Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

AKINS HIGH SCHOOL Pre-A.P. World History Room 167 Tutorials: T ~ F; 8:20 ~ 8:50 TODAY’s OBJECTIVES: Describe the Allied plan for victory & show the Allied.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "AKINS HIGH SCHOOL Pre-A.P. World History Room 167 Tutorials: T ~ F; 8:20 ~ 8:50 TODAY’s OBJECTIVES: Describe the Allied plan for victory & show the Allied."— Presentation transcript:

1 AKINS HIGH SCHOOL Pre-A.P. World History Room 167 Tutorials: T ~ F; 8:20 ~ 8:50 TODAY’s OBJECTIVES: Describe the Allied plan for victory & show the Allied strategy on two fronts. Explain how civilians on the Allied home fronts contributed to the war effort. Summarize events that led to the surrender of Germany. Explain the importance of the atom bomb in the Allied victory over Japan. AGENDA: Please begin Warm-up and get focused for class immediately. WARM-UP, Read “The Allies Plan for Victory,” p. 835 / Examine Textbook map, p. 836 LECTURE / DISCUSSION of homework CH 32, Section 4 QUIZ over Sections ASSIGNMENT for NEXT TIME: Read CH 32, Section 5, Complete G.R.A. in packet. REMINDER: CH 32 TEST is WEDNESDAY Cover of Time magazine – May 7, 1945 a day before official V-E day. 58 years later Time would run a similar cover for another tyrant forcibly removed from power – Saddam Hussein.

2 What is the advantage of a map perspective of this nature?

3

4

5 Erwin Rommel: “Desert Fox” German General who led the North African campaign. Bernard Montgomery – British commander who launched Battle of El-Alamein, in which Rommel’s army was defeated. 1. Battle of El Alamein – Forced Rommel’s forces to retreat westward from Egypt. Allies safeguard the Suez Canal. 2. Operation Torch – Landing of American troops in North Africa; finally ending Rommel’s N.Africa campaign.

6 3. Battle of Stalingrad – Put German forces on the defensive with the Soviets, pushing them westward. Locate Stalingrad (and Leningrad from our study last week) on the map of Europe. See p. 822 and 836 T. Loessin; Akins High School

7 4. Invasion of Italy – Resulted in Allied conquest of Sicily and forced the eventual surrender of Italy. T. Loessin; Akins High School Il Duce … …his own Italian people now hang him.

8 5. Propaganda on the home fronts – Rallied people on the Homefront to do their part to support the war effort. What was Operation Cornflake? These stamps were key part of a high level clandestine plan to undermine the morale of the average German citizen. The Allies felt that if many German people started receiving Anti- Nazi propaganda in their morning mail delivered punctually at breakfast time by the mailman, they would feel that their "German Empire" was falling apart from within. Women in the factories “Rosie the Riveter” Victory Gardens Rationing Hollywood “Buy Bonds” drive / pro-war films / Stars go overseas for troops Civil Defense precautions Censorship / Mail read Japanese Internment camps

9 6.D-Day Invasion – “Operation Overlord” June 6, 1944 Opened up the planned second front in Europe … (something Stalin had been asking Churchill & Roosevelt to do since 1941) … and led to the liberation of France, Belgium, and much of the Netherlands from Nazi occupation. General Eisenhower rallies paratroopers prior to the Normandy invasion. Dwight D. Eisenhower – American general who led the D-Day invasion. T. Loessin; Akins High School

10 Between April 1 and June 5, A multitude of bombs, approximately 195,000 tons of explosives, were dropped on Normandy and the surrounding German-controlled French territory. May 1944 was the date originally set in Washington for a mainland invasion. Unfortunately, difficulties with landing crafts postponed the invasion yet again. June 5 was the unalterable date set by Eisenhower. Pre-Invasion. June 5, Through the use of strategically bombing a position far from the actual invasion point and using airborne radar deception, the allies were able to create the illusion of a ‘phantom’ army. They used airborne radar to a greater effect by disguising the real invasion force en- route it’s way to the beaches of Normandy. Aircraft released bombs near the Orne River and were targeting bridges, effectively isolating the Normandy region from the rest of France. The stage is set, and the game is on.

11 June 5, The weather was extraordinarily bad and created adverse conditions for an amphibious landing. However, on this morning, Eisenhower was assured of a break in the bad weather. He replied "O.K. We'll go.“ The Allied armada set off for the Beaches of Normandy. Later that night, 882 airplanes, holding paratroopers and towing gliders, descended on Normandy.

