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“Lighting the Way to Nano-Technology through Innovation” P.N.Prasad International Joint Research Center for Nanophotonics and Biophotonics: Meeting the.

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Presentation on theme: "“Lighting the Way to Nano-Technology through Innovation” P.N.Prasad International Joint Research Center for Nanophotonics and Biophotonics: Meeting the."— Presentation transcript:

1 “Lighting the Way to Nano-Technology through Innovation” P.N.Prasad International Joint Research Center for Nanophotonics and Biophotonics: Meeting the 21 st Century Technical Challenges Century Technical Challenges

2 The Institute for Lasers, Photonics and Biophotonics  Multidisciplinary Frontier Research in Lasers, Photonics and Biophotonics  Extensive Research Facility ($26 million)  Education and Training Funded by NSF  Industrial Collaboration : Co-development, Industrial training, advanced testing  Technology Transfer : 7 spin off companies (LPT, ACIS, Hybrid Technologies, NanoBiotix, Nanoaxis, Hangzhou Mingyue Laser Optoelectronics Co and Solexant Inc.)  Discussion with RUSNANO on a joint venture Nanobiotech company in Russia  International collaboration : Joint research, Student exchange, Joint workshop Niagara Falls Nanotechnology at ILPB Multifunctional Nanomaterials MetamaterialsNanoassebles and nano/microfabrication Health care Energy Information technology Chem/Bio technology

3 January 2008: Brazil February 2008: Qatar, India October 2008: Philippines May 2008: China September 2008: Romania November 2008: China, Korea December 2008: Russia ILPB Nanotechnology Network Collaboration Visits (2008-2009) 2008

4 February 2009: Dubai March 2009: Malta, Germany August 2009: Ireland May 2009: China July 2009: Italy, Russia September 2009: China, Korea August 2009: Brazil September 2009: Chile ILPB Nanotechnology Network Collaboration Visits (2008-2009) January 2008: Brazil February 2008: Qatar, India October 2008: Philippines May 2008: China September 2008: Romania November 2008: China, Korea December 2008: Russia 20082009

5 Impact of Nanotechnology: Subject of Global Priorities Energy Health Care Chemical And Biodefense Environment Information Technology

6 Global Government Funding in 2008: 7.849 B$ US: 1.821 B$ China: 0.510 B$ Russia: 1.076 B$EU: 2.440 B$ India: 0.050 B$ Korea: 0.350 B$ Japan: 1.128 B$ Rest of World: 0.510 B$ NANOTECHNOLOGY: A GLOBAL PRIORITY

7 NANOPHOTONICS Nanoscale Optical Interactions and Excitation Dynamics: Manipulation and Manifestations  Size Dependent Optical Transitions  Novel Optical Resonances  Nano-control of Excitations Dynamics  Manipulation of Light Propagation  Nanoscopic Field Enhancement Solar Energy, Information Technology, Environmental Monitoring, Healthcare Technologies for global priorities:

8 NANOPHOTONICS FROM MEDIEVAL AGES (Stained Glass Window in Notre Dame de Paris: Rose Window) Metallic nanoparticle doped glasses

9 Nanophotonics in the Marketplace * Nanoparticle u.v. absorber in sunscreen lotions: - TiO 2, ZnO * Semiconductor Lasers (Laser pointers, Laser printers, DVD players) - Quantum well lasers * Solid State Lasers for Chemical Sensing - Quantum cascade lasers * Nanoplasmonic Home-pregnancy kit NANOPHOTONICS: A Dream or Reality?

10 NANOPHOTONICS Dendrimers: Control of excitation dynamics QDs: Size-dependent absorption/emission Photonic crystals: Manipulation of light propagation Nanotrapping: Subwavelength control of field gradients Plasmonic arrays: Field enhancement, Novel optical resonances

11 Nanomaterials: Colloidal quantum dots, High dielectric oxides, core-shell semiconductors, nanostructured electrodes, nanowires and conductive polymers all contribute to efficiency of PV, thermoelectric, battery, and capacitor subsystems. Nanomaterials enable appropriate structures and geometries to achieve maximum results. Portable Renewable Energy Device Solar Energy Abundant energy source only available during day Advanced Storage High performance battery and supercapacitor systems Waste heat Electricity Thermoelectrics High Z nanostructured thin films Electricity

12 Nanotechnology for Efficient Harvesting of Solar Energy Current technologies need improvement in: IR conversion UV conversion Carrier multiplication by UV absorption in quantum dots Bi- exciton Hot Exciton ħωcħωc S.J. Kim, P.N.Prasad et al, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031107 (2008) Nanophotonics solution: QD with tunable absorption Photon Harvesting by IR absorbing QDs Facilitated Charge separation By conjugation to SWNT Enhanced charge collection by high mobility organics Quantum dots for harvesting IR photons Cho, Prasad et al.,Adv. Mater. 19, 232 (2007)

13 Light Harvesting by Nature Vision Photosynthesis in plants Vitamin D Photosynthesis

14 1000 BC India, China and Egypt use light to treat skin disease 400 BC Greeks use Heliotherapy (whole body light exposure) 1900 Hematoporphyrin discovered 1975 RPCI reports first cancer cure using PDT 1993 Photofrin licensed as first photosensitizer for Basal cell cancer 1980-1985 Laser technology advances PDT ||||||| Photodynamic Therapy Historical Milestones | Harnessing Light for Therapy

