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“Lighting the Way to Nano-Technology through Innovation”

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Presentation on theme: "“Lighting the Way to Nano-Technology through Innovation”"— Presentation transcript:

1 “Lighting the Way to Nano-Technology through Innovation”
International Joint Research Center for Nanophotonics and Biophotonics: Meeting the 21st Century Technical Challenges P.N.Prasad “Lighting the Way to Nano-Technology through Innovation” The Institute for Lasers, Photonics and Biophotonics

2 The Institute for Lasers, Photonics and Biophotonics
Niagara Falls The Institute for Lasers, Photonics and Biophotonics Multidisciplinary Frontier Research in Lasers, Photonics and Biophotonics Extensive Research Facility ($26 million) Education and Training Funded by NSF Industrial Collaboration : Co-development, Industrial training, advanced testing Technology Transfer : 7 spin off companies (LPT, ACIS, Hybrid Technologies, NanoBiotix, Nanoaxis, Hangzhou Mingyue Laser Optoelectronics Co and Solexant Inc.) Discussion with RUSNANO on a joint venture Nanobiotech company in Russia International collaboration : Joint research, Student exchange, Joint workshop Multifunctional Nanomaterials Metamaterials Nanoassebles and nano/microfabrication Health care Energy Information technology Chem/Bio technology Nanotechnology at ILPB The Institute for Lasers, Photonics and Biophotonics

3 ILPB Nanotechnology Network Collaboration Visits (2008-2009)
January 2008: Brazil February 2008: Qatar, India October 2008: Philippines May 2008: China November 2008: China, Korea September 2008: Romania December 2008: Russia

4 ILPB Nanotechnology Network Collaboration Visits (2008-2009)
January 2008: Brazil February 2009: Dubai August 2009: Ireland February 2008: Qatar, India October 2008: Philippines March 2009: Malta, Germany August 2009: Brazil May 2008: China November 2008: China, Korea May 2009: China September 2009: China, Korea September 2008: Romania December 2008: Russia July 2009: Italy, Russia September 2009: Chile

5 Information Technology
Energy Health Care Impact of Nanotechnology: Subject of Global Priorities Chemical And Biodefense Information Technology Environment

6 Global Government Funding in 2008: 7.849 B$
NANOTECHNOLOGY: A GLOBAL PRIORITY US: B$ Russia: B$ EU: B$ Korea: B$ Global Government Funding in 2008: 7.849 B$ Japan: B$ India: B$ China: B$ Rest of World: 0.510 B$ The Institute for Lasers, Photonics and Biophotonics

7 NANOPHOTONICS Nanoscale Optical Interactions and Excitation Dynamics:
Manipulation and Manifestations Size Dependent Optical Transitions Novel Optical Resonances Nano-control of Excitations Dynamics Manipulation of Light Propagation Nanoscopic Field Enhancement Technologies for global priorities: Solar Energy, Information Technology, Environmental Monitoring, Healthcare

8 NANOPHOTONICS FROM MEDIEVAL AGES Metallic nanoparticle doped glasses
(Stained Glass Window in Notre Dame de Paris: Rose Window) Metallic nanoparticle doped glasses

9 NANOPHOTONICS: A Dream or Reality?
 Nanophotonics in the Marketplace    *   Nanoparticle u.v. absorber in sunscreen lotions: -       TiO2, ZnO * Semiconductor Lasers (Laser pointers, Laser printers, DVD players) -        Quantum well lasers * Solid State Lasers for Chemical Sensing - Quantum cascade lasers * Nanoplasmonic Home-pregnancy kit

10 NANOPHOTONICS Plasmonic arrays: Field enhancement,
Novel optical resonances Dendrimers: Control of excitation dynamics QDs: Size-dependent absorption/emission Photonic crystals: Manipulation of light propagation Nanotrapping: Subwavelength control of field gradients

