Presentation on theme: "WORLD WAR II North Africa, Mediterranean & Atlantic 1941-1945 Sea Power & Maritime Affairs Lesson 11."— Presentation transcript:
WORLD WAR II North Africa, Mediterranean & Atlantic Sea Power & Maritime Affairs Lesson 11
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Last Class Navy during Inter-War Period ( ) Treaty of Versailles State of world navies Naval Arms Limitations – Washington Conferences Birth of new technologies – Aircraft carrier
Today WWII in the Africa, Med, Atlantic Causes of war Navies in Atlantic, Africa & Med US navy involvement End of war in Europe
8 Key Themes 1.Navy as an instrument of foreign policy 2.Interaction between Congress and Navy 3.Interservice relations 4.Technology 5.Leadership 6.Strategy & Tactics 7.Evolution of US Naval Doctrine 8.Future missions of Navy and USMC
Sea Power & Maritime Affairs Lesson 13 WWII Naval War in Europe
Why study separately? Battle for the Atlantic Battle for the Pacific
Allied Navy Roles in European War 1.Convoy Escort -Supply protection -Anti-submarine warfare 2.Troop Transport -Dunkirk evacuation -Amphibious Assault execution -Navy surface gunfire support -Naval aircraft support 3.Random surface engagements -Battleships, cruisers, carrier 4.Air superiority
Axis Navy Roles in European War 1.Supply-Chain Destruction -“Surface Raiders” -U-Boats (submarines) 2.Troop Transport -Plans for Britain -Northern Africa 3.Random surface engagements - Battleships, cruisers, carrier 4.Air superiority
Warning of Impending War - Extremism - Repudiates Treaty of Versailles - Military development Military Mobilization Rhineland Austria Sudetenland Czechoslovakia Extremism Military development Military Mobilization China South-east Asia GermanyJapan
Phase I Territorial Gains Rhineland Czechoslovakia Poland Nothing 1940 Denmark Norway Holland Belgium France Britain (Failure) Soviet Union 1938 Austrian “Anschluss” Sudetenland
Germany Post WWI
“Anschluss” (Austria) 1938
Poland Sept 1, 1939 * Official Start of War / UK, France declare War
Start of War in Europe Germany & USSR invade Poland UK and France declare war Germany declares war Italy declares war – During French invasion US : Neutral
What about the Navy? Big Picture 1.Prevent German fleet from getting into Atlantic 2.Preserve control of seas a.Supply b.Troop movement ** Combined British and French fleets made largest fleet in the world. Confident they could control the seas. Big Picture 1.Control of seas a.Supply b.Troop movement 2.Cripple Allied supply -Convoy Surface “Raiders” -Submarines “Wolf packs” 3.Air superiority Initial Allied Naval Strategy Initial German Naval Strategy
What about the Navy? WWI-style Blockade Mine laying Convoys Royal Air Force WWI-style Submarine warfare Luftwaffe Initial Allied WarfareInitial German Warfare NEW TECHNOLOGY: Aircraft Carriers
Denmark & Norway Apr 1940
Holland May 10-15, 1940
Belgium May 28, 1940
“Miracle” of Dunkirk - Allies enveloped Hope: Rescue 45,000 Actual: 338,000 rescued Reason: 1.Army holds back Germans 9 Days 2.British Navy and merchantmen combine efforts
France on Verge of Defeat Verge of DefeatDefeat Armistice: 22 June 1940 Create “Vichy France” Brits start seizing French ships Strategic Implications 1.No western threat 2.British blockade ineffective 3.Britain all alone 1.French plead for British Support 2.Brits plead for France to release their fleet *Neither side agrees
France Armistice June 22, 1940
How are the Allies Doing? Poorly Only Brits left – Remnants of Army – Combined Fleet split in half German Empire enormous and growing – Men & military resources British supply dwindling Italy now at war with Britain – Mediterranean
You are Hitler What do you do next?
Battle of Britain “Operation Sea Lion” August 1940
Hitler’s Next Target Wants to defeat Britain Plan: Amphibious Assault – Army and Navy dispute over where to land – Both agree: Must control air first German Luftwaffe begins bombing campaign and the Battle of Britain begins
You are Churchill What do you do?
