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North Africa June 10,1940 – May 16, 1943. Timeline September 13, 1940- Italians invade Egypt September 13, 1940- Italians invade Egypt February 9, 1941-

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Presentation on theme: "North Africa June 10,1940 – May 16, 1943. Timeline September 13, 1940- Italians invade Egypt September 13, 1940- Italians invade Egypt February 9, 1941-"— Presentation transcript:

1 North Africa June 10,1940 – May 16, 1943

2 Timeline September 13, Italians invade Egypt September 13, Italians invade Egypt February 9, British offensive stops after pushing the Italians back a third of the way into Libya. February 9, British offensive stops after pushing the Italians back a third of the way into Libya. March 24, Axis forces now under the command of Field Marshal Erwin Rommel counterattack and reach Egypt by April 15. March 24, Axis forces now under the command of Field Marshal Erwin Rommel counterattack and reach Egypt by April 15. November 18, The British 8 th army counterattacks and once again reaches El Agheila by January November 18, The British 8 th army counterattacks and once again reaches El Agheila by January 1942.

3 Timeline January 21, The Axis retaliation forces the British back and the city of Tobruk, a British stronghold is captured on June 21. January 21, The Axis retaliation forces the British back and the city of Tobruk, a British stronghold is captured on June 21. July 1-27, The Axis advance on Cairo is stopped at the First Battle of El Alamein. July 1-27, The Axis advance on Cairo is stopped at the First Battle of El Alamein. October 23 – November 4, British forces crush the Germans and Italians at the Second Battle of El Alamein. October 23 – November 4, British forces crush the Germans and Italians at the Second Battle of El Alamein. November 8, Operation Torch begins November 8, Operation Torch begins February 14, Rommel inflicts heavy casualties on the Americans at the Battle of Kasserine Pass. February 14, Rommel inflicts heavy casualties on the Americans at the Battle of Kasserine Pass. May 13, Axis forces in Tunisia surrender, ending the campaign. May 13, Axis forces in Tunisia surrender, ending the campaign.

4 Causes of North African Campaign Mussolini envisioned the Mediterranean as an Italian lake. Mussolini envisioned the Mediterranean as an Italian lake. He therefore sent an army to the Italian colony of Libya to commence the attack on the Allies. He therefore sent an army to the Italian colony of Libya to commence the attack on the Allies.

5 Strategic Importance The Axis powers were attempting to gain control of Africa so they could strike at the oil fields in the Middle East and eventually open a second front against the Soviet Union. The Axis powers were attempting to gain control of Africa so they could strike at the oil fields in the Middle East and eventually open a second front against the Soviet Union. The Allies were attempting to stop the Axis advance, pull pressure off of the Soviet Union, and allow for the opening of a second European front. The Allies were attempting to stop the Axis advance, pull pressure off of the Soviet Union, and allow for the opening of a second European front.

6 Armies Primary Allied Forces Primary Allied Forces –British 8 th army –6 American divisions Primary Axis Forces Primary Axis Forces –German Afrika Korps –Miscellaneous Italian forces

7 Allied Commanders American General Dwight E. Eisenhower American General Dwight E. Eisenhower American General George Patton American General George Patton British Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery British Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery General EisenhowerGeneral Patton Field Marshal Montgomery

8 Axis Commander The primary commander of Axis forces in North Africa was Erwin Rommel. The primary commander of Axis forces in North Africa was Erwin Rommel. After serving with valor in World War I, Rommel was ordered to assist the Italians by Hitler. After serving with valor in World War I, Rommel was ordered to assist the Italians by Hitler. Due to his stunning military victories he was given the nickname the “Desert Fox”. Due to his stunning military victories he was given the nickname the “Desert Fox”. He killed himself after being implicated in a plot to kill Hitler. He killed himself after being implicated in a plot to kill Hitler. Even to this day, he is still remembered as one of the greatest generals of all time. Even to this day, he is still remembered as one of the greatest generals of all time. Field Marshal Erwin Rommel

