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FOR 406. Tend RegenerateHarvest Prescribed burning is... Applied in a skillful manner At a definite location & time Under pre-defined weather conditions.

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Presentation on theme: "FOR 406. Tend RegenerateHarvest Prescribed burning is... Applied in a skillful manner At a definite location & time Under pre-defined weather conditions."— Presentation transcript:

1 FOR 406

2 Tend RegenerateHarvest

3 Prescribed burning is... Applied in a skillful manner At a definite location & time Under pre-defined weather conditions To achieve specific management objectives Anything else is a

4 Pines Western larch Douglas-fir Giant sequoia Pines Western larch Douglas-fir Giant sequoia

5 Oaks Eucalyptus Oaks Eucalyptus

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8 “Fire and life, in brief, form a necessary kind of symbiosis.” Stephen Pyne

9 WILD

10 Healthy Forests Restoration Act 2003

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13 A fire is not a fire…

14 Surface Fire

15 Ground Fire

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17 Crown Fire

18 I (kW m -1 ) = L Frontal Fire Intensity I (kW m -1 ) = 300 L 2

19 Average flame length WIND

20 ~0.5 m I = 58 kW m -1 ~1.0 m Low Intensity I = 300 kW m -1

21 ~0.5 m I = 75 kW m -1 ~0.5 m I = 75 kW m -1 Low Intensity

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23 ~91 m I = 2,484,300 kW m -1 ~91 m I = 2,484,300 kW m -1 High Intensity

24 <1.0 m (3 feet)

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29 Why use prescribed fire? Reduces hazardous fuels

30 Why use prescribed fire? Controls woody understory

31 Why use prescribed fire? Controls woody understory

32 Why use prescribed fire? Stimulates natural regeneration & increases diversity of ground flora

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34 Why use prescribed fire? Improves wildlife habitat & livestock forage

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36 Why use prescribed fire? Controls certain insects & diseases

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38 Why use prescribed fire? Recycles nutrient cations (Ca, Mg, P, K) & stimulates N fixation

39 Why use prescribed fire? Restores a natural (pre-European settle- ment) ecological process

40 Why use prescribed fire? Enhances aesthetics & improves access

41 Why use prescribed fire? Watch it burn!

42 Weather Fuel moisture Fire behavior Fuel moisture Fire behavior

43 Weather Good forecasts are essential!

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47 Wind – Speed & direction steady – 5 mph or less in the stand – Direction more important than speed – Interacts with topography Weather for prescribed fire

48 Wind – Speed & direction steady – 5 mph or less in the stand – Direction more important than speed – Interacts with topography Weather for prescribed fire

49 Relative humidity –25 to 40% M N M RH Weather for prescribed fire

50 Temperature – <90 o F (35 o C) – Lethal temperature for plant tissue ~145 o F – High temperature dry fuels quickly Weather for prescribed fire

51 Rainfall Weather for prescribed fire

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53 Airmass stability – Resistance of atmosphere to vertical movement Weather for prescribed fire

54 Airmass stability—unstable –low resistance to vertical movement (large decrease in temperature with altitude) Weather for prescribed fire

55 Airmass stability—stable – high resistance of to vertical movement (small decrease in temperature with altitude) Weather for prescribed fire

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58 St Mark’s National Wildlife Refuge south of Tallahassee, FL

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60 Mixing height ft agl Transport windspeed mph

61 Frontal activity - No approaching fronts, esp. cold fronts Weather for prescribed fire

62 L L Cold Stationary Warm WIND

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67 Goal: accurately predict fire intensity & behavior

68 Fine-fuel moisture & loading Influenced by all the elements of weather Fuel time lags

69 Fuel moisture lags (Time it takes for a fuel to lose 63% of its moisture) Time lagFuel diameter 1-hour (fine fuels)<¼ inch (twigs, dead grass, leaves, needles) 10-hour ¼-1 inch (twigs, small branches, cones) 100-hour 1-3 inch (branches, tops) 1000-hour >3 inch (large branches, tops, logs)

70 Fine-fuel moisture & loading Influenced by all the elements of weather Fuel time lags 8-10% low risk conditions 10-15% high risk conditions

71 Fine-fuel moisture & loading Influenced by all the elements of weather Fuel time lags 8-10% low risk conditions 10-15% high risk conditions Measurement – Oven drying – Fuel sticks – Bending needles

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74 Fire Danger Rating Systems National Fire Danger Rating System (NFDRS) Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index System (FWI)

75 Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index System The higher the values, the more intense the fire! Fuel Moisture Codes Fire Behavior Indices

76 Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index System Calculation of FWI parameters begins 3 days after either: –Final snow melt –Noon temperatures reach 54 o F (12 o C) Calculation of today’s values starts with yesterday’s, then factors in 24-hour (noon- noon) weather

77 Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index System Fuel Moisture Codes Fire Behavior Indices Wind speed Temperature Relative humidity Rain Temperature Rain Fire Weather Observations Temperature Relative humidity Wind speed Rain