Battle of Britain Video FJDkfngY&feature=related
British Strategy & Tactics Enormous resources into Royal Air Force British Advantage 1. English channel – Move fleet from Scapa Flow 2. Logistics 3. Advanced Warning – Radar – More important: “Ultra” – German message coding
Does Germany Win? No Short Answer Long Answer No, Because 1. Brits exploit their advantage a. Losses: (Britain) 915 fighters (Germany) 1733 aircraft 2. Germans get distracted a. Bomb cities rather than airfields and radar installations b. Divert attention to invading USSR and saving Italians in North Africa
Early American Role “Neutrality” Supply, Supply, Supply Ready the Troops
Early American Role Supposed “Neutrality” – FDR: American interest in defeating fascism – Diplomacy: “Equal opportunity for American goods” – Reality: “Preserve UK through material support”
Early American Role 1. Loan 50 WWI Destroyers to Britain 2. Lend Lease (March 1941) to Britain (later USSR) 3.“Neutrality Patrols” - In response to several incidents with Germans inspecting or sinking US merchant ships 4. Destroyer escort as far as Iceland – Unofficial convoy escort – Dangerous life for “non-combatant” sailors 5. Escort in and out of British ports
German War on Supply 1. Brits assumed “Unrestricted Sub Warfare” 2.Brits arm merchant vessels 3.Germans remove submarine restrictions 4.Germans increase submarine war - Hone “Wolf-pack” tactics Problem: Brits mined English Channel. North sea is only option. But subs use too much fuel going through North Sea.
Wolf-pack Tactics 1. Surface sighting 2. Relay to headquarters 3.Assign of pack 4.Trail and study 5.Multi-angle attack at night * Prefer independent ship **”Greenland Air Gap”
German War on Supply Big Events: Norway, France (50% time save)
Total Numbers 2,775 Allied merchants sunk 1,175 U-Boats committed / 781 lost “The Cruel Sea” – Nicholas Monsarrat
How were the U-Boats Defeated? Convoys – More convoy boats – Different types of convoy boats Corvettes & frigates – Longer escorts – Air escort Technology – More accurate surface radar – More accurate asdic (sonar) – Better depth charges Cryptology – Brits crack German Navy’s “Ultra” cipher (Twice)
How were the U-Boats Defeated? For the US – Air coverage : 300 anti-sub planes – “Black Out” at night – Interlocking convoy hand-off – “Hunter-Killer Groups” Final reason: Sinking more U-Boats than Germany could build - Ratio of 3:1 (Merchants:U-Boats sank) - Escorts and aircraft each account for 50% Bottom Line: War on supply became too costly for Germans
Navy’s Other Roles Troop Transport
Historical Context Oct 1940: Germany attacks USSR Dec 1941: US enters war (joins Britain & USSR) * Allied Quandary: How to defeat Germany?
Europe in 1942 Where would you begin?
Europe in 1942 Close in from all sides
Conflicting Plans Soviets want western front – Take pressure off them British want to start in Africa – Avoid catastrophic defeat and stalemate of WWI US “Germany-First” Plan – Planners fear starting in Africa will delay western invasion until 1944 and USSR will not last until then – Planners also want more time to build and train Amphibious landing vehicles *What do we do?
Navy Facilitates Amphibious Assaults The Big Four: North Africa – “Torch” Sicily – “Husky” Italy – “Avalanche” and “Shingle” France – “Neptune” and “Overlord” * Grand strategy: Work into Europe from the south (knock out Italy) while preparing for assault on France’s western coast. Combine these assaults with USSR from east.
Navy Transport Instrumental Enormous success transporting troops 28 KTS Amphibious landings more deadly – Normandy
North Africa Nov 1942 Operation “Torch” -Time delay -Over 100 transports -Naval bombardment -Mine clearing
North Africa Nov 1942 Operation “Torch” -Time delay -Over 100 transports -Naval bombardment -Mine clearing Other Navy contributions in Northern Africa: Allied Naval control of Med prevented evacuation of Rommel’s troops in Tunisia. Leads to surrender of 230,000 Germany soldiers.
Italy Jan Over 500 vessels 24,000 soldiers Standard Operations: 1. Naval Bombardment 2. Assault 3. Naval gunfire support 4. Naval aircraft support Operation “Husky” Operation “Avalanche” Operation “Shingle”
Normandy 6 June 1944 Operation “Neptune” -Largest amphibious Op in World History -Over 4,000 ships -714,000 men -111,000 vehicles -250,000 tons supply
Normandy 6 June 1944 Operation “Neptune” 1.Paratroopers 2.Ariel bombing 3.Meet in “Zebra” 4.Minesweepers 5.Surface gunfire 6.Assault
Normandy June 1944 Operation “Overlord”
Video Saving Private Ryan Saving Private Ryan
Normandy June 1944 Operation “Overlord”
End Result ~16,000 killed
Other Naval Battles
Many skirmishes between individual ships and squadrons – Surface “Raiders” – Bismarck – HMS Hood – HMS Prince of Whales Regular Aircraft Carrier engagements Though deadly… – No BIG battle like Jutland – No strategically critical battle
Review What were the Navies’ primary roles in Europe? – Allies – Axis What are examples of how they fulfilled these roles?
Big Picture The naval war in Europe was different than the war in the Pacific in many regards. In some sense, it resembled much of the naval war in WWI, but the addition of amphibious operations and aircraft engagements added a dimension that was unexplored in WWI. Overall, the Navies played a critical role in the Allied victory over the axis.
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