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Introductions and Conclusions Louise Livesey Academic Skills Adviser This workshop will... −Discuss the function of introductions and conclusions −Examine.

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Presentation on theme: "Introductions and Conclusions Louise Livesey Academic Skills Adviser This workshop will... −Discuss the function of introductions and conclusions −Examine."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introductions and Conclusions Louise Livesey Academic Skills Adviser This workshop will... −Discuss the function of introductions and conclusions −Examine the key features of both introductions and conclusions −Provide tips on how to draft effective introductions and conclusions

2 The Plan… 1.Functions –what do they do? 2.Features – what should they look like? 3.Tips for writing - introductions 4.Tips for writing - conclusions

3 An effective introduction… should include: A.An interpretation of the question or task B. How the answer is organised could include: C.Gaining the reader’s attention D.Creating a positive impression of you in the mind of your tutor. 1.The functions of introductions and conclusions

4 Within an introduction show... ● an understanding of the question or... ● point to the importance of concepts and the intended analysis and... ● awareness of various viewpoints, ● understanding of what is expected of you 2.Interpreting the question 1.The functions of introductions and conclusions

5 ‘Advertisers seek only to ensure that consumers make informed choices.’ Discuss. Most advertising executives are willing to defend their profession by arguing that all they are doing is informing the public and in doing so protecting the democratic freedoms of individuals, in particular their freedom of choice. To a certain extent, of course, this is true: without advertising we would be less informed about new developments in technology, in fashion and in medical advances. Even government warnings about the dangers at work and in the home depend upon advertisements. But the key to this is the claim that this is the ‘only’ thing they do, when most of the public suspect their paramount concern is to manipulate consumers into buying products that they may not want or need. 1.The functions of introductions and conclusions

6 Introduction road map StartSignpostsDestination 1.The functions of introductions and conclusions

7 Activity 1 Coronation Street consistently receives high viewer- ratings. This essay explores the basis of this popularity, evaluating its appeal in comparison to two other major contemporary British soap operas: EastEnders and Brookside. In the process, the essay will analyse Coronation Street’s use of strong female characters, its exploration of women’s lives, and its humorous treatment of make characters. I will contrast these to the ‘gritty realism’ favoured by EastEnders and Brookside. 1.The functions of introductions and conclusions

8 An effective conclusion… should include: A.What it (the debate/argument) was about B.What was your position C.Why your viewpoint was valid 1.The functions of introductions and conclusions

9 Five features of introductions 2.The features of effective introductions and conclusions Stating the overall topic Giving any general context/background Outlining any key terms or concepts Sharing the structure of the written work Providing a short conclusory statement

10 Activity 1: Feature spotting Coronation Street consistently receives high viewer-ratings. This essay explores the basis of this popularity, evaluating its appeal in comparison to two other major contemporary British soap operas: EastEnders and Brookside. In its opening section, the essay uses feminist theory to analyse Coronation Street’s appeal in term of its historical ‘women centredness’, in particular its focus on strong female characters, its exploration of women’s lives and its often humorous treatment of men. The essay then goes onto contrast this approach to the more naturalistic ‘gritty realism’ of EastEnders and Brookside which, it will be argued, have historically tended to focus more strongly on social issues such as unemployment and HIV. The essay argues that, in comparison to Coronation Street, this ‘gritty realism’ fails to connect with women’s culture and that it is the appeal to women of these less naturalistic elements that underlies Coronation Street’s continuing popularity. 2.The features of effective introductions and conclusions

11 Four features of conclusions 2.The features of 2.The features of effective introductions and conclusions Providing summary of argument or debate Stating conclusion and why reached Pointing to importance or significance Linking back to the question/task

12 Feature spotting Should acupuncture be recommended as a treatment for asthma? Discuss. In conclusion, the McCarney et al. systematic review has been critically analysed to allow consideration of whether acupuncture would be useful treating asthma at the KRI Respiratory Clinic. The background, rationale and efficacy of the alternative treatment have been reviewed and it has been suggested as a treatment option at the Clinic. Further research is needed into the area along with analysis of the treatment’s adverse effects in relation to chronic asthma. Acupuncture may have a role in the health care system as there were some positive findings in the review. Whether these are purely placebo-based may have to be further researched, so more funding will be needed. 2.The features of effective introductions and conclusions

13 Write introduction after finished main body Formal and detached academic style Embrace variety Should be 5-8% of overall assignment 3.Writing tips for introductions

14 10% of the total word count Write the conclusion first. Write in a formal and detached style, Do not always have to come to a definite position on one side or the other of a debate. Use quotations Definite indication reached the end of the essay Check the conclusion is justified by arguments and evidence. 4.Tips for writing conclusions

15 XDo not introduce anything new (points or evidence) into a conclusion XDo not include overused phrases XDo not use an informal and casual style X Do not make sentimental or emotional appeals XDo not ‘hide’ the conclusion from the reader 4. Tips for writing conclusions

16 Academic Liaison, Employability and Skills. (2014) Writing Introductions. Carlisle: University of Cumbria [online] Available at: [Accessed ] Bradford Gold. (2014) Bradford - Olympic Torch Relay Map. [online] Available at: olympic-torch-relay [Accessed ]http://www.bradfordgold.com/london-2012/london olympic-torch-relay Cottrell, S. (2013) The Study Skills Handbook. 4th ed. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Greetham, B. (2013) How to Write Better Essays. 3rd ed. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Morley, J. Academic phrasebank. Manchester: University of Manchester. [online] Available at: [Accessed ]http://www.phrasebank.manchester.ac.uk/ Neville, C. (2009) How to improve your assignment results. Maidenhead: OUP. Redman, P. (2001) Good essay writing. 2nd ed. London: Sage Publications Ltd. Tammycat (2014) Coronation Street Comments. TV Guide [online]. Available at: [accessed 31st August 2014]. The Write Site. (2014)Writing your conclusion. Sydney: The University of Sydney. [online] Available at: [Accessed ] The Writing Centre. (2014) Conclusions. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina. [online] Available at: [Accessed ] References

17 Academic Skills Advice ● Where are we? Chesham Building B0.23 ● What do we do? Support students on taught courses (mainly UG) with their study skills by running clinics and workshops, Instant Advice and one-to-one appointments. ● Who are we? Michael and Helen (Maths); Lucy and Russell (study skills) and I (Louise ) deliver skills workshops ● When can you come for help? Everyday both face to face and on-line ● How do I get in touch? academic- phone (ext.6849) or website

18 Any questions?


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