of MSW 1.Reducing the amount waste (about 70% - 80% in mass) and (80% -90% in volume), if compress (90-95%). 2.Significant reduction of landfill space- 30 times less (incineration does not completely replace landfilling). Major Benefits 1.High investment and operating cost 2.Emission in flue gas & fly ash 3.Amount of mass residues and impurities in bottom ash 4.Public’s view on WTE Major Drawbacks The first incinerators for MSW were built in England in 1874, in New York in Large scale MSW incinerator was mounted in Hamburg in The Development of Waste-to-Energy Technologies around the World | San Shwe Hla | Page 9

10 A very brief history of WTE Combustion chamber with fix grate Development of moving grate/ Stoker grate Fluidized bed technology Introduced Slagging operating started Public still satisfied as long as the flue gas is invisible TA-Luft Awareness of toxic effects of dioxins & furans EU- 89/369 BImSchV Advanced WTEs (moving grate) with complex cleaning systems EC 2000/76 Melting in WTE is mandatory in Japan CAA USEPA- MACT First rotary kiln in US Incinerators’ smoke & odors were accepted as a necessary evil 1900 The Development of Waste-to-Energy Technologies around the World | San Shwe Hla | Page 10

11 Fixed grate incinerators Simple technology with a fixed metal grate over an ash pit below. Brick-lined cell ovens, opening in the top or sides for loading, another opening in the side for removing the solid residues. Low efficiency, high emissions. The Development of Waste-to-Energy Technologies around the World | San Shwe Hla | Page 11

12 Moving grate incinerators (Stokers) Traveling grates support the fuel, while conveying it from the front feeding to the ash-discharging side. Primary airs under the grate for primary reactions distributed differently Secondary airs above the grate for post-combustion. The most common, the most proven technology 84% of Japanese WTE (33 mtons/year) 91% of European WTE, almost all of US WTE The Development of Waste-to-Energy Technologies around the World | San Shwe Hla | Page 12

13 Fluidized bed Incinerators Waste mixed with inert materials are fluidized by air. High thermal efficiency up to 90%, suitable for wide range of fuel and mixtures of fuel (sludge & solid waste) Pre-treatment of waste always required Suitable for RDF. 6% of European WTE 80 plants in Japan (Ebara) The Development of Waste-to-Energy Technologies around the World | San Shwe Hla | Page 13

14 Rotary Kiln Incinerators A slight inclined shaft-furnace operating (generally) in a co- current mode. The waste are transported through the furnace by rotations. Long retention, good thermal isolation, and high excess air. Applicable for hazardous waste, chemical waste and dry sewage sludge incinerations. The capacity 2.4 t/day  480 t/ day. Hitachi Zosen- Kiln Incinerator The Development of Waste-to-Energy Technologies around the World | San Shwe Hla | Page 14

15 Advanced Moving Grate MSWI system Reference: The Development of Waste-to-Energy Technologies around the World | San Shwe Hla | Page 15

16 Mass balance of MSW Incineration Moving Grate Incineration System 1 ton of MSW 6.2 – 7.8 ton of Air 7 – 8.6 ton of flue gas (Need cleaning before stack) 20 – 40 kg of fly ash (highly toxic) 250 – 350 kg of bottom ash (contains heavy metals, salts, chloride & organic pollutants) 5 – 15 kg boiler slag 5 – 15 kg neutralization salts Reference: Incineration Technologies, 2012 The Development of Waste-to-Energy Technologies around the World | San Shwe Hla | Page 16

17 About Dioxin/Furan Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDS) DIOXINS Polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) FURANS Small amounts of PCDD/Fs are formed whenever carbon, oxygen and chlorine are available at certain operating temperatures Dioxins are highly toxic and can cause reproductive and developmental problems, damage the immune system, interfere with hormones and also cause cancer. Sources of Dioxin  Industrial processes Waste incineration Smelting Chlorine bleaching of paper pulp The manufacturing of some herbicides and pesticides 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin Other sources Volcanic eruptions Forest fires Backyard trash burning The Development of Waste-to-Energy Technologies around the World | San Shwe Hla | Page 17

