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Statue of Liberty National Monument Liberty Enlightening the World.

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Presentation on theme: "Statue of Liberty National Monument Liberty Enlightening the World."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Statue of Liberty National Monument Liberty Enlightening the World

3 Universal Symbol of Freedom Given to people of US by private citizens of France as a gesture of Franco-American friendship Dedicated on October 28, 1886 to commemorate US centennial, democracy and first 100 years of freedom Envisioned as symbol of enlightenment for European countries battling tyranny and oppression – while conveying demands for democracy by French in their country Statue’s ideals have grown – from liberty and freedom from British aristocracy that led American colonists to Revolutionary War … greeting immigrants at Ellis Island … to now welcoming visitors, immigrants, tourists and returning Americans Designated as National Monument by President Calvin Coolidge (Antiquities Act of 1924) Emblem of International Friendship

4 Liberty’s Origins: Fast Facts Official name: Liberty Enlightening the World (La liberté éclairant le monde) – commonly known as Statue of Liberty (Statue de la Liberté) Over dinner in Versailles (1865), Édouard René de Laboulaye (French law professor, politician, anti-slavery activist, Franco- American Union president) proposed monument to American democratic government in contrast to France’s dictator-like emperor – de Laboulaye was close observer of US politics and admirer of US Constitution Statue’s sculptor Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi was member of Franco-American Union (1874) French financed construction by raising more than 1,000,000 francs ($250,000) during public fetes, festivals, exhibitions, charitable lotteries and sale of US-patented Statue miniatures

5 Liberty’s Origins : Fast Facts Americans of all walks of life contributed $300,000 during campaigns run by American Committee for the Statue of Liberty, and newspaper publisher and Hungarian immigrant Joseph Pulitzer to build pedestal and secure location US site personally selected by Bartholdi at Fort Wood on Bedloe's Island in NY Harbor – renamed Liberty Island (1956) Project delays over 21-year completion span included obtaining construction funds and Bartholdi serving in Franco-Prussian War (1870) Attracts 3.5 million visitors annually ‘TorchCam’ and ‘CrownCam’ unveiled October 2011 marks Statue’s 125 years, and allows worldwide interactive viewing of unobstructed live panoramic views of NYC skyline, Hudson River, NY Harbor and Lady Liberty (note: registration required to access cams)TorchCam’ and ‘CrownCam

6 Liberty Rising Neoclassical-inspired sculpture Made of 125 tons of steel and 31 tons of copper from Vigsnes mine off Norway Original architect Eugène Viollet-le-Duc chose economical repoussé metal-working technique using clay and wooden molds by hammering from reverse side to shape and create low relief design 21 Years in the Making Alexandre Gustave Eiffel (designer of Eiffel Tower) replaced Viollet-le-Duc after his death (1879) – and engineered 98 ft inner iron skeletal framework allowing copper skin to move independently and sway during strong harbor winds

7 Liberty Rising Influential American architect Richard Morris Hunt designed pedestal 300+ copper pieces constructed in France and shipped in 214 crates on French ship Isere which nearly sank in rough seas during 27-day journey across Atlantic Ocean Unassembled parts arrived in America on June 17, 1885 but were not assembled for nearly a year until pedestal completion (1886) de Laboulaye dies (1883) without seeing the completion of his vision 21 Years in the Making

8 Liberty Rising Design inspired by Libertas (Roman Goddess of freedom) and 107-ft Colossus of Rhodes, one of 7 Wonders of the Ancient World Face modeled after sculptor's mother Torch symbolizes enlightenment – lighting the way to liberty and freedom Basket design around flame reflects Native American heritage with shapes of spearheads and corn, an American staple crop Keystone-shaped Tabula ansata (a tablet evoking the law) inscribed with July 4, 1776 (in Roman numerals) commemorates signing of US ‘keystone’ document (Declaration of Independence) paying homage to liberty as essential element to a free society Symbolism from Head to Toe

9 Liberty Rising Broken chains and shackle lying at feet symbolize freedom from oppression and servitude – right foot suggests forward motion leaving behind chains and days of enslavement Dressed in Pala and stolla, traditional clothing worn by free people in ancient Greece or Rome Crown references a diadem, a traditional halo-like symbol of the ideals that the Statue stands for are above all 7 rays (or nimbus) atop crown signify the 7 seas and 7 continents of the world – evoking Statue as world citizen, not just US or French citizen 25 windows around crown represent gemstones and heaven’s rays shining over the world Symbolism from Head to Toe