11 Portable Renewable Energy Device
Solar Energy Abundant energy source only available during day Advanced Storage High performance battery and supercapacitor systems Waste heat Electricity Thermoelectrics High Z nanostructured thin films • Nanomaterials: Colloidal quantum dots, High dielectric oxides, core-shell semiconductors, nanostructured electrodes, nanowires and conductive polymers all contribute to efficiency of PV, thermoelectric, battery, and capacitor subsystems. Nanomaterials enable appropriate structures and geometries to achieve maximum results. 11

12 Nanotechnology for Efficient Harvesting of Solar Energy
Current technologies need improvement in: IR conversion UV conversion Nanophotonics solution: QD with tunable absorption Photon Harvesting by IR absorbing QDs Facilitated Charge separation By conjugation to SWNT Enhanced charge collection by high mobility organics Quantum dots for harvesting IR photons Cho, Prasad et al.,Adv. Mater. 19, 232 (2007) ANC Carrier multiplication by UV absorption in quantum dots Bi- exciton Hot Exciton ħωc S.J. Kim, P.N.Prasad et al, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, (2008) The Institute for Lasers, Photonics and Biophotonics

13 Light Harvesting by Nature
Vision Photosynthesis in plants Vitamin D Photosynthesis

14 Harnessing Light for Therapy
Photodynamic Therapy Historical Milestones | | | | | | | | 1000 BC India, China and Egypt use light to treat skin disease 400 BC Greeks use Heliotherapy (whole body light exposure) 1900 Hematoporphyrin discovered 1975 RPCI reports first cancer cure using PDT Laser technology advances PDT 1993 Photofrin licensed as first photosensitizer for Basal cell cancer

15 Current Technologies in Harnessing Light for Healthcare Diagnostics
Absorption Spectrometer Digital Finger Pulse Oximeter Negative Positive                                  Pregnancy Test Flow Cytometry

16 Optical Activation and
UB-ILPB Biophotonics Research Program Bioimaging Biosensors Harnessing Light for Healthcare: Biophotonics Laser Tissue Engineering Laser Tweezers and Scissors Optical Diagnostics Optical Activation and Monitoring of Therapy

17 NANOTECHNOLOGY: Impact on Health Care
Unique properties at nanoscale Multimodality/ Multiplexibility NANOTECHNOLOGY: Impact on Health Care Targeted delivery Controlled release The Institute for Lasers, Photonics and Biophotonics

18 Nanomedicine – New Era in Personalized Medicine
In Vitro Diagnostics In Vivo Diagnostics NANOMEDICINE Applications Nanotherapeutics drug/gene delivery Theranostics: ‘see and treat’ The Institute for Lasers, Photonics and Biophotonics 18

19 Health Care Challenges
Aging Obesity Infectious Diseases Current and Future Health Care Challenges Genetic Disorders Cancer Addictions The Institute for Lasers, Photonics and Biophotonics 19

20 Nanotechnology-based In Vitro Diagnostics
TORCH* Infections Malaria Influenza (Swine Flu) Tuberculosis HIV, HPV, Hepatitis B Meningitis *TORCH: Toxoplasmosis, Other agents (eg. Chicken pox, human parvovirus), Rubella, Cytomegaloviruse, Herpes simplex virus or HIV Our approach: Quantum Dot Nanoprobes for protein detection using microbead capture with flow cytometry Collaboration with Center for Disease Control, Atlanta

21 Gd-doped Nanophosphor Gd-doped Nanophosphor
MRI Gd-doped Nanophosphor Optical Gd-doped Nanophosphor In-Vivo Diagnostics Multimodal Nanoplatforms for Medical Imaging PET 124I labeled-ORMOSIL SPECT/CT 125I labeled-ORMOSIL M. Nyk, P.N.Prasad et al, Nano Letters, 2008, 8(11):3834; R. Kumar, P.N.Prasad et al. Avd. Func. Mater. (In Press, 2008) The Institute for Lasers, Photonics and Biophotonics