18 Flue gas cleaning Because of the very heavy (public and political) pressures, MSW incineration (at present) is the most regulated and best controlled form of combustion. Reference: Incineration Technologies, 2012 The Development of Waste-to-Energy Technologies around the World | San Shwe Hla | Page 18

19 Dioxin/Furan in MSW incinerations Dioxins were discovered on MSW incinerator fly ashes and flue gases in (Olie et al. 1977). MSW incinerators were major sources of dioxins emissions in 80s. The dioxins became an extremely large problem in Japan, US, Europe form around the mid 1990s. Emissions amount reduced 99% since then. Reference: Deriziotis 2004; Kawamoto, Yokohama National University The Development of Waste-to-Energy Technologies around the World | San Shwe Hla | Page 19

20 Required reduction of emission levels Reference: Achternbosch & Richers (2002); Quina, et al The Development of Waste-to-Energy Technologies around the World | San Shwe Hla | Page 20 Pollutant Concentration in raw gas from boiler(mg/Nm³, dry) Maximum admissible at exhaust (mg/Nm³, dry) Removal efficiency required (%) Dust 2,000 – 10,000 (Stokers) 10,000 – 50,000 (FB) Fly Ash 1,500 – 2, HCl 300 – 2,00010>99 SO2 200 – 1, NOx 200 – HF 2 – Hg 0.2 – Cd, Tl + other metals 2 – >99.5 Dioxins and furnas (ng I-TEQ/Nm³) 0.5 –

21 Modern MSWI with advanced cleaning system B – Quick cooling of gas prevents the dioxin reformation C – Fine particulates, dust, Fly ash, SOx, HCI (absorbed) are eliminated D – HCl, SOx, Hg are removed E– Discharge heavy metal and the dioxin in the flue gas absorbed in activated carbon. F – NOx revmoved and, dioxin decomposed and removed. Reference: The Development of Waste-to-Energy Technologies around the World | San Shwe Hla | Page 21

22 Main Drivers for Adapting Novel/ Gasification Technologies for WTE 1995 UN Environmental Program published that 4 kg out of 10kg TEQ of dioxin came from Japan. New regulations and policies between in Japan were main drivers for the development and installation of new gasification and melting systems. E.g. new dioxin regulation in 2003 limited 1 ng TEQ/Nm³ (for existing plants) and 0.1 ng TEQ/Nm³ (for new plants) [up until the end of 2002, 80 ng TEQ/Nm³ was still acceptable] & melting process in WTE becomes mandatory in Japan. There are currently over 120 gasification based (ash melting) WTE plants operating in Japan with a total capacity of 6.9 million tonnes / year. Main purposes are to reduce dioxin emissions (and other harmful substances) and to produce glassy slag (to improve ash quality). The Development of Waste-to-Energy Technologies around the World | San Shwe Hla | Page 22

23 Routes for Ash Melting System Incineration 100% (a) Incineration + Melting Reference: Waste Bottom ash, fly ash Power generation, Heat utilization With ash melting Without ash meltingLandfill (>20%) SlagMelting Fly ash Recycled in construction work Landfill (~2%) Gasification & Melting 100% Waste Slag Fly ashLandfill (~2%) Recycled in construction work Power generation, Heat utilization (b) Gasification & Melting The Development of Waste-to-Energy Technologies around the World | San Shwe Hla | Page 23

24 Installation of ash melting process in MSW-to-Energy plants in Japan Reference: Professor Yoshikawa, Tokyo Institute of Technology Incineration Gasification & melting The Development of Waste-to-Energy Technologies around the World | San Shwe Hla | Page 24

25 Type of gasification based WtE Plants Fixed beds (Direct Melting System) Fluidised Bed Gasification and Ash Melting There are over 120 WtE plants using novel/gasification technologies in Japan & 13 plants in Europe. Pyrolysis/ Gasification & Melting Moving Grate Gasification Plasma Gasification The Development of Waste-to-Energy Technologies around the World | San Shwe Hla | Page 25

26 Nippon Steel The Largest supplier of gasification based WTE plants in Japan 33 in Japan 2 in South Korea. Fixed bed, updraft gasifier, Co gasification. 23% overall efficiency Oxygen enriched air Reference: Nippon Steel & Sumikin Engineering Co., Ltd, 2013 The Development of Waste-to-Energy Technologies around the World | San Shwe Hla | Page 26