10 Stands 151 ft 1 inch high – or 305 ft with height of pedestal included Top of torch is 305 ft 11 inches high from mean low-water mark Tablet in left hand measures 23 ft 7 inches tall and 13 ft 7 inches wide Weighs 225 tons 354 steps to climb 22 stories inside Statue to look out from crown’s 25 windows (40 viewers at one time) Face and torch-bearing arm first exhibited during Philadelphia’s Centennial Exposition (1876), NY’s Madison Square Park (1876-1882) and at Paris’ Universal Exposition (1878) to raise funds before full design completed Liberty Rising: Fast Facts

11 Completion marked NY's 1 st “ticker-tape” parade when traders threw ticker tape above celebration procession passing by NY Stock Exchange Dedication ceremony presided over by President Grover Cleveland – while serving as NY governor during part of project’s development, he vetoed bill (1884) that would have provided $50,000 for construction Statue’s design holds US Patent D11,023 50 mph winds can cause Statue to sway up to 3 inches and torch up to 6 inches Statue’s green patina color created by copper oxidization during exposure to weather Liberty Rising: Fast Facts

12 Lady Liberty: Mother of Exiles The New Colossus Not like the brazen giant of Greek fame With conquering limbs astride from land to land; Here at our sea-washed, sunset gates shall stand A mighty woman with a torch, whose flame Is the imprisoned lightning, and her name Mother of Exiles. From her beacon-hand Glows world-wide welcome; her mild eyes command The air-bridged harbor that twin cities frame, "Keep, ancient lands, your storied pomp!" cries she With silent lips. "Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, The wretched refuse of your teeming shore, Send these, the homeless, tempest-tossed to me, I lift my lamp beside the golden door!" ~ Emma Lazarus, New York City, 1883 Sonnet inscribed in bronze at base of Lady Liberty Give Me Your Tired … Poor … Huddled Masses Hear Audio

13 Written to raise money for pedestal’s construction (1883) Discovered after Lazarus' death at age 37 (1887) Lazarus also inspired by Colossus of Rhodes, a statue of Greek god Helios, erected to celebrate Island of Rhodes' victory over ruler of Cyprus until its destruction by earthquake in 226 BC In contrast to Franco-American Union, Lazarus concerned by injustices suffered by Eastern European Jews – viewed ‘Mother of Exiles’ as welcoming immigrants leaving their mother countries to create a new life without religious and/or ethnic persecution In 1903, only first 5 lines of sonnet inscribed on pedestal – by 1945, all 14 lines included – 62 years after it was written Irving Berlin included sonnet in Tony award-winning 1949 Broadway musical ‘Miss Liberty’ about sculpting the Statue written by playwright Robert E. Sherwood and inspired by American GIs being shipped overseas The New Colossus: Fast Facts

14 Ellis Island: Gateway to America US erects building on 27.5-acre site off of Manhattan Island in NY Harbor to greet and ‘inspect’ immigrants (1892) Known worldwide as “Gateway to America” during 1892-1924 peak years of immigration Lady Liberty greets more than 12 million immigrants who then passed through Ellis Island (1892-1954) – as many as 5,000 on a busy day About 40% of Americans today can trace family history (ancestry) to at least one person who passed through Port of NY at Ellis Island connecting more of American population than any other US site Coming to Land of Opportunity

15 Ellis Island: Fast Facts Third-class passengers underwent health and legal examinations to ensure they were free from contagious diseases and medical conditions, and were not illegal contract laborers First and second-class ticket-holding passengers usually bypassed inspection process Failing just one exam meant denied entry and return back to homeland – about 2% of arrivals Those passing all exams were allowed to begin new lives in the “land of dreams” During its 62 years in operation, 355 babies were born on the island Immigrant passenger records available to public (Note: many passengers' names were misspelled)Immigrant passenger records

16 Restoring Lady Liberty In 1979, preliminary plans began in anticipation of Statue’s centennial In 1982, President Reagan appointed Lee Iacocca (then Chairman of Chrysler Corporation) to lead public/private partnership between National Park Service/ US Dept of Interior and Statue of Liberty- Ellis Island Foundation to raise $87 million In 1984, United Nations designates Statue as a World Heritage Site evoking international support for restoration effort From Torch to Toes

