Presentation on theme: "DEMETER-MYTHS of FERTILITY ► FEMALE GAIA (GE)=Mother Earth came from sexless CHAOS. From Gaia sprang the world: Sky, Mountains, Sea, and the Olympians."— Presentation transcript:
DEMETER-MYTHS of FERTILITY ► FEMALE GAIA (GE)=Mother Earth came from sexless CHAOS. From Gaia sprang the world: Sky, Mountains, Sea, and the Olympians and humans ► No single goddess of fertility (Artemis for wild life, Aphrodite for sexuality, Hera for family and marriage, Demeter goddess of grain and earth fertility)
HOMERIC HYMN TO DEMETER ► Structure ► Demeter-Persephone-abduction by Hades ► Return from the Underworld ► Embedded Story of Demeter while looking for her daughter ► Metaneira, the queen, and Demophoon, the son.
The Myth of Demeter and Persephone ► ► Abduction by Hades ► ► Hecate and Helius ► ► Demeter’s grief, anger and retaliation ► ► Demeter comes to Eleusis and the palace of Celeus. ► ► The Maiden Well ► ► Queen Metaneira ► ► Iambe ► ► Demeter breaks her fast. ► ► Demeter Nurses Demphoön.
► ► Hades and Persephone and her eating of the pomegranate ► ► Demeter’s ecstatic reunion with Persephone ► ► Demeter restores fertility and establishes the Mysteries. ► ► The Interpretation of the Hymn ► ► Death and rebirth of vegetation ► ► Spiritual metaphor or allegory ► ► Kore (“girl”) ► ► Hades (Pluto or Dis among the Romans)
Interpretation of the Myth ► Allegorical Interpretation- seasons change ► Family experience, the daughter’s marriage (voluntarily takes the flower, symbol of marriage, separation from natal family) ► Symbolic interpretation ► Loss from child, as so many children are lost to war and disease. Lamentation rituals around this myth. Demeter is mater dolorosa. ► Myth of Demeter becomes the etiology for the presence of death. Thus the cult becomes an experience of afterlife.
Eleusinian Mysteries ► Eleusis, near Athens ► Mystery < Mystes =the one who closes (the eyes, mouth) Latin translation initiatus (thus, modern English to initiate) ► Origin of mysteries ► Two families in Charge the EUMOLPIDS, Eumolpos, the ancestor, mythical ruler of ELEUSIS received the mysteries from Demeter and the KERYKES (heralds), descendants of Eumolpus’ son KERYX (=herald)
► ► Eleusinian Mysteries ► ► Special position of Athens ► ► Initiates ► ► Secrecy of rites ► ► Mystery religions ► ► Connection with Orpheus
Structure of Eleusinian Mysteries ► High Priest (Hierophant= he who reveals the hiera sacred things), always a Eumolpid ► From the family of the Kerykes, always the torchbearer and the herald. ► Priestess of Demeter, who, like the hierophant lived in the sanctuary ► Time of festival- FALL every year ► The Hiera (=sacred things) removed from TELESTERION and carried to Athens, Procession. ► All who could speak Greek (Except murderers) eligible for initiation including women and slaves)
► ► Rituals- Nine day interval ► ► Fasting- Torches- Jests ► ► Kykeon: drink of barley and water ► ► Revelation of divinity ► ► Stages of initiation ► ► Lesser Mysteries: preliminary to initiation ► ► Greater Mysteries: full initiation ► ► Participation in the highest mysteries ► ► Procession ► ► Stages of Greater Mysteries ► ► Dramatic enactment of myth ► ► Revelation of sacred objects ► ► Utterance of certain words ► ► The Final revelation: the hiera
ARCHITECTURE OF TELESTERION TELESTERION Temple of Demeter Unique in Architecture. Ordinary Greek temple to be viewed from exterior, the interior was to hold the god’s statue -THE TELESTERION was built to receive thousands of people under its roof
TRIPTOLEMUS ► One of the princes of Eleusis to whom Demeter taught her sacred rites. More important after the 5 th century. ► He was said to have traveled over the world teaching the art of growing grain. Popular in art, supporting Athenian claims for cultural supremacy.
What were the Eleusinian Mysteries? ► Group experience ► Personal experience (afterlife) ► Ritual purity, fasting ► Magical rite ensuring the growth of grain ► Political significance
Departure of Triptolemos Makron Painter, 490-480 BC. Attic red-figured skyphos. The eleusinian prince on the chariot. Persephone stands in front of with a torch and an oinochoe. Behind her nymph Eleusis, and behind Triptolemos, Demeter.
Detail of previous- departure of Triptolemos, red figure skyphos,Makron painter
Attic red-figured bell-krater. Hecate with torches leads Persephone accompanied by Hermes from the underworld while Demeter, holding a sceptre, waits. The moment of reunion. With Inscriptions to identify figures. C. 440 B.C. (41 cm)