27 Process Flow – Nippon Steel Reference: Nippon Steel & Sumikin Engineering Co., Ltd, 2013 The Development of Waste-to-Energy Technologies around the World | San Shwe Hla | Page 27

28 Shin Moji Plant – NS largest gasification plant Reference: Nippon Steel & Sumikin Engineering Co., Ltd, 2013 The Development of Waste-to-Energy Technologies around the World | San Shwe Hla | Page 28

29 JFE- Fixed Beds WTE Merger of Kawasaki steel and NKK. Fixed bed types under JFE is similar to Nippon Steel Currently 10 operational plants using MSW, RDF as feed stocks Reference: Professor Yoshikawa, Tokyo Institute of Technology The Development of Waste-to-Energy Technologies around the World | San Shwe Hla | Page 29

30 EBARA- Fluidized bed gasification and Ash- melting Process Shredded MSW is first gasified inside fluidized bed gasifier operated under a low air ratio. Combustion of syngas in second reactor for ash melting. No oxygen enrichment. Fuel preparation required. Currently 11 plants in Japan & 4 in Korea (mostly for MSW and some for industrial wastes) Similar WTE process has also being supplied be Kobelco (15 plants) & Hitachi Zosen (8 Plants) Reference: Professor Yoshikawa, Tokyo Institute of Technology The Development of Waste-to-Energy Technologies around the World | San Shwe Hla | Page 30

31 Reference: EBARA Fluidized bed gasification (TIFG) & Ash melting system The Development of Waste-to-Energy Technologies around the World | San Shwe Hla | Page 31

32 Reference: EBARA Pressurized twin internally circulating Fluidized bed gasification system (PTIFG) The Development of Waste-to-Energy Technologies around the World | San Shwe Hla | Page 32 Two gasifiers, with O 2 and Steam as gasifying medium under high pressure. Relatively H 2 riched syngas for NH 3 systhesis

33 JFE- ThermoSelect Reference: Frank Campbell, IWT, % H 2, 32.5% CO, 33.8% CO 2, 2.3%N MJ/Nm³ The Development of Waste-to-Energy Technologies around the World | San Shwe Hla | Page 33

34 JFE- ThermoSelect.. Cont. Develop in Switzerland between ( ). Demonstration facility in Fondotoche, northern Italy (100t/d) ( ). Commercial scale in Germany ( , test phase), ( ) full operational. Shut down due to litigation between the supplier Thermoselect S. A. & The owner EnBW (or) due to emissions issue. Currently, 7 ThermoSelect facilities are being operated in Japan by JFE treating MSW and IW. (5 plants powered by gas engine, 2 plants by steam turbines) JFE have stated that they no longer offer the technology as it is too expensive. Reference: Frank Campbell, IWT, 2008 The Development of Waste-to-Energy Technologies around the World | San Shwe Hla | Page 34

35 Takuma-Waste pyrolysis gasification and melting system Wastes are first pyrolysed using a pyrolysis drum and using a vertical downflow-type rotary melting furnace, conversion of ash to molten slag. The Development of Waste-to-Energy Technologies around the World | San Shwe Hla | Page 35

36 ENERGOS A leading European WTE system. Norway (6 plants), Germany (1), UK (1) Waste are pre-treated prior to use Gasification took place on moving grate High temperature oxidation in a secondary chamber End used: Thermal (mostly) Reference: 7 8 The Development of Waste-to-Energy Technologies around the World | San Shwe Hla | Page 36

37 Plasma gasification The use of plasma torches is not new. The use of Plasma torch in gasification of solid waste is new. Plasma is simply a high-temperature ionized gas created within a plasma torch that is both thermally and electrically conductive. AlterNRG/WPC design the temperature of the plasma plume would be between 5,000 °C and 7,000°C. In plasma gasification process, ash melting occurs in the absence or near absence of O 2, prohibiting combustion. Two types of plasma gasification: Plasma assisted gasification Plasma assisted gas cleaning & melting MSW ash (from incineration plants) melting using Plasma torch are not considered as plasma gasification. - Westinghouse Plasma Corp Plasma Torch (Willis et al 2010) The Development of Waste-to-Energy Technologies around the World | San Shwe Hla | Page 37