17 Restoring Lady Liberty 1984-1986 project involved replacing 1,600 wrought iron bands holding copper skin to frame, replacing torch, strengthening crown’s rays, installing elevator and a lobby exhibit On July 4, 1986, re-opens to public during Liberty Weekend attended by President Reagan and French President Francois Mitterand – broadcasted to 1.5 billion people in 51 countries From Torch to Toes $20 million security upgrade was completed during closure after Sept 11, 2001 $27.25 million upgrades underway to 125-year old pedestal and 200-year old fort base as of October 2011

18 Restoring: Fast Facts Restoration also included measures to remedy certain conditions confronting visitors (e.g. long lines, wait time) Copper skin did not need significant repair despite 100 years of weather exposure Torch rebuilt with 24K gold leaf covered copper and patinated before installation – original glass torch on display in lobby Statue’s caretakers over the years: US Lighthouse Board (1886-1902 as first electric lighthouse or navigational aid – “Liberty Lighthouse”), War Department (1902-1933) and National Park Service (1933-present)

19 American Immigrant Wall of Honor Permanent wall featured at Ellis Island in the shadow of Statue bears more than 700,000 names Memorializing names is open to all ethnicities, all arrival years, all entry points and all travel modes into US Common theme is celebration of American immigration Designed by Ralph Appelbaum Associates known for Holocaust Memorial Museum exhibits in Washington, D.C. Only Place to Honor Family Heritage at a US National Monument

20 Wall of Honor: Fast Facts Every nationality represented from every inhabited continent on Earth Names include those who endured forced migration from slavery and earliest settlers of US – the American Indian Some include: Colonel John Washington (great-grandfather of George Washington), Myles Standish (landing at Plymouth Rock on the Mayflower in 1620), Rudolph Valentino, Al Jolson and Harry Houdini