22 Cancer nanotechnology
Magnetic therapy US patent No. 6,514,481 Nanoclinic Breast & Oral cancer With Anirban Maitra, M.D Johns Hopkins Univ. Medicine Chemotherapy Pancreatic, Prostate cancer With Uttam Sinha, M.D. Univ. of Southern California Gene Therapy Head & Neck, Lung cancer Cancer nanotechnology Targeted delivery ● Controlled release ● Multimodal therapy ● Real time monitoring With Ravi K Pandey, Ph.D. Roswell Park Cancer Institute Photodynamic therapy Cervical, skin cancer With McMaster Univ. Neutron capture therapy Brain, prostate cancer The Institute for Lasers, Photonics and Biophotonics

23 Gene Therapy using ORMOSIL and GNR Nanoparticles
Huntingtons Disease Generation of mouse model using gene insertion Lung Injury Increase gene expression after injury to prevent secondary bacteria infection Drug Addiction Gene silencing of signaling cascade involved in addiction process Chronic Pain Gene silencing of neuron signaling pathways involved in chronic pain Infectious Disease Gene silencing to modulate primary influenza infection and secondary bacteria pneumonia Gene Therapy using ORMOSIL and GNR Nanoparticles Obesity Modulation of energy intake using gene silencing Asthma Gene silencing of enzymes causing lung remodeling Stroke Stimulation of neuron repair/replacement (neurogenesis) using gene upregulation The Institute for Lasers, Photonics and Biophotonics

24 Gene delivery using nanoparticles
Electrostatic gene condensation Efficient cellular entry Non-toxicity High gene expression/silencing Nanoplex Gene Augmentation e.g. CFTR gene in Cystic Fibrosis Gene Silencing e.g. Oncogene in Cancer The Institute for Lasers, Photonics and Biophotonics

25 Nanotechnology For Information
Communication: Reconfigurable Photonic Crystals 3D Plasmonic Guiding and Routing Network Processing: Electro-optic Processing Using Supramolecular Structures and Nanocomposites Electrically and Optically Switchable Photonic Crystals Nanotechnology For Information Storage: 3D Two-Photon Storage Holographic Storage Displays (Organic Displays: OLED, PLED) The Institute for Lasers, Photonics and Biophotonics

26 Rapid in-field and remote Nanostructured sensor
monitoring Nanostructured sensor and device platforms Nanotechnology for Environment Nanoparticle based capture platform Nanoporous membrane technology for decontamination and purification The Institute for Lasers, Photonics and Biophotonics 26

27 Nanotechnology for Chem/Bio Defense
Rapid in-field and remote detection Nanostructured sensor platforms Rapid dissemination of information Nanotechnology for Chem/Bio Defense Nanostructured capture and detoxification platform Nanomedicine based rapid medical response The Institute for Lasers, Photonics and Biophotonics 27

28 Nanotechnology A new Multidisciplinary Scientific Research Frontier
Ripe for Technological Innovation and Commercial Opportunities Destined to create Immense Societal Impact The Institute for Lasers, Photonics and Biophotonics

29

30 Acknowledgements AFSOR (Dr. Charles Lee) National Cancer Institute
Prof. A.Cartwright Dr. K.Tramposch Dr. E.J. Bergey Dr. G.S.He Dr. H. Pudavar Dr. K.T. Yong Dr. T. Ohulchanskyy Dr. I. Roy Dr. S. Kim Mr. J. Qian Dr. H. Ding Dr. A. Kachynski Dr. A. Kuzmin Dr. A. Pliss Dr. A. Bonoiu Dr. D. Bharali Dr. R.Kumar Dr. S. Mahajan Dr. J.W. Seo Mr. S.J. Kim Mr. S.S. Kim Outside Collaborators Prof. R. Pandey Prof. A. Oseroff Prof. M. Stachowiak Prof. K.S. Lee Prof. M. Samoc Prof. P. Knight Dr. P. Wallace Dr. A. Maitra Dr. S. Schwartz Dr. U. Sinha Dr. R. Masood AFSOR (Dr. Charles Lee) National Cancer Institute National Science Foundation AFRL (Dr. Augustine Urbas) OISHEI FOUNDATION The Institute for Lasers, Photonics and Biophotonics 30


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