12 T. Loessin; Akins High School

13 7. Battle of the Bulge – At first this German offensive forced Allies to retreat; Allied resistance then stopped Germans and resulted in heavy losses for Hitler. Germans run out of gas and come to the end of the road! T. Loessin; Akins High School

14 REFLECTION QUESTION: Are civilians “legitimate targets” in war?

15 The German city, a major cultural and artistic European center, was devastated by heavy Allied bombing “The Dresden trip took 12 hours. On the return I could still see the fires 500 miles away from Dresden.” ~ R.A.F. Pilot The British-American Bombing of Dresden Germany February 13-14, 1945: 2,600 tons of high explosive and incendiary bombs were dropped creating a huge firestorm that destroyed Dresden. Because the city's population was swollen with refugees fleeing the Soviet advance from the east, the death toll from fire and suffocation is unknown, but probably lies between 40,000 and 135,000. The Dresden raid caused a public outcry. Even Winston Churchill, who had urged Bomber Command to attack east German cities, tried to dissociate himself from it. On 28 March 1945, he drafted a memo to the British Chiefs of Staff in which he denounced the bombing of cities as "mere acts of terror and wanton destruction".

16 Franklin D. Roosevelt Dies April 12, 1945 He was 63. Roosevelt will best be remembered for his development of the New Deal program for helping America out of the great depression, his determination to help Allied nations defeat Hitler in WWII and his ideas that inspired the foundation of the United Nations Organization. T. Loessin; Akins High School F.D.R. at 60.

17 With a torn picture of his Fuhrer beside his clenched fist, a dead Nazi general lies on the floor of city hall in Leipzig, Germany. He committed suicide rather than face U.S. Army troops who captured the city on April 19, NAZI Germany falls apart… the Reich that was supposed to last a thousand years… lasted only 12. T. Loessin; Akins High School

18 Otto Günsche, 86, Who Helped to Burn Hitler's Body, Dies By THE ASSOCIATED PRESS P ublished: Oct. 14, 2003 BERLIN, Oct. 13 (AP) — Otto Günsche, an aide to Hitler who took part in burning the Nazi dictator's body to keep it from the advancing Soviets in the final days of World War II, died on Oct. 2 in Lohmar, near Bonn. He was 86. The cause of death was heart failure, said a son, Kai. An SS major and a member of Hitler's inner circle, Mr. Günsche spent the last hours with the Nazi leader in his Berlin bunker before Hitler and his companion, Eva Braun, committed suicide on April 30, Otto Günsche said in a recent interview with The Associated Press that Hitler personally ordered him to burn his body. When the day came, he and another aide poured gasoline on the bodies of Hitler and Braun, which were then set on fire. Mr. Günsche was captured by Red Army troops at the end of the war and spent 12 years in Soviet captivity. He lived quietly in West Germany after his release. He was born Sept. 24, He joined the Wehrmacht, but transferred to the SS where he rose to the rank of major, said Kurt Schrimm, a prosecutor who is chief of Germany's central office for investigating former Nazis. The agency's files show no investigation against Mr. Günsche for Nazi-era crimes, Mr. Schrimm said. Mr. Günsche is survived by three children. His body was cremated, his son said.

19 Russian museum displays fragment of Hitler's skull By Anna Dolgov Associated Press Russian officials claim this skull fragment, with a bullet hole, was Adolph Hitler's. AP MOSCOW -- What officials claim is a fragment of Adolf Hitler's skull went on display Wednesday, along with documents revealing what happened to the dictator's remains after they were seized by Soviet troops in Hitler had reportedly committed suicide on April 30 as the Soviets were overtaking Berlin. The four-inch fragment -- with a hole where a bullet reportedly exited through the left temple -- was displayed under thick glass at Russia's Federal Archives Service. The exhibition, called ''The Agony of the Third Reich: The Retribution,'' was timed to mark the 55th anniversary next month of the defeat of Nazi Germany. The piece of skull and the jaw are the only surviving remains of Hitler's body, according to officials at the archive service and at Russia’s Federal Security Service, or FSB, the main successor of the old Soviet KGB. T. Loessin; Akins High School

20 V – E day = May 8, 1945 “Victory in Europe” While Londoners wave Union Jacks, "out of work" American bombers return to their English base on May 8, T. Loessin; Akins High School

21 V – E day = May 8, 1945 “Victory in Europe” Celebrations in New York’s Times Square T. Loessin; Akins High School

22 War in the Pacific Continues MacArthur keeps his promise and returns to the Philippines T. Loessin; Akins High School

23 8. Battle of Leyte Gulf – Wiped out the Japanese navy. This beautiful monument is dedicated to the memory of Vice Admiral Clifton A. F. Sprague and the 13 ships and 7,300 men of Task Unit , also known as Taffy 3, which were under his command during the furious and heroic naval action fought off the island of Samar on October 25, 1944, during the Battle for Leyte Gulf.