9 Allied Infantry Weapons of War M1 Garand M1 Garand M1 Carbine M1 Carbine Thompson Sub-machine gun Thompson Sub-machine gun Browning Automatic Rifle Browning Automatic Rifle Lee-Enfield bolt-action rifle Lee-Enfield bolt-action rifle Pistols Pistols Various machine guns Various machine guns Bazookas Bazookas Grenades Grenades Browning Automatic Rifle M1 Garand

10 Axis Infantry Weapons of War Gewehr 41 Gewehr 41 Kar98k Kar98k MG 34 MG 34 MG 42 MG 42 MP 40 MP 40 Lugar and other pistols Lugar and other pistols Grenades Grenades Kar98k Lugar

11 Tanks and notable support weapons Allied Allied –M3 General Lee medium tank –M3 General Grant medium tank –M4 Sherman medium tank –Crusader cruiser tank Axis Axis –Panzer III –Panzer IV –88mm flak gun Sherman tank Panzer III

12 First Strike On the 13 th of September 1940, the 200,000 soldiers of the Italian 10 th army invaded British-Egypt from Libya. On the 13 th of September 1940, the 200,000 soldiers of the Italian 10 th army invaded British-Egypt from Libya. The Italian army advanced into Egypt and reached the town of Sidi Barrani, but halted due to lack of intelligence about the British army. The Italian army advanced into Egypt and reached the town of Sidi Barrani, but halted due to lack of intelligence about the British army.

13 Allied Retaliation After this, the British forces in the area, although they were one-sixth of the Italians size retaliated against the Italians in Operation Compass. After this, the British forces in the area, although they were one-sixth of the Italians size retaliated against the Italians in Operation Compass. The British forced the surrender of the entire 10 th army and were able to advance almost a third of the way into Libya. The British forced the surrender of the entire 10 th army and were able to advance almost a third of the way into Libya.

14 The Coming of the Fox The Germans quickly sent the Afrika Korps under Field Marshal Erwin Rommel to assist the Italians against the British. The Germans quickly sent the Afrika Korps under Field Marshal Erwin Rommel to assist the Italians against the British. Although he was ordered to just prevent the British from advancing any farther, Rommel took his troops on the offensive and was able to push the British back past the Italian’s farthest point of advance. Although he was ordered to just prevent the British from advancing any farther, Rommel took his troops on the offensive and was able to push the British back past the Italian’s farthest point of advance.

15 We’re Back to Where We Started! After reaching the city of Salum, both sides stopped and waited. After reaching the city of Salum, both sides stopped and waited. This allowed the British to reorganize their forces into the 8 th Army. This allowed the British to reorganize their forces into the 8 th Army. Rommel, however, received few reinforcements Rommel, however, received few reinforcements Now the British were able to counterattack and force the Axis back to the city of El Agheila once again. Now the British were able to counterattack and force the Axis back to the city of El Agheila once again.

16 Rommel’s Finest Hour An Axis convoy’s arrival allowed Rommel to counterattack on January 21, An Axis convoy’s arrival allowed Rommel to counterattack on January 21, En route to Egypt, the Afrika Korps finally recaptured the city of Tobruk on June 21, 1942, which the British had captured during their first invasion of Libya and they were able to hold it until they were En route to Egypt, the Afrika Korps finally recaptured the city of Tobruk on June 21, 1942, which the British had captured during their first invasion of Libya and they were able to hold it until they were They pushed the British back to the city of El Alamein and coming close to capturing Cairo itself before the desperate British were able to halt them during the month of July in the First battle of El Alamein. They pushed the British back to the city of El Alamein and coming close to capturing Cairo itself before the desperate British were able to halt them during the month of July in the First battle of El Alamein

17 Build-up to El Alamein El Alamein is located about 100 miles west of Alexandria, so this was the British last hope. El Alamein is located about 100 miles west of Alexandria, so this was the British last hope. Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery had been appointed to the command of the British 8 th army. Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery had been appointed to the command of the British 8 th army. In the three months between the battles of first and second El Alamein the British were able to gain a two-to-one advantage against the Axis powers. In the three months between the battles of first and second El Alamein the British were able to gain a two-to-one advantage against the Axis powers. In addition, the British made tank look like supple vehicles to trick the Germans into thinking they would attack elsewhere. In addition, the British made tank look like supple vehicles to trick the Germans into thinking they would attack elsewhere. Meanwhile, Rommel had mined a huge expanse of the battlefield with almost 500,000 mines. Meanwhile, Rommel had mined a huge expanse of the battlefield with almost 500,000 mines.

