Presentation on theme: "Electronic Warfare Counter-measures"— Presentation transcript:
1 Electronic Warfare Counter-measures Naval Weapons Systems
2 EW Intro EW is a component of Information Operations (IO) IO: Military strategy which implements Information Warfare (IW).IO includes integrated use of OPSEC, military deception, PSYOPS, EW, and physical destruction. (discussed more in C4I Lesson)
3 Increasing Importance of EW: Increased reliance on radarOTH targetingIncreased use of CommunicationsTactical Data Systems (TDS)Increased speed of missiles and weapons systemsHigh-speed detection and trackingActive-homing or passive-homing long-range missiles give little warning
4 Electronic Support (ES) *ESM Electronic Attack (EA) *ECM Three Components of EWElectronic Support (ES) *ESMElectronic Attack (EA) *ECMElectronic Protection (EP) *ECCMESM – Electronic Support MeasuresECM – Electronic Counter MeasuresECCM – Electronic Counter-counter Measures
5 Electronic Support (ES) Surveillance of EM spectrumImmediate threat recognitionThreat avoidanceHoming and targeting.Passive EW or Signals Intelligence (SIGINT)Electronic Intelligence (ELINT): Info derived from foreign non-communications EM information, particularly radar.Communications Intelligence (COMINT): Info derived from foreign communications.Advantages/limitations of passive EW.We get ELINT and COMINT in many ways.EP-3COMSPOTHUMINT?
6 ES Subdivisions:Indications and Warnings (I&W)SurveillanceIntelligenceNew Technology
7 ES Receiver Design Requirements Wide spectrum surveillanceWide dynamic rangeUnwanted signal rejectionAngle-of-Arrival measurementSignal Analysis capabilityDisplayRecording SystemAN/SLQ-32 versions 1-5version 1: not used anymoreversion 2: older ships (ie. DD)version 3: upgraded version 2 with jamming capabilityversion 4: upgraded even more, newer ships (ie. DDG, CVN)version 5: FFG only, some jamming capibility
8 Electronic Attack (EA) Use of EM or directed energy to attack personnel, facilities, or equipment.Active and Passive EW
9 Non-Destructive EAConfusion: Mask or hide real targets by cluttering the radar display.JammingSpot JammingBarrage JammingSweep JammingChaffInfrared flares (Torch)
10 Spot, Barrage, and Sweep Jamming FreqBarrageSpotAmplTime
11 Spot and Barrage Jamming Rcvr BWPowerSpot JammingClass Discussion:What are some of the advantages and disadvantages of each type of Jamming?Barrage JammingFrequency
12 Effective JammingPWRcvd Signal Amp.PRTIneffective Jammingtime
13 Non-Destructive EA (cont.) Deception: Create a false image or changes the image on a radar display.Repeaters: Create false echo by delaying rcvd radar signals & retransmitting at later time.Transponders: Create false signal by playing back a stored replica of the radar signal.ChaffRadar Decoys
20 Electronic Protection (EP) The protection of friendly combat capability against undesirable effect of friendly or enemy employment EW.Passive and Active EW.
21 Electronic Protection (EP) Three primary ways to defend ourselves from enemy EWModify our radar - make it more complex and harder to jamModify the Medium - Chaff and TorchModify the platform
22 EP: Radar Design Power Frequency PRF PW Pulse Shape Antenna Design Scan PatternBasic: The better you know your enemy’s capability the better you cancounter it’s affect.Radar Design:Power - Fundamental parameter, the battle becomes one of power.- Affects Burnthrough distanceFrequency Change - If your radar is frequency agile it is harder to jam.PRF Changing the PRF in a random fashion is an effective counter todeception. EA depends on the predictability of radar.Pulse length - Increase the pulse length requires more power. Can usepulse compression to compensate for range resolution andminimum range.Antenna Design - Reduce the amount and size of side lobes makes it moredifficult to jam from various axis.Scan Pattern - influence amount of energy directed towards the radar target.
23 EP FactorsBurnthrough: Increase signal strength to overpower jammer noise (ECCM)Emission Control (EMCON)AlphaBravoCharlieDeltaOperator TrainingBurnthrough - More power in the air at the contact!EMCON - Alpha through Delta,Alpha silent and A1Bravo and B1CharlieDelta essentials only – Normal steaming configurationOperator Training - recognize jamming and counter it!
24 U.S. Shipboard EW Capabilities SLQ-32 “Sidekick” - on all combatantsRadar warning, detection and jammingUses an internal library to auto detect & categorizeInfrared Flares - GIANTon all combatantsChaff - on all combatantsGo over slide.
25 U.S. Shipboard EW Capabilities SSQ-108 “Outboard” - on some Spruance class, DDG, CG, LHA, LHDAny ship with SSESreal-time, over-the-horizon passive detection, localization, and targetingSLQ-39 Chaff Buoy - on Arleigh Burke classRubber Duck – looks like a life boat containerSSES – Shipboard Signals Exploitation SpaceIS, CT, maybe EW’s and a Crypto Officer.
26 U.S. Airborne EW Capabilities ALQ ES system on SH-60 SeahawkALQ EW system on EA-6B ProwlerMimics radar signalsALQ EA jamming system on F-14 & F/A 18ALQ EA jamming system on F/A-18ALR ES detection system on S-3 VikingALR ES detection system on E-2 HawkeyeChaff on SH-60 SeahawkGo over slide.