24 War in the Pacific Continues

25 9.Battle of Okinawa – Resulted in heavy losses for Japanese and moved the Allies closer to an invasion of Japan itself. The famous Iwo Jima moment… U.S. marines planting the flag on the beach… the actual photo below, the memorial in Arlington Cemetery, Washington D.C. at right. T. Loessin; Akins High School

26 Physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer headed the new U.S. laboratory built to design an atomic bomb. Oppenheimer recommended a remote site in New Mexico for the new facility, where project scientists, many of them world-famous, could work together in complete secrecy. The Los Alamos Laboratory was opened in April Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki – Forced Japan to surrender and the end of the war. (Be sure to read p. 840 – several trivia bits on test) August 6, 1945 August 9, 1945 _______ ______

27 “I could see below the mushroom cloud…the thing reminded me more of a boiling pot of tar than any other description I can give. It was black and boiling underneath with a steam haze on top of it…We had seen the city when we flew in, and there was nothing to see when we came back. It was covered by this boiling, black-looking mass.” ~ Col. Paul W. Tibbets, Jr. (pilot, Enola Gay) 8:15 a.m. Hiroshima, Japan August 6, 1945 Within a few seconds the thousands of people in the streets and the gardens in the center of the town were scorched by a wave of searing heat. Many were killed instantly, others lay writhing on the ground, screaming in agony from the intolerable pain of their burns. Everything standing upright in the way of the blast, walls, houses, factories, and other buildings, was annihilated. ~ Japanese journalist, August 6, 1945.

28 Atomic bomb survivor This patient's skin is burned in a pattern corresponding to the dark portions of a kimono worn at the time of the explosion. U.S. National Archives & Records Administration, Washington D.C. Years after WWII, President Harry S. Truman was asked if he had difficulty making the decision to use this new weapon. He responded without hesitation, “Hell no. I made it just like that.” And he snapped his fingers. T. Loessin; Akins High School

29 V-J Day: September 2, 1945 (Victory over Japan) The Japanese Surrendered to General Douglas MacArthur aboard the U.S.S. Missouri battleship docked in Tokyo Bay… …oddly, on the same day WWII had officially begun in Europe 6 years earlier when Hitler invaded Poland. T. Loessin; Akins High School

30 V – J day = Sept. 2, 1945 “Victory in Japan” Celebrations in New York’s Times Square T. Loessin; Akins High School

31 AKINS HIGH SCHOOL Pre-A.P. World History Room 167 Tutorials: T ~ F; 8:20 ~ 8:50 TODAY’s OBJECTIVES: Describe the Allied plan for victory & show the Allied strategy on two fronts. Explain how civilians on the Allied home fronts contributed to the war effort. Summarize events that led to the surrender of Germany. Explain the importance of the atom bomb in the Allied victory over Japan. AGENDA: Please begin Warm-up and get focused for class immediately. WARM-UP, Read “The Allies Plan for Victory,” p. 835 / Examine Textbook map, p. 836 LECTURE / DISCUSSION of homework CH 32, Section 4 QUIZ over Sections ASSIGNMENT for NEXT TIME: Read CH 32, Section 5, Complete G.R.A. in packet. REMINDER: CH 32 TEST is WEDNESDAY Cover of Time magazine – May 7, 1945 a day before official V-E day. 58 years later Time would run a similar cover for another tyrant forcibly removed from power – Saddam Hussein.

32 AKINS HIGH SCHOOL Pre-A.P. World History Room 167 Tutorials: T ~ F; 8:20 ~ 8:50 TODAY’s OBJECTIVES: Describe the devastation of Europe following World War II. Identify some of the political consequences of the Allied victory in postwar Europe. Show how defeat affected political and civic life in Japan. Give examples of ways in which Japan changed under United States’ occupation. AGENDA: Please begin Warm-up and get focused for class immediately. WARM-UP, Review “Visual Summary,” text p. 846 How many of these events can you put in chronological order on the test? LECTURE / DISCUSSION of homework CH 32, Section 5 REVIEW for Test ASSIGNMENT for NEXT TIME: TEST over Chapter 32. * There will be no Tutorials in a.m. The atomic bomb exploded on Hiroshima City dropped 500 feet from the Hiroshima Prefectural Industrial Promotion Hall. Built in 1915, it was the only building still standing on Aug. 6, Today the structure is a memorial for the victims of the bomb.