18 The Battle of El Alamein The battle opened with twenty minutes of artillery bombardment by about 900 guns. The battle opened with twenty minutes of artillery bombardment by about 900 guns. This was followed by infantry advance across the minefield to clear lanes for the tanks. This was followed by infantry advance across the minefield to clear lanes for the tanks. After the attack stalled out, a strike to the north front of that resulted in huge casualties on both sides. After the attack stalled out, a strike to the north front of that resulted in huge casualties on both sides. As a result, the British launched Operation Supercharge that decimated Rommel’s tank groups and forced them into retreat. As a result, the British launched Operation Supercharge that decimated Rommel’s tank groups and forced them into retreat.

19 El Alamein References “Now this is not the end. It is not even the beginning of the end. But it is, perhaps, the end of the beginning.” “Now this is not the end. It is not even the beginning of the end. But it is, perhaps, the end of the beginning.” “Before Alamein we never had a victory. After Alamein, we never had a defeat.” “Before Alamein we never had a victory. After Alamein, we never had a defeat.”Alamein Both quotes are by Winston Churchill. The first was in his speech after the battle, and the second was written in the Hinge of Fate. Both quotes are by Winston Churchill. The first was in his speech after the battle, and the second was written in the Hinge of Fate.

20 Operation Torch With the British advancing rapidly against Rommel after the Battle of El Alamein, the Allies conducted amphibious landings on the Western Coast of Africa to surround the Axis. With the British advancing rapidly against Rommel after the Battle of El Alamein, the Allies conducted amphibious landings on the Western Coast of Africa to surround the Axis. General Dwight D. Eisenhower was chosen to command the invasion force mainly due to the fact that the occupied French might still be mad at the British due to the latter’s sinking of French ships to prevent them falling into German hands. General Dwight D. Eisenhower was chosen to command the invasion force mainly due to the fact that the occupied French might still be mad at the British due to the latter’s sinking of French ships to prevent them falling into German hands. Casualties were relatively light due to eventual Vichy French defection to the Allies. Casualties were relatively light due to eventual Vichy French defection to the Allies.

21 Map of Operation Torch

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23 The Final Push By November 1942, the Germans and Italians had been pushed back to Tunisia but had not yet been completely defeated. By November 1942, the Germans and Italians had been pushed back to Tunisia but had not yet been completely defeated. After Rommel defeated the American Second Corps twice, George S. Patton was given command of the Corps. After Rommel defeated the American Second Corps twice, George S. Patton was given command of the Corps. Between him and Field Marshal Montgomery the Axis now had their backs to the sea with no room to maneuver and few supplies. Between him and Field Marshal Montgomery the Axis now had their backs to the sea with no room to maneuver and few supplies. However, Rommel was able to still inflict heavy casualties on the Americans at the Battle of Kasserine Pass while receiving few in return. However, Rommel was able to still inflict heavy casualties on the Americans at the Battle of Kasserine Pass while receiving few in return.

24 Victory!! The Germans and Italians in North Africa surrendered on May 13, 1943 resulting in over a quarter of a million Prisoners of War being taken. The Germans and Italians in North Africa surrendered on May 13, 1943 resulting in over a quarter of a million Prisoners of War being taken. In addition, Allied sea and air power resulted in only about 600 Axis troops escaped. In addition, Allied sea and air power resulted in only about 600 Axis troops escaped.

25 Consequences The victory in North Africa resulted in the Suez canal remaining in Allied hands and the oil fields of the Middle East not falling into Axis hands. The victory in North Africa resulted in the Suez canal remaining in Allied hands and the oil fields of the Middle East not falling into Axis hands. The victory in North Africa allowed for the invasion of Italy which forced the Italian surrender and pulled German troops away from the Eastern front, helping the Soviet’s defense against the Germans. The victory in North Africa allowed for the invasion of Italy which forced the Italian surrender and pulled German troops away from the Eastern front, helping the Soviet’s defense against the Germans.

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