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**Deep Learning on Hadoop**

Scale out Deep Learning on YARN

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Adam Gibson Twitter @agibsonccc Github github.com/agibs onccc Slideshare slideshare.net/agibsonccc Teaching zipfianacademy.com Press wired.com/2014/06/skymin d-deep-learning

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**Josh Patterson Email: Twitter: @jpatanooga Github:**

Twitter: @jpatanooga Github: github.com/jpatanoo ga Past Published in IAAI-09: “TinyTermite: A Secure Routing Algorithm” Grad work in Meta-heuristics, Ant- algorithms Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Hadoop and the Smartgrid Cloudera Principal Solution Architect Today: Patterson Consulting

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**Overview What Is Deep Learning?**

Neural Nets and Optimization Algorithms Implementation on Hadoop/YARN Results

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What is Deep Learning? Machine perception, pattern recognition.

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What Is Deep Learning? Algorithms called neural nets that learn to recognize patterns: Nodes learn smaller features of larger patterns And combine them to recognize feature groups Until finally they can classify objects, faces, etc. Each node layer in net learns larger groups

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**Properties of Deep Learning**

Small training sets, they learn unsupervised data They save data scientists months of work Anything you can vectorize, DL nets can learn They can handle millions of parameters After training, DL models are one, small vector

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**Chasing Nature Learning sparse representations of auditory signals**

Leads to filters that correspond to neurons in early audio processing in mammals When applied to speech Learned representations show a resemblance to cochlear filters in the auditory cortex.

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**Yann Lecun on Deep Learning**

DL is the dominant method for acoustic modeling in speech recognition It is becoming dominant in machine vision for: object recognition object detection semantic segmentation.

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Deep Neural Nets “Deep” > 1 hidden layer

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**Restricted Boltzmann Machines**

RBMs are building blocks for deeper nets. They deal with Binary and Continuous data differently. Binary Continuous DL nets learn through repeated sampling of input data. By reconstructing data, they learn which features matter.

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**What Is a Deep-Belief Network?**

A stack of restricted Boltzmann machines A generative probabilistic model 1) A visible (input) layer … 2) Two or more hidden layers that learn more & more complex features… 3) An output layer that classifies the input.

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**A Recursive Neural Tensor Network?**

RNTN’s are top-down; DBN’s are feed-forward A tensor is a multi-dimensional matrix RNTN’s handle multiplicity Scene and sentence parsing, windows of events Explain the difference between top-down and feed-forward.

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**A Deep Autoencoder? DA’s are good for QA systems like Watson**

They encode lots of data in 30-numeral vectors They do not require pretraining, saving time. They are useful in information retrieval, condensing data, and cryptography. Explain how cosine similarity works in a vector space to retrieve relevant information.

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**A Convolutional Net? ConvNets are asymmetric RBMs.**

ConvNets learns images in patches from a grid They handle 2D and 3D images Explain the symmetry of RBMs, the asymmetry of ConvNets.

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**DeepLearning4J The most complete, production-ready open- source DL lib**

Written in Java: Uses Akka, Hazelcast and Jblas Distributed to run fast, built for non-specialists More features than Theano-based tools Talks to any data source, expects 1 format

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DL4J Serves Industry Nonspecialists can rely on its conventions to solve computationally intensive problems Usability first – DL4J follows ML tool conventions DL4J’s nets work equally well with text, image, sound and time-series DL4J will integrate with Python community through SDKs

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**Vectorized Implementation**

Handles lots of data concurrently. Any number of examples at once, but the code does not change. Faster: Allows for native and GPU execution. One input format: Everything is a matrix. Image, sound, text, time series are vectorized.

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DL4J vs Theano vs Torch DL4J’s distributed nature means problems can be solved by “throwing CPUs at them.” Java ecosystem has GPU integration tools. Theano is not distributed, and Torch7 has not automated its distribution like DL4J. DL4J’s matrix multiplication is native w/ Jblas.

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**What Are Good Applications for DL?**

Recommendation engines (e-commerce) DL can model consumer and user behavior Anomaly detection (fraud, money laundering) DL can recognize early signals of bad outcomes Signal processing (CRM, ERP) DL has predictive capacity with time-series data

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**DL4J Vectorizes & Analyzes Text**

Sentiment analysis Logs News articles Social media Explain the uses of sentiment analysis. Lie detection. Contagion of feeling a la Facebook experiments. Text correlating with other events like stock movements and social unrest.

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DL on Hadoop and AWS Build Your Own Google Brain …

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**Past Work: Parallel Iterative Algos on YARN**

Started with Parallel linear, logistic regression Parallel Neural Networks “Metronome” packages DL4J for Hadoop 100% Java, ASF 2.0 Licensed, on Github

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**MapReduce vs. Parallel Iterative**

Processor Superstep 1 Superstep 2 Input Output Map Map Map Benefits of data flow: runtime can decide where to run tasks and can automatically recover from failures Acyclic data flow is a powerful abstraction, but is not efficient for applications that repeatedly reuse a working set of data: Iterative algorithms (many in machine learning) • No single programming model or framework can excel at every problem; there are always tradeoﬀs between simplicity, expressivity, fault tolerance, performance, etc. Reduce Reduce

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**SGD: Serial vs Parallel**

Worker 1 Master Partial Model Global Model Worker 2 Worker N Split 1 Split 2 Split 3 … Model Training Data POLR: Parallel Online Logistic Regression Talking points: wanted to start with a known tool to the Hadoop community, with expected characteristics Mahout’s SGD is well known, and so we used that as a base point

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**Managing Resources Running through YARN on Hadoop is important**

Allows for workflow scheduling Allows for scheduler oversight Allows the jobs to be first-class citizens on Hadoop And shares resources nicely

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**Parallelizing Deep-Belief Networks**

Two-phase training Pretrain Fine-tune Each phase can do multiple passes over dataset Entire network is averaged at master

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**PreTrain and Lots of Data**

We’re exploring how to better leverage the unsupervised aspects of the PreTrain phase of Deep-Belief Networks Allows for the use of far more unlabeled data Allows us to more easily model the massive amounts of structured data in HDFS

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Results DL4J on Hadoop is fast and accurate

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**DBNs on IR Performance Faster to train.**

Parameter averaging is an automatic form of regularization. Adagrad with IR allows for better generalization of different features and even pacing.

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Scale-out Metrics Batches of records can be processed by as many workers as there are data splits Message passing overhead is minimal Exhibits linear scaling Example: 3x workers, 3x faster learning

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**Usage From Command Line**

Run Deep Learning on Hadoop yarn jar iterativereduce-0.1-SNAPSHOT.jar [props file] Evaluate model ./score_model.sh [props file]

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Handwriting Renders

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Facial Renders

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**What’s Next? GPU integration in the cloud (AWS)**

Better vectorization tooling & data pipelines Move YARN version back over to JBLAS for matrices Spark

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**References “A Fast-Learning Algorithm for Deep Belief Nets”**

Hinton, G. E., Osindero, S. and Teh, Y. - Neural Computation (2006) “Large Scale Distributed Deep Networks” Dean, Corrado, Monga - NIPS (2012) “Visually Debugging Restricted Boltzmann Machine Training with a 3D Example” Yosinski, Lipson - Representation Learning Workshop (2012)

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**Parameter Averaging McDonald, 2010 Langford, 2007**

Distributed Training Strategies for the Structured Perceptron Langford, 2007 Vowpal Wabbit Jeff Dean’s Work on Parallel SGD DownPour SGD Bottou similar to Xu2010 in the 2010 paper

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