33 1.Note three ways WWII affected the land and people of Europe. Destroyed hundreds of major cities, factories, farmland, and utilities resulting in a ruined economy, shortages, famine, disease, unemployment, and destroyed lives. Choked with debris, a bombed water intake of the Pegnitz River no longer supplies war factories in Nuremberg, the vital Reich industrial city and festival center of the Nazi party. It was captured April 20, 1945, by troops of the U.S. Army.

34 2. Note three political problems postwar governments now faced. Displaced persons, discredited governments, lack of political leadership, threat of Communist (USSR) takeovers. T. Loessin; Akins High School

35 Wall line between West- and East-Berlin Post – WWII A Germany divided. T. Loessin; Akins High School

36 3. Note one way the Allies dealt with the Holocaust. Put the Nazis on trial for “crimes against humanity” – the first ever War Crimes Tribunal was held in Nuremberg, Germany… …ironically, the place where Hitler first put his anti-Semitic Nuremberg laws into action back in The Nuremberg War Crimes Trials : 23 Allied nations brought 22 Nazi officials to court in The defendants are seen on the right side of the above photo. At left, some of the defendants at Nuremberg. Front row, from left to right: Hermann Göring, Rudolf Hess, Joachim von Ribbentrop, Wilhelm Keitel. Back row from left to right: Karl Döwnitz, Erich Raeder, Baldur von Schirach, Fritz Sauckel, Alfred Jodl. Photo credit: National Archives, courtesy of USHMM Photo Archives

37 4.Note two effects of Allied bombing raids on Japan. Destroyed numerous cities, shattered the economy, caused deaths of two million people. In the background are the remains of a Roman Catholic cathedral on a hill in Nagasaki, Japan following the atomic blast of Aug. 9, 1945.

38 MacArthur arranged for this one photo to be taken, sending the Japanese people a clear message that their Emperor was, in fact, a small man, and leaving no doubt about who was in charge. Hirohito was spared execution for his war crimes, because the Allies felt that as a purely symbolic Emperor, he could be useful to them in carrying out their plans for post- war Japan. Under MacArthur's tutelage, Hirohito announced that he was not a god, but merely a normal man. MacArthur and the Americans prepared a new Constitution for Japan which is still in use today. U.S. Occupation of Japan: A few days after the surrender of Japan to the Allies, a dignified but defeated Hirohito paid a visit to General Douglas MacArthur, Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces. T. Loessin; Akins High School

39 6. Note three ways U.S. occupation changed Japan. Democratization – a government elected by the people was created; [The former Empire was now a parliamentary democracy much like Britain.] Huge land estate owners were forced to sell lands to former tenant farmers Demilitarization - standing army was disbanded, preventing Japan from ever again making war. 25 Surviving War Crimes defendants brought to trial. Premier Tojo and six others sentenced to hanging. and independent labor unions were formed. [Contrary to common misconception, the United States (still bitter about Pearl Harbor) offered very little money to help rebuild Japan. Only 2 billion dollars directed toward emergency relief in Hiroshima and Nagasaki.] T. Loessin; Akins High School

40 6. Note three provisions in Japan’s new constitution. A two-house Parliament (the Diet) elected by the people; Elections held for all persons over 20, including women. A Prime Minister elected by majority in the Diet; A Bill of Rights protecting basic freedoms; Article 9 – stipulates that Japan can never again make war; only defend itself if attacked. T. Loessin; Akins High School

41 AKINS HIGH SCHOOL Pre-A.P. World History Room 167 Tutorials: T ~ F; 8:20 ~ 8:50 TODAY’s OBJECTIVES: Describe the devastation of Europe following World War II. Identify some of the political consequences of the Allied victory in postwar Europe. Show how defeat affected political and civic life in Japan. Give examples of ways in which Japan changed under United States’ occupation. AGENDA: Please begin Warm-up and get focused for class immediately. WARM-UP, Review “Visual Summary,” text p. 846 How many of these events can you put in chronological order on the test? LECTURE / DISCUSSION of homework CH 32, Section 5 REVIEW for Test ASSIGNMENT for NEXT TIME: TEST over Chapter 32. * There will be no Tutorials in a.m. The atomic bomb exploded on Hiroshima City dropped 500 feet from the Hiroshima Prefectural Industrial Promotion Hall. Built in 1915, it was the only building still standing on Aug. 6, Today the structure is a memorial for the victims of the bomb.


Download ppt "AKINS HIGH SCHOOL Pre-A.P. World History Room 167 Tutorials: T ~ F; 8:20 ~ 8:50 TODAY’s OBJECTIVES: Describe the Allied plan for victory & show the Allied."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google