38 Plasma assisted gasification Gasification and melting occur inside a single rector. Operating temperature are hot enough to drive the gasification reactions and brake down tars and higher MW compounds into CO and H 2. Updraft type fixed bed gasification Torch temperature ≈ 5,000°C – 7,000°C Bulk bed temperature at base ≈ 2,000°C Molten slag temperature ≈ 1,650°C The syngas temperature ≈ 890°C – 1,100°C Utashinai Plant  MSW (50%) + ASR (50%)  165 tpd  2003 Mihama-Mikata  Dried sewage sludge (20%) + MSW (80%)  22 tpd, 2003 Reference: Willis et al 2010; Wood et al ALTER NRG Plasma Gasification Reactor (Ref: Alter NRG) The Development of Waste-to-Energy Technologies around the World | San Shwe Hla | Page 38

39 Plasco Plant Plasma assisted gas cleaning and ash melting to treat MSW in Ottawa (100 tpd) by Plasco Energy Group. Gasification and plasma ash melting occur separately Reference: The Development of Waste-to-Energy Technologies around the World | San Shwe Hla | Page 39

40 CHO Power WtE Plant CHO-Power (& Europlasma) process consists of a primary gasifier (a moving grate system) with plasma assisted syngas cracking reactor and ash melting unit. First commercial plant in Morcenx, near Lyon, France. 37,000 tpa (IW) + 15,000 tpa (WC) Reference: The Development of Waste-to-Energy Technologies around the World | San Shwe Hla | Page 40

41 Utilisation of Slag and metal Reference: Professor Yoshikawa, Tokyo Institute of Technology The Development of Waste-to-Energy Technologies around the World | San Shwe Hla | Page 41

42 Slag recycling Reference: Nippon Steel & Sumikin Engineering Co., Ltd, 2013 The Development of Waste-to-Energy Technologies around the World | San Shwe Hla | Page 42

43 List of proven gasification based WTE plants CompanyType of WTENo of plants End Uses Remarks Nippon SteelFixed bed-Direct Melting33 (2)STEnriched O 2, 5% Coke JFE (NKK)Fixed bed-Direct Melting10 (1)STEnriched O 2, Coke Kawasaki GikenFixed bed-Direct Melting5STHigh Concentration O 2 JFE (ThermoSelect)Kiln Pyrolysis-Gasification-Melting7GT-E, ST95% O 2, Waste Compression MitsuiKiln Pyrolysis-Gasification-Melting7 (2)STWaste are shredded first. Takuma Co. LtdKiln Pyrolysis-Gasification-Melting2STWaste are shredded first. Ebara Co.C-Fluidised gasification- Melting11 (4)STWaste are shredded first. Kobelco Co. LtdB-Fluidised gasification- Melting13 (2)STWaste are shredded first. Hitachi ZosenB-Fluidised gasification- Melting8STWaste are shredded first. Ebara & Show DenkoPTIFG & Ash melting1NH 3 Pressurized, O 2 +H 2 O AlterNRG-Hitachi-MPlasma Assisted Gasification2STPlasma, MSW-ASR-SS Plasco EnergyPlasma assisted cleaning/melting1GT-EngPlasma, MSW CHO-Power-EuroplasmaPlasma assisted cleaning/melting1GT-EngPlasma, MSW ENERGOSStoker-gasification - Combustion8SteamWaste pretreated. No melting. The Development of Waste-to-Energy Technologies around the World | San Shwe Hla | Page 43

44 World’s first waste-to-biofuels facility Enerkem waste to biofuels and chemical facility at Edmonton Opened on 4 th June, % of waste into biofuels and chemicals 100,000 tonnes/year to MSW into 38 million liter of biofuels 70$/ton landfill, 75$/ton WtF Waste Gasification Syngas Manual & mechanical Separating Shredded Organic waste Inert Clean syngas Reference: Edmonton Journal, 5 June, 2014; Biofuel facility Methanol Ethanol The Development of Waste-to-Energy Technologies around the World | San Shwe Hla | Page 44 Chemical intermediates