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79 Target Values for Underburning Fuel moisture codes: FFMC DMC DC Fire behavior indices: ISI 6-10 BUI <50 FWI Target Values for Underburning Fuel moisture codes: FFMC DMC DC Fire behavior indices: ISI 6-10 BUI <50 FWI 10-15

80 Target Values for Underburning Fuel moisture codes: FFMC DMC low intensity fire DC Fire behavior indices: ISI 6-10 BUI <50 manageable behavior FWI Target Values for Underburning Fuel moisture codes: FFMC DMC low intensity fire DC Fire behavior indices: ISI 6-10 BUI <50 manageable behavior FWI 10-15

81 FFMC DMC DC ISI 6-10 BUI <50 FWI FFMC DMC DC ISI 6-10 BUI <50 FWI 10-15

82 Type of fire: low-intensity surface Fuel type: C5 red & white pine Fireline weather observations: temperature o F relative humidity 32-34% wind speed <2; gusts to 5 mph days since rain 5 10 May 1991 Fuel moisture codes: FFMC 90.5 DMC 23 DC 76 Fire behavior indices: ISI 6.5 BUI 26 FWI 11.6

83 You’ve got to have a PLAN and you’ve got to be ready to GO… NOW!

84 The Plan Burn prescription written Pre-burn site treatments completed Equipment designated & ready Personnel identified & trained Approvals & permits in hand Authorities & interested parties identified & notified* Latest forecasts checked* * Day before & day of burn

85 FOR 406 Continued

86 The Plan Burn prescription written Pre-burn site treatments completed Equipment designated & ready Personnel identified & trained Approvals & permits in hand Authorities & interested parties identified & notified* Latest forecasts checked* * Day before & day of burn

87 FFMC DMC DC ISI 6-10 BUI <50 FWI FFMC DMC DC ISI 6-10 BUI <50 FWI weeks

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90 Ignition Devices

91 Hand-held/ground-based – Drip torch – Propane torch – Fire fuse (flare) – Flame thrower

92 Drip torch fuel: 3:1 or 3:2 Diesel/gasoline

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96 Ignition Devices Aerial – Helitorch – Delayed aerial ignition device (“ping-pong balls”)

97 Helitorch

98 DAID

99 Ignition Devices Lightning

100 Ignite a test fire first!

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102 Ignition Techniques Backfire (backing fire) – Least intense & most predictable – Short flame lengths – Narrow burning zone – Slow rate of spread; burns deep – Low smoke output

103 Ignition Techniques Backfire WIND

104 Ignition Techniques Headfire (heading fire) – Most intense & unpredictable – Long flame lengths – Wide burning zone – Fast rate of spread; burns shallow – High smoke output

105 Ignition Techniques Strip headfire WIND Distance between strips controls intensity

106 Ignition Techniques Spotfire – Intensity intermediate between back & head fires – Useful in shifting winds – Spots merge to form a strip head fire – What you get using a DAID

107 Ignition Techniques Spotfire WIND Distance between spots controls intensity

108 Ignition Techniques Flankfire (flanking fire) – Intensity intermediate between back & head fires – Fire spreads at right angle to wind – Limited to steady wind conditions – Requires careful crew coordination – Used primarily for securing flanks of back or head fires

109 Ignition Techniques Flankfire WIND

110 Headfire Flankfire Backfire Wind

111 Smoke Management

112 Principles of smoke management Have clear, defensible objectives Comply with local pollution regulations Notify local fire & law enforcement officials, nearby residents, & adjacent landowners Obtain the best available weather forecasts Don’t burn under highly stable conditions Burn during midday; avoid night burns Use caution near, upwind, or up-drainage of smoke sensitive areas

113 Principles of smoke management (continued) Use test fire to estimate smoke output & behavior Use backing fires if feasible Burn in small blocks if dispersion marginal Do not burn when fuel moisture high Don’t burn organic soils Mop-up along roads first Have an emergency plan!

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117 Karner blue butterfly ENDANGERED Gopher tortoise THREATENED

118 Kirtlands warbler ENDANGERED

119 Economics

120 Miller Lumber Co.

121 Those who regularly work with fire develop a profound respect for its tendency to surprise the unwary. G.S. Beebe & P.N. Omi Those who regularly work with fire develop a profound respect for its tendency to surprise the unwary. G.S. Beebe & P.N. Omi

122 Mack Lake Fire Huron National Forest May 5, ,000+ acres (20,000 in first 6 hours) One firefighter killed 44 homes & structures destroyed

123 Cerro Grande Fire Los Alamos, NM May 4-11, ,000+ acres 235 homes destroyed Los Alamos National Laboratory threatened

124 Cerro Grande Fire Began as a prescribed fire in Bandelier National Monument by NPS Escaped due to gusty, shifting winds Burned through Santa Fe NF into Los Alamos

125 A CAREFUL MATCH … RESTORES!

126 Partners in promoting responsible prescribed fire


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