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Writing with Concord: Parallel Structure Parallel Structure Review A Review B.

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Presentation on theme: "Writing with Concord: Parallel Structure Parallel Structure Review A Review B."— Presentation transcript:

1 Writing with Concord: Parallel Structure Parallel Structure Review A Review B

2 What would you think if your friend said this to you? My favorite pastimes are playing soccer, listening to music, and TV. Writing with Concord: Parallel Structure Would you wonder if he really liked listening to TV? My favorite pastimes are playing soccer, listening to music, and watching TV. Look how we make the sentence clearer by expressing the pastimes in the same way.

3 Expressing related ideas in similar forms keeps writing on track. Writing with Concord: Parallel Structure Like railroad tracks, these similar forms are said to be parallel. Parallel structure is the arrangement of corresponding parts of a sentence, or group of sentences, in similar grammatical forms.

4 Let’s look at some key sentences from President John F. Kennedy’s 1961 Inaugural Address. Here President Kennedy explains both the promise and the threat of modern technology. For man holds in his mortal hands the power to abolish all forms of human poverty and all forms of human life. Writing with Concord: Parallel Structure Note the parallel grammatical forms joined by and: adjective + noun + prepositional phraseprepositional phrase The repetition of key words adds to the sense of order in the passage. For man holds in his mortal hands the power to abolish all forms of human poverty and all forms of human life.

5 wavesthe rolling Writing with Concord: Parallel Structure Prepositional phrases A prepositional phrase contains over a preposition a noun or pronoun (the object of the preposition) any modifiers of the object waves

6 Writing with Concord: Parallel Structure As this example shows, sentences can contain multiple levels of parallel structures. We observe today not a victory of party, but a celebration of freedom — symbolizing an end, as well as a beginning — signifying renewal, as well as change. noun + prepositional phrase nouns joined by as well as participial phrase

7 Writing with Concord: Parallel Structure Participial phrases A participial phrase contains a verb form usually ending in –ing or –ed a noun, pronoun, or adjective (the complement of the participle) any modifiers seemingunawareof the consequences

8 Writing with Concord: Parallel Structure Speakers often use a series of parallel structures to emphasize a point. Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe to assure the survival and the success of liberty. verb + any + noun Read this sentence aloud. What effect does the repetition have?

9 Writing with Concord: Parallel Structure 2.Each member voiced his or her opinion, then a vote on the proposal. 3.Children scamper over the playground, and there are dogs playing in the field. Revise each sentence to create parallel structures. You may need to add or delete some words. 1.The future looks bright and hopefully.

10 Writing with Concord: Parallel Structure Revise each sentence to create parallel structures. You may need to add or delete some words. 1.The future looks bright and hopeful. Bright and hopeful are parallel because both are adjectives.

11 Writing with Concord: Parallel Structure Revise each sentence to create parallel structures. You may need to add or delete some words. 2.Each member voiced his or her opinion then voted on the proposal. Voiced and voted are parallel because both are verbs and in the past tense.

12 Writing with Concord: Parallel Structure Revise each sentence to create parallel structures. You may need to add or delete some words. 3.Children scamper over the playground, and dogs play in the field. Children scamper and dogs play are parallel because both begin with a noun subject followed immediately by a verb.

13 Writing with Concord: Parallel Structure [End of Section] Revise each sentence to create parallel structures. You may need to add or delete some words. 1. The play ended tragically but predictable. 2.We could see every star and the planets clearly. 3.Wisdom and being cautious are what we need most. 4. Carrie is a true friend, a teacher who is patient, and an artist with talent. 5.The forest has suffered unintentional harm, but it will now benefit from our kindness that we intend to give. On Your Own

14 Writing with Concord: Parallel Structure Answers Revise each sentence to create parallel structures. You may need to add or delete some words. 1. The play ended tragically but predictably. 2.We could see every star and (every) planet clearly. 3.Wisdom and caution are what we need most. 4.Carrie is a true friend, a patient teacher, and a talented artist. 5.The forest has suffered unintentional harm, but it will now benefit from our intentional kindness.

15 Let the word go forth from this time and place, to friend and foe alike, that the torch has been passed to a new generation of Americans—born in this century, tempered by war, disciplined by a hard and bitter peace, proud of our ancient heritage, and unwilling to witness or permit the slow undoing of those human rights to which this nation has always been committed, and to which we are committed today at home and around the world. Review A Identify each group of parallel structures in this famous sentence from President Kennedy’s 1961 Inaugural Address.

16 Let the word go forth from this time and place, to friend and foe alike, that the torch has been passed to a new generation of Americans—born in this century, tempered by war, disciplined by a hard and bitter peace, proud of our ancient heritage, and unwilling to witness or permit the slow undoing of those human rights to which this nation has always been committed, and to which we are committed today at home and around the world. Review A Identify each group of parallel structures in this famous sentence from President Kennedy’s 1961 Inaugural Address. Prepositional Phrases Adjectives + Prepositional Phrases Prepositional Phrases repeating to which and committed Prepositional Phrases

17 Review B You have been asked to write an encouraging message to be posted on your class Web site. Write a short message to your classmates that includes at least three examples of parallel structure.

18 Review B You have been asked to write an encouraging message to be posted on your class Web site. Write a short message to your classmates that includes at least three examples of parallel structure. [possible answer] When I was still in middle school, I had no idea how much I would need to learn and how much I would need to change in high school. Now I am more confident, more aware, and more knowledgeable about my world and my school. Here I am learning not only how to think, but also how to live.

19 The End


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