45 What are the main drivers of WTEs? Government regulations Public Health Environmental issues Emission controls Reducing land fill areas Cost of WTE Vs tipping fees Electricity generation from MSW is not a main driver. It is one of the products while reducing amount of wastes. Let’s see an outermost case. Japan with 800 Plants (310 WtE Electricity) plants utilising 40 million tons MSW annually (80% of total MSW generation). Total install capacity ≈ 1673 MWe (in 2009) ≈ 0.6% of country’s electricity generation The Development of Waste-to-Energy Technologies around the World | San Shwe Hla | Page 45

46 Tipping fees Vs WTE plants in US Reference: The 2010 ERC Directory of Waste-to-Energy Plants The Development of Waste-to-Energy Technologies around the World | San Shwe Hla | Page 46

47 WTE Reduces GHG Emissions Nearly one ton of CO 2 equivalent emissions are avoided for every ton of MSW handled by WTE (US EPA) due to Avoided CH 4 emissions from land fills. Avoided CO 2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion. Avoided CO 2 emission from metals production. Reference: Thorneloe et al, 2006 The Development of Waste-to-Energy Technologies around the World | San Shwe Hla | Page 47

48 Feasibility Study: Requirements for a Successful WTE Project Research on Technical Feasibility Survey of waste characteristics, LCV and amount of waste Selecting suitable WTE system Estimation of electricity output Plant Location Evaluation of Environmental and Social Impacts GHG Emission/Reduction Effect Plant Emissions Research of legal system and procedure related to environmental assessment Financial and Economic Feasibility The Development of Waste-to-Energy Technologies around the World | San Shwe Hla | Page 48

49 Road Map to commercial scale WtE plant Fuel (MSW) characterization Lab scale reactor Pilot/Commercial scale WtE plant - Composition - Energy content - Reaction rates Fuel (MSW) preparation methods Cost Analysis - Steam Turbine - Gas Turbine - Combined Cycle - Chemicals - Liquid fuels Process Modelling Fuel (MSW), Availability Selection of type of WtE plant - Data collection from local councils - Choice of plant size & End use Emissions Vs regulations Meet the budget, regulations & WTE performance set no yes The Development of Waste-to-Energy Technologies around the World | San Shwe Hla | Page 49

50 Summary of WTE technologies Moving grate technology is the most commonly used for WTE (84% Japan, 91% European, almost all of US WTE. Fluidised bed incineration provide higher efficiency with lower emission level. Gasification technology has smaller capacity than incineration but its integration with melting systems significantly amount of reduces WTE wastes (bottom ash). Source: Frost & Sullivan analysis The Development of Waste-to-Energy Technologies around the World | San Shwe Hla | Page 50

51 Current status of gasification of MSW Technical reliability o Limited number of gasification based (melting) plants (~120) are able to offer a proven gasification process for different kinds of solid wastes. Environmental sustainability o Gasification is considered as a sound response to the increasingly restrictive emission regulations and towards zero wastes. Economic convenience o Usually more expensive in operating and capital costs higher than conventional combustion-based WtE. o Recent evidences indicate a convenience of gasification plants for size smaller than about 120 kt/y. The Development of Waste-to-Energy Technologies around the World | San Shwe Hla | Page 51

52 Conclusions & some thoughts Driving force for WTE options over landfill o Tipping fees (Landfill tax, landfill levy) o Government regulation regarding with landfilling Driving force for gasification based WTE over incineration WTE o Government regulations on specific design of WTE plant (e.g. melting) o Tipping fees for WTE bottom ash o Emission control and regulations Important factors for establishing WTE plants in Australia o Government regulations and policies o Tipping fees (Landfill tax, landfill levy) o Public acceptance The Development of Waste-to-Energy Technologies around the World | San Shwe Hla | Page 52

53 The Development of Waste-to-Energy Technologies around the World | San Shwe Hla | Page 53

54 Thank you CSIRO Energy Technology San Shwe Hla The Development of Waste-to-Energy Technologies around the World t wwww.csiro.au/Energy


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