21 References Content and images on this site are believed to be posted within rights according to the U.S. Copyright Fair Use Act (title 17, U.S. Code.), are readily available in various places on Internet and believed to be in public domain. Compiled by Susan Senning, San Mateo CA 2011 Rising & Symbolism – Content & Images Statue of Liberty, nyc-architecture.com http://nyc- architecture.com/LM/LM002-STATUEOFLIBERTY.htm Statue of Liberty, ReasonforLiberty.com - http://reasonforliberty.com/wp- content/uploads/2008/06/44713552_statueofliberty_bbc.jpg http://reasonforliberty.com/wp- content/uploads/2008/06/44713552_statueofliberty_bbc.jpg Statue of Liberty Design Patent, Wikipedia - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:U.S._Patent_D11023.jpeg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:U.S._Patent_D11023.jpeg Eugène Viollet-le-Duc, Wikipedia - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eug%C3%A8ne_Viollet-le-Duc http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eug%C3%A8ne_Viollet-le-Duc Repousse, Wikipedia - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Repouss%C3%A9_and_chasing Alexandre Gustave Eiffel, Wikipedia - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gustave_Eiffel http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gustave_Eiffel Statue of Liberty – Greatbuildings.com - http://www.greatbuildings.com/buildings/Statue_of_Liberty.html http://www.greatbuildings.com/buildings/Statue_of_Liberty.html Statue of Liberty Symbolism - Answers.com http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20080216164808A A62gq6 http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20080216164808A A62gq6 American Immigrant Wall of Honor – Content & Images Wall of Honor, Statueofliberty.org - http://www.statueofliberty.org/Wall_of_honor.html http://www.statueofliberty.org/Wall_of_honor.html Wall of Honor, Wallofhonor.org - http://www.wallofhonor.org/wall_of_honor.asp http://www.wallofhonor.org/wall_of_honor.asp Wall of Honor, The Historical Marker Database - http://www.hmdb.org/marker.asp?marker=49817 http://www.hmdb.org/marker.asp?marker=49817 Photo: Virtual Tourist, Ellis Island - http://members.virtualtourist.com/m/ac69f/cb462/ http://members.virtualtourist.com/m/ac69f/cb462/ Rising & Symbolism – Content & Images Photos: Engineering Gustave Eiffel Master of Iron, CNRS international magazine - http://www2.cnrs.fr/en/1583.htmhttp://www2.cnrs.fr/en/1583.htm Richard Morris Hunt Pedestal, World News, Prospect Park Brooklyn - http://wn.com/Prospect_Park_%28Brooklyn%29http://wn.com/Prospect_Park_%28Brooklyn%29 From the Vault Lady Liberty, Cityreliquary.org – http://www.cityreliquary.org/from-the-vault-lady-liberty/ http://www.cityreliquary.org/from-the-vault-lady-liberty/ Inside Crown, Historic American Buildings Survey/Historic American Engineering Record, Library of Congress - http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/habs_haer/ http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/habs_haer/ Broken Chains – National Park Service - http://www.nps.gov/stli/photosmultimedia/photogallery.htm http://www.nps.gov/stli/photosmultimedia/photogallery.htm Tablet & Torch - Statue of Liberty National Monument, Jet Lowe, 1985 Stola and Palla, National Park Service, Celebrating a Symbol Teacher Packet - http://www.nps.gov/stli/forteachers/upload/STLI-teacher-packet- small.pdf http://www.nps.gov/stli/forteachers/upload/STLI-teacher-packet- small.pdf The New Colossus – Content & Images Emma Lazarus, LibertyStatePark.com - http://www.libertystatepark.com/emma.htm http://www.libertystatepark.com/emma.htm Lazarus Sonnet, American Studies at the University of Virginia - http://xroads.virginia.edu/~cap/liberty/lazarus.html http://xroads.virginia.edu/~cap/liberty/lazarus.html Colossus of Rhodes, Wikipedia - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colossus_of_Rhodes http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colossus_of_Rhodes Sonnet, StatueofLibertyNow.com - http://www.statueoflibertynow.com/statue-of-liberty-poem.html http://www.statueoflibertynow.com/statue-of-liberty-poem.html Audio: History & Culture, National Park Service - http://www.nps.gov/stli/historyculture/index.htm http://www.nps.gov/stli/historyculture/index.htm Photo: Emma Lazarus, Wikipedia - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emma_Lazarus http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emma_Lazarus Ellis Island – Content & Images Statue of Liberty-Ellis Island Foundation - http://www.ellisisland.org/ http://www.ellisisland.org/ Teacher Resources – Statistics, Scholastic.com - http://teacher.scholastic.com/activities/immigration/facts.htm http://teacher.scholastic.com/activities/immigration/facts.htm Passenger Records - www.ellisislandrecords.comwww.ellisislandrecords.com Photos: National Park Service - http://www.nps.gov/elis//images/20060927121319.jpg http://www.nps.gov/elis//images/20060927121319.jpg Welcome to the Land of Freedom, Ellis Island and Immigration, ca. 1880-1920, From the Collections of the Library of Congress - http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/cph.3b49155/ http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/cph.3b49155/

22 References - continue Restoration – Content & Images Statue of Liberty Restoration, Statueofliberty.net - http://statueofliberty.net/historical-facts/restoration/http://statueofliberty.net/historical-facts/restoration/ Statue of Liberty-Ellis Island Foundation - http://www.statueofliberty.org/Foundation.htmlhttp://www.statueofliberty.org/Foundation.html Statue of Liberty Renovations, CBC News 08/11/11- http://www.cbc.ca/news/arts/story/2011/08/11/statue-of-liberty-renovations.htmlhttp://www.cbc.ca/news/arts/story/2011/08/11/statue-of-liberty-renovations.html Restoration of Statue of Liberty 1984-1986, Wikipedia - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Restoration_of_the_Statue_of_Liberty_1984-1986http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Restoration_of_the_Statue_of_Liberty_1984-1986 Photos: Popcultureaffidavit.wordpress.com - http://popcultureaffidavit.files.wordpress.com/2011/07/libertyscaffold.jpghttp://popcultureaffidavit.files.wordpress.com/2011/07/libertyscaffold.jpg Restoration Plans/Scheme For Teachers, National Park Service - http://www.nps.gov/elis/forteachers/upload/6-8-Statue-of-Liberty- Restoration.pdfhttp://www.nps.gov/elis/forteachers/upload/6-8-Statue-of-Liberty- Restoration.pdf Content and images on this site are believed to be posted within rights according to the U.S. Copyright Fair Use Act (title 17, U.S. Code.), are readily available in various places on Internet and believed to be in public domain. Compiled by Susan Senning, San Mateo CA 2011


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