Presentation on theme: "The Treaty of Versailles was the peace treaty at the end of World War I that profoundly affected Germany.World War I"— Presentation transcript:
The Treaty of Versailles was the peace treaty at the end of World War I that profoundly affected Germany.World War I
It required Germany and its allies to accept full responsibility for causing the war by making territorial concessions and paying reparations.
Germany Prior to Hitler Germany was devastated economically and morally in the aftermath of its terrible losses from WWI and horrendous consequences of the Versailles Treaty. knoxcotn.org/.../wwi/ book/photos/devastation.jpg
Hitler’s Rise to Power January, Hitler elected Chancellor The Nazis had run on a platform of fervent anti- terrorism, insisting that Germany was on the verge of a Communist revolution. rcolor2.jpg
February, The Reichstag fire, a pivotal event in the establishment of Nazi Germany, began as a deliberately set fire blamed on Communist “terrorists”; provided Hitler with the rationale he needed to win people over. the Reichstag (Germany’s Parliament).
March, Passage of the Enabling Act Hitler insisted that the only way to stop the communist revolution (now proven by the Reichstag fire) was to pass the Enabling Act - a special power to pass laws by decree, without the involvement of the Reichstag (Germany’s Parliament). This act provide Naziism with dictatorial powers. rcolor2.jpg
The Enabling Act provided authority to roundup of political opponents of the Nazi regime in 1933; so the new government went politically unopposed.
It also served as justification of the nationwide boycott of Jewish stores on April 1, 1933.
A Nazi party Rally at Nuremberg
German military police march in review at Nuremberg in FPG International German military police march in review at Nuremberg in 1935.
Males ages 18 to 25 were compelled to work for the Nazi state in road building, land reclamation, and farm work. Reich Labor Service march- Nuremberg, 1935
Hitler reviews 35,000 Storm Troopers, 1936.
"Youth Serves the Führer” is the title of this Hitler Youth recruiting poster. This organization mobilized boys into the National Socialist community through sport and hiking, and later prepared them for combat in war.
German sports imagery in the 1930s promoted the myth of Aryan racial superiority and physical power.
The German national soccer The Nazi League of German Girls team giving the Nazi salute. (a branch of the Hitler Youth), trained girls as physically fit Posters, September 1937, 1934 future mothers and homemakers.
Thousands of girls execute rhythmic calisthenics- Nuremberg, 1934.
"German sport has only one task: to strengthen the character of the German people, imbuing it with the fighting spirit and steadfast camaraderie necessary in the struggle for its existence.” -- Joseph Goebbels, Minister of Propaganda, 1933.
carrying the Olympic torch
The establishment of "Olympic training courses" for Jewish athletes in 1935 was a sham, part of the Nazis' effort to deflect international criticism about discrimination against Jewish athletes.
Avery Brundage, president of the American Olympic Committee, opposed a boycott, arguing that politics had no place in sport.
An athlete salutes Hitler during a sports demonstration.
Jesse Owens and others favored participating in the Berlin Olympics because they felt that their victories would serve to repudiate Nazi racial theories. Owens won 4 gold medals, earning status as the most successful athlete at the 1936 Olympics.
German Minister of Propaganda, Joseph Goebbels, proclaimed Schmeling's 1936 victory over Joe Lewis a triumph for Germany and Hitlerism. In a 1938 rematch, Louis defeated Schmeling in one round.
A German elementary school class in racial hygiene.
The September 1935 Nuremberg laws deprived Jews of citizenship and prohibited sexual relations and intermarriage.
Some 500 teenagers-- pejoratively called the "Rhineland bastards"-- were forcibly sterilized after 1937 as part of Nazi policy to "purify” the German population.
At the same time, "Jim Crow" laws barred African Americans from access to employment and to public places such as restaurants and hotels.
During the 1930s prejudice toward Jews was widespread in American culture. Rate card from a hotel prohibits Jewish patronage. Actively fueling extreme antisemitism, the "radio priest" Father Charles Coughlin maligned Jews on his national program.
The “Fuhrer Principle”- a system of belief in a hierarchy of leaders, where every leader (fuhrer, in German) has absolute responsibility for those below (even within the Church), thereby legitimizing the demand for absolute obedience. Each fuhrer answers only to his superiors, and Hitler (on top) as the ultimate authority.
“Fuhrer” The supreme fuhrer, Adolf Hitler, was perceived by many Christians to be a new Messiah and prophet. His ‘racial consciousness’ was considered to be a “revelation” alongside of the Bible. These acknowledged that, apart from God’s word, the Truth was to be found in the Nazi party; particularly that of racial purity.
The Church -as perceived by Nazis
In reality - Many Catholics understood themselves to be subject to the Pope (& Canon Law); but believed that they could not disobey their government authorities. (Romans 13) “Confessing Christians” understood themselves to be subject only to God with “God as my Fuhrer.” This was a risk and, as Bonhoeffer described it, “the cost of Discipleship.”
Early on, Hitler established formal relations with the Catholic Church through the Reich Concordat in (other “Vatican Concordats” were signed with Mussolini, Stalin) os/holocaust/reichconcordat.htm os/holocaust/reichconcordat.htm Eugenio Pacelli (future Pope Pius XII) - signatore of the Concordat
The Concordat allowed the papacy to impose the new laws on the German clergy, and gained special privileges for Catholic schools and organizations.
2 Popes during Hitler’s rule Pope Pius XI Pope Pius XII (formerly known as Eugenio Pacelli)
The lack of opposition by Pius XII toward Hitler’s policies has been credited to his fear of persecution of the Catholic minority by the Nazis.
Protestant “National Reich Church”-- “Deutsche Christen” begun in 1933 to support Nazi ideology reflected the Nazi vision of a "positive Christianity," intended to unite Germany's split Christianity served as a hopeful and logical religious system.
The ”National Reich Church" (Deutsche Christen) march to a worship service at the Berlin Cathedral while SS guards stand at attention.
The Confessing Church a Christian resistance movement to the National Reich Church and Nazi ideology was forced to go "underground" to meet, beginning in 1934 joiners signed the Barmen Declaration (though secret, the list of signers was eventually leaked out)
Dietrich Bonhoeffer February 4, April 9, 1945
The Barmen Declaration in 1934 was initiated by theologian, Karl Barth, as a call to resistance against the theological claims of the Nazi state. This declaration was the Confessing Church’s response to Nazi pressure to “Aryanize” (i.e., expel Jewish-Christian pastors and adopt “Fuhrer Principle”).
Martin Niemoller “First they came for the Socialists, and I didn’t speak up, because I wasn’t a Socialist….”
Concentration and Death Camps of the Third Reich.
“First they came for the Socialists, and I didn’t speak up, because I wasn’t a Socialist. Then they came for the Trade Unionists, and I didn’t speak up, because I wasn’t a Trade Unionist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn’t speak up, because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for me, and there was no one left to speak up for me.” - - Martin Niemoller