Presentation on theme: "World war ii North Africa, Mediterranean & Atlantic"— Presentation transcript:
1World war ii North Africa, Mediterranean & Atlantic 1941-1945 Sea Power & Maritime AffairsLesson 11World war iiNorth Africa, Mediterranean & Atlantic
2AdminAnything you want to includeQuizzesAssignmentsEtc
3Last Class Navy during Inter-War Period (1918-1939) Treaty of VersaillesState of world naviesNaval Arms LimitationsWashington ConferencesBirth of new technologiesAircraft carrier
4Today WWII in the Africa, Med, Atlantic Causes of war Navies in Atlantic, Africa & MedUS navy involvementEnd of war in Europe
58 Key Themes Navy as an instrument of foreign policy Interaction between Congress and NavyInterservice relationsTechnologyLeadershipStrategy & TacticsEvolution of US Naval DoctrineFuture missions of Navy and USMC
6Sea Power & Maritime Affairs Lesson 13WWIINaval War in Europe
7Why study separately?Battle for the AtlanticBattle for the Pacific
8Allied Navy Roles in European War Convoy EscortSupply protectionAnti-submarine warfareTroop TransportDunkirk evacuationAmphibious Assault executionNavy surface gunfire supportNaval aircraft supportRandom surface engagementsBattleships, cruisers, carrierAir superiority
9Axis Navy Roles in European War Supply-Chain Destruction“Surface Raiders”U-Boats (submarines)Troop TransportPlans for BritainNorthern AfricaRandom surface engagements- Battleships, cruisers, carrierAir superiority
10Warning of Impending War GermanyJapan- Extremism- Repudiates Treaty of Versailles- Military developmentMilitary MobilizationRhinelandAustriaSudetenlandCzechoslovakiaExtremismMilitary developmentMilitary MobilizationChinaSouth-east Asia
11Phase I Territorial Gains 19361939RhinelandCzechoslovakiaPoland19371940NothingDenmarkNorwayHollandBelgiumFranceBritain (Failure)Soviet Union1938Austrian “Anschluss”Sudetenland
17Poland Sept 1, 1939* Official Start of War / UK, France declare War
18Start of War in Europe Germany & USSR invade Poland UK and France declare warGermany declares warItaly declares warDuring French invasionUS : Neutral
19Initial Allied Naval Strategy Initial German Naval Strategy What about the Navy?Initial Allied Naval StrategyInitial German Naval StrategyBig PicturePrevent German fleet from getting into AtlanticPreserve control of seasSupplyTroop movement** Combined British and French fleets made largest fleet in the world. Confident they could control the seas.Big PictureControl of seasSupplyTroop movementCripple Allied supplyConvoy Surface “Raiders”Submarines “Wolf packs”Air superiority
20Initial Allied Warfare Initial German Warfare What about the Navy?Initial Allied WarfareInitial German WarfareWWI-styleBlockadeMine layingConvoysRoyal Air ForceWWI-styleSubmarine warfareLuftwaffeNEW TECHNOLOGY: Aircraft Carriers
26France on Verge of Defeat Armistice: 22 June 1940Create “Vichy France”Brits start seizing French shipsStrategic ImplicationsNo western threatBritish blockade ineffectiveBritain all aloneFrench plead for British SupportBrits plead for France to release their fleet*Neither side agrees
28How are the Allies Doing? PoorlyOnly Brits leftRemnants of ArmyCombined Fleet split in halfGerman Empire enormous and growingMen & military resourcesBritish supply dwindlingItaly now at war with BritainMediterranean
30“Operation Sea Lion” August 1940 Battle of Britain“Operation Sea Lion”August 1940
31Hitler’s Next Target Wants to defeat Britain Plan: Amphibious Assault Army and Navy dispute over where to landBoth agree: Must control air firstGerman Luftwaffe begins bombing campaign and the Battle of Britain begins
34British Strategy & Tactics Enormous resources into Royal Air ForceBritish Advantage1. English channelMove fleet from Scapa Flow2. Logistics3. Advanced WarningRadarMore important: “Ultra” – German message coding
