Presentation on theme: "Chapter 26 – Section 3 The War in Europe and Northern Africa Exploring American History Unit VIII- Boom Times and Challenges."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 26 – Section 3 The War in Europe and Northern Africa Exploring American History Unit VIII- Boom Times and Challenges
WWII- A World Conflict Allied Goals- 1st- Defeat the Germans 2nd- U.S. to postpone the offensive in the Pacific and continue an active defense.
War in Europe and North Africa The Big Idea After fierce fighting in North Africa and Europe, the Allies stopped the German advance and slowly began driving back German forces. Main Ideas The Allies fought back against the Axis Powers in North Africa and Europe. Key Allied victories halted the German advance. In the D-Day invasion, Allied forces attacked German- controlled France.
Main Idea 1: The Allies fought back against the Axis Powers in North Africa and Europe. Casablanca Priority: Sonar Long-range aircraft New Technologies Allies Join Forces
Casablanca Conference- Jan Jan , 1943, World War II meeting of U.S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill at Casablanca, French Morocco. A joint declaration pledged that the war would end only with the unconditional surrender of the Axis states, and the U.S. to attack Germany 1st.
Allied ships and aircraft Cracking the Enigma American shipyards. ConvoysConvoys. EnigmaEnigma UltraUltra The Allies Fight the Battle of the Atlantic
Battle of the Atlantic How and why did the Allies fight the Battle of the Atlantic? control of the seasshipping control of the seas- safe for shipping Germanypowerful navy Germany had a very powerful navy wolf pack wolf pack. United States into the war would help turn the tide in the Battle of the Atlantic. The entry of the United States into the war would help turn the tide in the Battle of the Atlantic.
Battle for the Atlantic German Wolf Packs- sinking thousands of tons of Allied shipping each month.German Wolf Packs- sinking thousands of tons of Allied shipping each month critical, allies need food and supplies critical, allies need food and supplies. Radar and Sonar were inventedRadar and Sonar were invented Use of Ultra (code breaking), Convoys and DestroyersUse of Ultra (code breaking), Convoys and Destroyers U.S. Producing more ships and supplies than the Germans could sink.U.S. Producing more ships and supplies than the Germans could sink.
The Allies Fight Back RecallRecall – How did sonar help the Allied war effort? ExplainExplain – Why did Stalin want the Allies to attack in Europe immediately?
North Africa German Afrika Korps1942– German Afrika Korps Battle of El AlameinBattle of El Alamein. Dwight D. Eisenhower Operation TorchDwight D. Eisenhower - Operation Torch Main Idea 2: Key Allied victories halted the German advance. Italy July 1943 invaded SicilyJuly 1943– Allied forces invaded Sicily June 1944– Allied forces captured RomeJune 1944– Allied forces captured Rome.
North African Theater Erwin Rommel- German Erwin Rommel- German Tanks and Blitzkrieg Send to Africa to help the Italians stop the British and take British Oil Fields “Desert Fox”- “Desert Fox”- Outwitting opponents- Greatest German General Also planned the defense of the Atlantic Wall. Later accused of being Anti-Hitler conspirator- forced to take poison. Afrika Korps- Afrika Korps- Rommel Battle of Tobruk and El Alamein Threaten Oil Fields of Middle East and the Suez Canal
North African Theater Bernard Montgomery- British Bernard Montgomery- British El Alamein- Nov. 4, 1942 El Alamein- Nov. 4, 1942 Allies defeat the Germans Germans bottled up in Tunisia. “Operation Torch 107,000 men U.S. Landing in “Vichy” Algeria- “Operation Torch,” November 8, 1942 entailed the largest amphibious invasion in U.S. naval history. 107,000 men.
Operation Barbarosa Operation Barbarosa. Hitler invades RussiaJune 22, 1941 – Hitler makes the great blunder- he feels that all battlefields are alike and blitzkrieg always works. He invades Russia Russia is too big, too frozen and would cause the downfall of his empireNapoleon had learned a hard lesson a hundred years before- Russia is too big, too frozen and would cause the downfall of his empire. Hitler would learn the same lesson. worst winter in 30 years struck.Germans moved quickly and went deep into Russia, but when they got to Moscow the worst winter in 30 years struck. Freezing temps stopped the german advance. stalemated at Leningrad, Stalingrad and MoscowGermans are stalemated at Leningrad, Stalingrad and Moscow
Eastern Front Massive German and Soviet armiesMassive German and Soviet armies battled on eastern front. Battle of StalingradBy mid-1942, Battle of Stalingrad. January 1943 the German commander surrenderedIn January 1943 the German commander surrendered. Soviet victory came at an enormous cost. 1 million Soviet soldiers dead –More than 1 million Soviet soldiers dead –About 800,000 Axis soldiers killed
Halting the German Advance IdentifyIdentify – What countries did each of the three generals involved in the North African Campaign come from? ExplainExplain – What caused the different views of Italy’s strength in 1943 and 1944?
Halting the German Advance DescribeDescribe – In the Battle of Stalingrad, how did many Germans die? ExplainExplain – What is meant by “The tide of the war in the east had turned”? ContrastContrast – What advantages did Soviet Troops have over the advancing German soldier.
Main Idea 3: In the D-Day invasion, Allied forces attacked German-controlled France. Invasion of German-occupied France Dwight EisenhowerDwight Eisenhower June 6, 1944– D-Day, or “designated day”June 6, 1944– D-Day, or “designated day” –American, British, and Canadian troops –Americans landed on two beaches, codenamed Utah and Omaha –Americans landed on two beaches, codenamed Utah and Omaha. 3,000 killed or wounded at Omaha Beach alone –Almost 3,000 killed or wounded at Omaha Beach alone.
Amphibious Tanks (DD Tanks) These so-called Duplex Drive tanks of the 741st Armoured Battalion were launched from landing craft four kilometres from the beach. Fitted with large canvas skirts round the upper portion of the vehicle, the DD tanks were designed to float low in the water - appearing to the enemy as nothing more menacing than a rubber boat. The entry of this first group into the rough seas proved disastrous. The tanks were intended to operate in seas with a one-foot swell, yet on D-Day the waves rose six feet. High waves The heavy seas swamped 27 DDs, sending them to the sea floor.
The D-Day Invasion ExplainExplain – What was the Allied mission? RankRank – Which area would prove to be the toughest fight: North Africa, France or Italy IdentifyIdentify - What did the “D” in D-Day mean?
The D-Day Invasion RecallRecall – Soldiers from which countries took part in the D-Day Invasion? CompareCompare – How did the D-Day invasion compare to past sea to land invasions. Make JudgmentsMake Judgments - What is your opinion of the type of men who could wade ashore and fight on the Normandy beaches?