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Getting to Know Boro. History of Borosilicate Developed by Freidrich Otto Schott – German chemist and glass technologist Migrated to U.S. by Schott employees.

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Presentation on theme: "Getting to Know Boro. History of Borosilicate Developed by Freidrich Otto Schott – German chemist and glass technologist Migrated to U.S. by Schott employees."— Presentation transcript:

1 Getting to Know Boro

2 History of Borosilicate Developed by Freidrich Otto Schott – German chemist and glass technologist Migrated to U.S. by Schott employees who joined Corning which led to making Pyrex in 1915 Comprised mainly of 80% silica and 13% boron – Melts at a higher temperature and has a shorter working time – Less dense than soda lime which makes it more durable Primarily used for lab ware or applications where resistance to acids and heat are important – Glass of choice for pipe-making industry

3 History (cont’d) John Burton (johnburtonglass.com) – Developed formulas for hand- mixed striking colors - Glass - Hand Blown, Sculptured And Colored: Philosophy and Method Bob Snodgrass (snodgrass.net) – Father of Fuming – Color adoption through fuming techniques Preforms (Borostix) – Used as semi-conductors (cathode gunmounts in color TVs) – By 1997 there were 2 dozen colors

4 History (cont’d) Glass Alchemy introduced “crayon” series in 2000 – Required outside-of-the-box thinking to develop – Glass is produced in small pots or crucibles that hold 50 pounds of color pounds per year – Beginning of the 33 COE Glass Revolution

5 Boro Manufactuers Glass Alchemy (glassalchemy.com) – Family business started in 2000 – Rod, frit, and tubing Momka (momkasglass.com) – 37 years – Sofia Bulgaria – Rod Trautman Art Glass (taglass.com) – Mid-1980s by Paul Trautman – World’s first commercial operation (Northstar) – Sold Northstar in 2002 – Rod (also manufactures reactive soft glass) Northstar (northstarglass.com) – Founded in 1980 – Rod, frit, and tubing – Users manual on Wale Apparatus available for download

6 How to Work with Boro Always work with a neutral flame – Helps maintain consistency and vibrancy – Eliminates cracking of chrome colors – Save reduction for the final step No flame will be neutral from base to tip – All torches have a different neutral zone – Area closest to torch face tends to be reducing – do not work close! – Always work mid-flame

7 How to Test for Neutral Flame Heat a rod heavy with silver until it glows a dull orange; remove from flame and cool – Does not appear to change color – you have a neutral flame – Light sky blue or metallic sheen – reduction flame so propane needs to be decreased

8 Understanding Striking Any color change in the glass due to heat treatment – Copper and silver glasses have different reactions – Crystal growth Function of time and temperature In torch flame or kiln Leave in kiln – Several annealing runs can change color

9 Polychromatic Colors Silver-based formulations – Worked at hot temps to create, form and assemble the elements – Anneal at 1075 to 1125 degrees F Allows growth of crystals Growth process – Orange, ruby red, red-purple, purple, blue then green

10 Polychromatic Colors (cont’d) Core temp drop and reheat only surface – Silver crystals grow faster in the top layer Uneven heat – Creates a “veil” of color (or haze) – Haze needs to be removed because it will mask beauty of the color Create different patterns – Twisting rod – Cool paddle – Pinch with pliers – Clear frit

11 Polychromatic Colors (cont’d) Luster to surface – Heat to for 20 seconds Neutral – luster will be silver Bushy – luster will be multi-colored Polish to enhance brightness Not all colors are created equal

12 Torch Size and Type for Boro Factors to consider – Size of torch – Surface-mix* (gases mix outside of torch) or pre-mix (gases mix inside of torch) – What you are making Cost and Long term needs 10 psi propane, 10psi - 20psi oxygen – Smaller torches run at half Concentrator or Tank – 5 LPM (liters per minute) for boro – Desired results will affect decision

13 Pro and Cons Pro’s – Not as susceptible to cracking problems even when cooled quickly without kilning – Rod of glass can be directly inserted into heat without having to be slowly warmed – Can be used for large sculptures in which a small section can be worked without the entire piece being hot – Can be reheated and reworked – Better for blown work Con’s – Very few “crayon” or WYSIWYG colors like soft glass – Individual colors can be expensive – Torch and oxygen may need to be upgraded

14 Resources A Beginner’s Guide to Glass Alchemy Colored Borosilicate by Drew Fritts (frittsartglass.com/marbles/articles/Borosilicate.pdf) Northstar Glassworks (www.northstarglass.com)www.northstarglass.com – User’s Manual (copy online at Yahoo group page) Glass Alchemy – List of colors on website have working tips for each color The Melting Pot (www.talkglass.com)www.talkglass.com Glassline Magazine forum (www.glassline.net)www.glassline.net Lampwork etc.

15 Boro is Glass!


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