35Does Germany Win? Long Answer No Short AnswerLong AnswerNoNo, Because 1. Brits exploit their advantage a. Losses: (Britain) 915 fighters (Germany) 1733 aircraft 2. Germans get distracted a. Bomb cities rather than airfields and radar installations b. Divert attention to invading USSR and saving Italians in North Africa
36“Neutrality” Supply, Supply, Supply Ready the Troops Early American Role“Neutrality”Supply, Supply, SupplyReady the Troops
37Early American Role Supposed “Neutrality” FDR: American interest in defeating fascismDiplomacy: “Equal opportunity for American goods”Reality: “Preserve UK through material support”
38Early American Role 1. Loan 50 WWI Destroyers to Britain 2. Lend Lease (March 1941) to Britain (later USSR)“Neutrality Patrols”- In response to several incidents with Germans inspecting or sinking US merchant ships4. Destroyer escort as far as IcelandUnofficial convoy escortDangerous life for “non-combatant” sailors5. Escort in and out of British ports
39German War on Supply 1. Brits assumed “Unrestricted Sub Warfare” Brits arm merchant vesselsGermans remove submarine restrictionsGermans increase submarine war- Hone “Wolf-pack” tacticsProblem: Brits mined English Channel. North sea is only option. But subs use too much fuel going through North Sea.
40Wolf-pack Tactics 1. Surface sighting 2. Relay to headquarters Assign of packTrail and studyMulti-angle attack at night* Prefer independent ship**”Greenland Air Gap”
41German War on SupplyBig Events: Norway, France (50% time save)
44How were the U-Boats Defeated? ConvoysMore convoy boatsDifferent types of convoy boatsCorvettes & frigatesLonger escortsAir escortTechnologyMore accurate surface radarMore accurate asdic (sonar)Better depth chargesCryptologyBrits crack German Navy’s “Ultra” cipher (Twice)
45How were the U-Boats Defeated? For the USAir coverage : 300 anti-sub planes“Black Out” at nightInterlocking convoy hand-off“Hunter-Killer Groups”Final reason: Sinking more U-Boats than Germany could build- Ratio of 3:1 (Merchants:U-Boats sank)- Escorts and aircraft each account for 50%Bottom Line: War on supply became too costlyfor Germans
50Conflicting Plans Soviets want western front Take pressure off themBritish want to start in AfricaAvoid catastrophic defeat and stalemate of WWIUS “Germany-First” PlanPlanners fear starting in Africa will delay western invasion until 1944 and USSR will not last until thenPlanners also want more time to build and trainAmphibious landing vehicles*What do we do?
51Navy Facilitates Amphibious Assaults The Big Four:North Africa – “Torch”Sicily – “Husky”Italy – “Avalanche” and “Shingle”France – “Neptune” and “Overlord”* Grand strategy: Work into Europe from the south (knock out Italy) while preparing for assault on France’s western coast. Combine these assaults with USSR from east.
52Navy Transport Instrumental Enormous success transporting troops28 KTSAmphibious landings more deadlyNormandy
53North Africa Nov 1942 Operation “Torch” Time delay Over 100 transports Naval bombardmentMine clearing
54North Africa Nov 1942 Operation “Torch” Time delay Over 100 transports Naval bombardmentMine clearingOther Navy contributions in Northern Africa:Allied Naval control of Med prevented evacuation of Rommel’s troops in Tunisia. Leads to surrender of 230,000 Germany soldiers.
63Other Naval BattlesMany skirmishes between individual ships and squadronsSurface “Raiders”BismarckHMS HoodHMS Prince of WhalesRegular Aircraft Carrier engagementsThough deadly…No BIG battle like JutlandNo strategically critical battle
64Review What were the Navies’ primary roles in Europe? AlliesAxisWhat are examples of how they fulfilled these roles?
65Big PictureThe naval war in Europe was different than the war in the Pacific in many regards. In some sense, it resembled much of the naval war in WWI, but the addition of amphibious operations and aircraft engagements added a dimension that was unexplored in WWI. Overall, the Navies played a critical role in the Allied victory over the axis.
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