15 Digital Finger Pulse Oximeter Light Absorption Spectrometer Negative Positive Pregnancy Test Current Technologies in Harnessing Light for Healthcare Diagnostics Flow Cytometry

16 Harnessing Light for Healthcare: Biophotonics Optical Activation and Monitoring of Therapy Laser Tissue Engineering Laser Tweezers and Scissors Bioimaging Biosensors Optical Diagnostics UB-ILPB Biophotonics Research Program

17 Unique properties at nanoscale Multimodality/ Multiplexibility Controlled release Targeted delivery NANOTECHNOLOGY: Impact on Health Care

18 NANOMEDICINE Applications In Vivo Diagnostics Theranostics: ‘see and treat’ Nanotherapeutics drug/gene delivery In Vitro Diagnostics Nanomedicine – New Era in Personalized Medicine

19 Obesity Addictions Aging Current and Future Health Care Challenges Infectious Diseases Cancer Genetic Disorders

20 Nanotechnology- based In Vitro Diagnostics TORCH* Infections Malaria Influenza (Swine Flu) Tuberculosis HIV, HPV, Hepatitis B Meningitis *TORCH: Toxoplasmosis, Other agents (eg. Chicken pox, human parvovirus), Rubella, Cytomegaloviruse, Herpes simplex virus or HIV Collaboration with Center for Disease Control, Atlanta Our approach: Quantum Dot Nanoprobes for protein detection using microbead capture with flow cytometry

21 In-Vivo Diagnostics Multimodal Nanoplatforms for Medical Imaging PET 124 I labeled-ORMOSIL MRI Gd-doped Nanophosphor Optical Gd-doped Nanophosphor M. Nyk, P.N.Prasad et al, Nano Letters, 2008, 8(11):3834; R. Kumar, P.N.Prasad et al. Avd. Func. Mater. (In Press, 2008) SPECT/CT 125 I labeled-ORMOSIL

22 Cancer nanotechnology Targeted delivery ● Controlled release ● Multimodal therapy ● Real time monitoring With Uttam Sinha, M.D. Univ. of Southern California Gene Therapy Head & Neck, Lung cancer With McMaster Univ. Neutron capture therapy Brain, prostate cancer With Anirban Maitra, M.D Johns Hopkins Univ. Medicine Chemotherapy Pancreatic, Prostate cancer Magnetic therapy US patent No. 6,514,481 Nanoclinic Breast & Oral cancer With Ravi K Pandey, Ph.D. Roswell Park Cancer Institute Photodynamic therapy Cervical, skin cancer

23 Gene Therapy using ORMOSIL and GNR Nanoparticles Stroke Stimulation of neuron repair/replacement (neurogenesis) using gene upregulation Infectious Disease Gene silencing to modulate primary influenza infection and secondary bacteria pneumonia Lung Injury Increase gene expression after injury to prevent secondary bacteria infection Chronic Pain Gene silencing of neuron signaling pathways involved in chronic pain Drug Addiction Gene silencing of signaling cascade involved in addiction process Obesity Modulation of energy intake using gene silencing Asthma Gene silencing of enzymes causing lung remodeling Huntingtons Disease Generation of mouse model using gene insertion

24 Nanoplex Gene delivery using nanoparticles Electrostatic gene condensation Efficient cellular entry Non-toxicity High gene expression/silencing Gene Augmentation e.g. CFTR gene in Cystic Fibrosis Gene Silencing e.g. Oncogene in Cancer

25 Nanotechnology For Information Communication: Reconfigurable Photonic Crystals 3D Plasmonic Guiding and Routing Network Displays (Organic Displays: OLED, PLED) Storage: 3D Two-Photon Storage Holographic Storage Processing: Electro-optic Processing Using Supramolecular Structures and Nanocomposites Electrically and Optically Switchable Photonic Crystals

26 Nanotechnology for Environment Rapid in-field and remote monitoring Nanoporous membrane technology for decontamination and purification Nanoparticle based capture platform Nanostructured sensor and device platforms

27 Nanotechnology for Chem/Bio Defense Rapid in-field and remote detection Nanomedicine based rapid medical response Nanostructured capture and detoxification platform Rapid dissemination of information Nanostructured sensor platforms

28 Nanotechnology A new Multidisciplinary Scientific Research Frontier Ripe for Technological Innovation and Commercial Opportunities Destined to create Immense Societal Impact


30 Acknowledgements  Prof. A.Cartwright  Dr. K.Tramposch  Dr. E.J. Bergey  Dr. G.S.He  Dr. H. Pudavar  Dr. K.T. Yong  Dr. T. Ohulchanskyy  Dr. I. Roy  Dr. S. Kim  Mr. J. Qian  Dr. H. Ding  Dr. A. Kachynski  Dr. A. Kuzmin  Dr. A. Pliss  Dr. A. Bonoiu  Dr. D. Bharali  Dr. R.Kumar  Dr. S. Mahajan  Dr. J.W. Seo  Mr. S.J. Kim  Mr. S.S. Kim AFSOR (Dr. Charles Lee) National Cancer Institute National Science Foundation AFRL (Dr. Augustine Urbas) OISHEI FOUNDATION Outside Collaborators  Prof. R. Pandey  Prof. A. Oseroff  Prof. M. Stachowiak  Prof. K.S. Lee  Prof. M. Samoc  Prof. P. Knight  Dr. P. Wallace  Dr. A. Maitra  Dr. S. Schwartz  Dr. U. Sinha  Dr. R. Masood

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