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Electronic Warfare Counter-measures

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Presentation on theme: "Electronic Warfare Counter-measures"— Presentation transcript:

1 Electronic Warfare Counter-measures
Naval Weapons Systems

2 EW Intro EW is a component of Information Operations (IO)
IO: Military strategy which implements Information Warfare (IW). IO includes integrated use of OPSEC, military deception, PSYOPS, EW, and physical destruction. (discussed more in C4I Lesson)

3 Increasing Importance of EW:
Increased reliance on radar OTH targeting Increased use of Communications Tactical Data Systems (TDS) Increased speed of missiles and weapons systems High-speed detection and tracking Active-homing or passive-homing long-range missiles give little warning

4 Electronic Support (ES) *ESM Electronic Attack (EA) *ECM
Three Components of EW Electronic Support (ES) *ESM Electronic Attack (EA) *ECM Electronic Protection (EP) *ECCM ESM – Electronic Support Measures ECM – Electronic Counter Measures ECCM – Electronic Counter-counter Measures

5 Electronic Support (ES)
Surveillance of EM spectrum Immediate threat recognition Threat avoidance Homing and targeting. Passive EW or Signals Intelligence (SIGINT) Electronic Intelligence (ELINT): Info derived from foreign non-communications EM information, particularly radar. Communications Intelligence (COMINT): Info derived from foreign communications. Advantages/limitations of passive EW. We get ELINT and COMINT in many ways. EP-3 COMSPOT HUMINT?

6 ES Subdivisions: Indications and Warnings (I&W) Surveillance Intelligence New Technology

7 ES Receiver Design Requirements
Wide spectrum surveillance Wide dynamic range Unwanted signal rejection Angle-of-Arrival measurement Signal Analysis capability Display Recording System AN/SLQ-32 versions 1-5 version 1: not used anymore version 2: older ships (ie. DD) version 3: upgraded version 2 with jamming capability version 4: upgraded even more, newer ships (ie. DDG, CVN) version 5: FFG only, some jamming capibility

8 Electronic Attack (EA)
Use of EM or directed energy to attack personnel, facilities, or equipment. Active and Passive EW

9 Non-Destructive EA Confusion: Mask or hide real targets by cluttering the radar display. Jamming Spot Jamming Barrage Jamming Sweep Jamming Chaff Infrared flares (Torch)

10 Spot, Barrage, and Sweep Jamming
Freq Barrage Spot Ampl Time

11 Spot and Barrage Jamming
Rcvr BW Power Spot Jamming Class Discussion: What are some of the advantages and disadvantages of each type of Jamming? Barrage Jamming Frequency

12 Effective Jamming PW Rcvd Signal Amp. PRT Ineffective Jamming time

13 Non-Destructive EA (cont.)
Deception: Create a false image or changes the image on a radar display. Repeaters: Create false echo by delaying rcvd radar signals & retransmitting at later time. Transponders: Create false signal by playing back a stored replica of the radar signal. Chaff Radar Decoys

14 Self Screening Stand Off Stand Forward

15 EA-6B Prowler!!!!!!!!!

16 Destructive EA Anti-Radiation Missiles HARM Sidewinder Directed Energy

17 HARM High-speed Anti-Radiation Missile Colors on ordnance?
Yellow: high-explosive Brown: low-explosive or booster Blue: training round or inert

18 HARM Results Portable Radar Site In Serbia

19 AIM-9 Sidewinder

20 Electronic Protection (EP)
The protection of friendly combat capability against undesirable effect of friendly or enemy employment EW. Passive and Active EW.

21 Electronic Protection (EP)
Three primary ways to defend ourselves from enemy EW Modify our radar - make it more complex and harder to jam Modify the Medium - Chaff and Torch Modify the platform

22 EP: Radar Design Power Frequency PRF PW Pulse Shape Antenna Design
Scan Pattern Basic: The better you know your enemy’s capability the better you can counter it’s affect. Radar Design: Power - Fundamental parameter, the battle becomes one of power. - Affects Burnthrough distance Frequency Change - If your radar is frequency agile it is harder to jam. PRF Changing the PRF in a random fashion is an effective counter to deception. EA depends on the predictability of radar. Pulse length - Increase the pulse length requires more power. Can use pulse compression to compensate for range resolution and minimum range. Antenna Design - Reduce the amount and size of side lobes makes it more difficult to jam from various axis. Scan Pattern - influence amount of energy directed towards the radar target.

23 EP Factors Burnthrough: Increase signal strength to overpower jammer noise (ECCM) Emission Control (EMCON) Alpha Bravo Charlie Delta Operator Training Burnthrough - More power in the air at the contact! EMCON - Alpha through Delta, Alpha silent and A1 Bravo and B1 Charlie Delta essentials only – Normal steaming configuration Operator Training - recognize jamming and counter it!

24 U.S. Shipboard EW Capabilities
SLQ-32 “Sidekick” - on all combatants Radar warning, detection and jamming Uses an internal library to auto detect & categorize Infrared Flares - GIANT on all combatants Chaff - on all combatants Go over slide.

25 U.S. Shipboard EW Capabilities
SSQ-108 “Outboard” - on some Spruance class, DDG, CG, LHA, LHD Any ship with SSES real-time, over-the-horizon passive detection, localization, and targeting SLQ-39 Chaff Buoy - on Arleigh Burke class Rubber Duck – looks like a life boat container SSES – Shipboard Signals Exploitation Space IS, CT, maybe EW’s and a Crypto Officer.

26 U.S. Airborne EW Capabilities
ALQ ES system on SH-60 Seahawk ALQ EW system on EA-6B Prowler Mimics radar signals ALQ EA jamming system on F-14 & F/A 18 ALQ EA jamming system on F/A-18 ALR ES detection system on S-3 Viking ALR ES detection system on E-2 Hawkeye Chaff on SH-60 Seahawk Go over slide.

27 Questions?

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