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7-5 Polynomials Warm Up Lesson Presentation Lesson Quiz Holt Algebra 1

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**Warm Up Evaluate each expression for the given value of x.**

1. 2x + 3; x = x2 + 4; x = –3 3. –4x – 2; x = –1 4. 7x2 + 2x = 3 Identify the coefficient in each term. 5. 4x y3 7. 2n –54 7 13 2 69 4 1 2 –1

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Objectives Classify polynomials and write polynomials in standard form. Evaluate polynomial expressions.

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**Vocabulary monomial degree of a monomial polynomial**

degree of a polynomial standard form of a leading coefficient quadratic cubic binomial trinomial

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A monomial is a number, a variable, or a product of numbers and variables with whole-number exponents. The degree of a monomial is the sum of the exponents of the variables. A constant has degree 0.

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**Example 1: Finding the Degree of a Monomial**

Find the degree of each monomial. A. 4p4q3 The degree is 7. Add the exponents of the variables: = 7. B. 7ed The degree is 2. Add the exponents of the variables: 1+ 1 = 2. C. 3 The degree is 0. Add the exponents of the variables: 0 = 0.

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**The terms of an expression are the parts being added or subtracted**

The terms of an expression are the parts being added or subtracted. See Lesson 1-7. Remember!

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Check It Out! Example 1 Find the degree of each monomial. a. 1.5k2m The degree is 3. Add the exponents of the variables: = 3. b. 4x The degree is 1. Add the exponents of the variables: 1 = 1. b. 2c3 The degree is 3. Add the exponents of the variables: 3 = 3.

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**A polynomial is a monomial or a sum or difference of monomials.**

The degree of a polynomial is the degree of the term with the greatest degree.

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**Example 2: Finding the Degree of a Polynomial**

Find the degree of each polynomial. A. 11x7 + 3x3 11x7: degree 7 3x3: degree 3 Find the degree of each term. The degree of the polynomial is the greatest degree, 7. B. :degree 3 :degree 4 –5: degree 0 Find the degree of each term. The degree of the polynomial is the greatest degree, 4.

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Check It Out! Example 2 Find the degree of each polynomial. a. 5x – 6 5x: degree 1 –6: degree 0 Find the degree of each term. The degree of the polynomial is the greatest degree, 1. b. x3y2 + x2y3 – x4 + 2 Find the degree of each term. x3y2: degree 5 x2y3: degree 5 –x4: degree 4 2: degree 0 The degree of the polynomial is the greatest degree, 5.

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**The terms of a polynomial may be written in any order**

The terms of a polynomial may be written in any order. However, polynomials that contain only one variable are usually written in standard form. The standard form of a polynomial that contains one variable is written with the terms in order from greatest degree to least degree. When written in standard form, the coefficient of the first term is called the leading coefficient.

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**Example 3A: Writing Polynomials in Standard Form**

Write the polynomial in standard form. Then give the leading coefficient. 6x – 7x5 + 4x2 + 9 Find the degree of each term. Then arrange them in descending order: 6x – 7x5 + 4x2 + 9 –7x5 + 4x2 + 6x + 9 Degree 1 5 2 –7x5 + 4x2 + 6x + 9. The standard form is The leading coefficient is –7.

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**Example 3B: Writing Polynomials in Standard Form**

Write the polynomial in standard form. Then give the leading coefficient. y2 + y6 − 3y Find the degree of each term. Then arrange them in descending order: y2 + y6 – 3y y6 + y2 – 3y Degree 2 6 1 The standard form is The leading coefficient is 1. y6 + y2 – 3y.

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**A variable written without a coefficient has a coefficient of 1.**

Remember! y5 = 1y5

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Check It Out! Example 3a Write the polynomial in standard form. Then give the leading coefficient. 16 – 4x2 + x5 + 9x3 Find the degree of each term. Then arrange them in descending order: 16 – 4x2 + x5 + 9x3 x5 + 9x3 – 4x2 + 16 Degree 2 5 3 The standard form is The leading coefficient is 1. x5 + 9x3 – 4x

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Check It Out! Example 3b Write the polynomial in standard form. Then give the leading coefficient. 18y5 – 3y8 + 14y Find the degree of each term. Then arrange them in descending order: 18y5 – 3y8 + 14y –3y8 + 18y5 + 14y Degree 5 8 1 The standard form is The leading coefficient is –3. –3y8 + 18y5 + 14y.

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**Some polynomials have special names based on their degree and the number of terms they have.**

Monomial Binomial Trinomial Polynomial 4 or more 1 2 3 1 2 Constant Linear Quadratic 3 4 5 6 or more 6th,7th,degree and so on Cubic Quartic Quintic

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**Example 4: Classifying Polynomials**

Classify each polynomial according to its degree and number of terms. A. 5n3 + 4n 5n3 + 4n is a cubic binomial. Degree 3 Terms 2 B. 4y6 – 5y3 + 2y – 9 4y6 – 5y3 + 2y – 9 is a 6th-degree polynomial. Degree 6 Terms 4 C. –2x –2x is a linear monomial. Degree 1 Terms 1

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Check It Out! Example 4 Classify each polynomial according to its degree and number of terms. a. x3 + x2 – x + 2 x3 + x2 – x + 2 is a cubic polymial. Degree 3 Terms 4 b. 6 6 is a constant monomial. Degree 0 Terms 1 –3y8 + 18y5 + 14y is an 8th-degree trinomial. c. –3y8 + 18y5 + 14y Degree 8 Terms 3

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Example 5: Application A tourist accidentally drops her lip balm off the Golden Gate Bridge. The bridge is 220 feet from the water of the bay. The height of the lip balm is given by the polynomial –16t , where t is time in seconds. How far above the water will the lip balm be after 3 seconds? Substitute the time for t to find the lip balm’s height. –16t –16(3) The time is 3 seconds. –16(9) + 200 Evaluate the polynomial by using the order of operations. – 76

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**Example 5: Application Continued**

A tourist accidentally drops her lip balm off the Golden Gate Bridge. The bridge is 220 feet from the water of the bay. The height of the lip balm is given by the polynomial –16t , where t is time in seconds. How far above the water will the lip balm be after 3 seconds? After 3 seconds the lip balm will be 76 feet from the water.

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Check It Out! Example 5 What if…? Another firework with a 5-second fuse is launched from the same platform at a speed of 400 feet per second. Its height is given by –16t2 +400t + 6. How high will this firework be when it explodes? Substitute the time t to find the firework’s height. –16t t + 6 –16(5) (5) + 6 The time is 5 seconds. –16(25) + 400(5) + 6 Evaluate the polynomial by using the order of operations. – – 1606

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**Check It Out! Example 5 Continued**

What if…? Another firework with a 5-second fuse is launched from the same platform at a speed of 400 feet per second. Its height is given by –16t2 +400t + 6. How high will this firework be when it explodes? When the firework explodes, it will be 1606 feet above the ground.

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Lesson Quiz: Part I Find the degree of each polynomial. 1. 7a3b2 – 2a4 + 4b – 15 2. 25x2 – 3x4 Write each polynomial in standard form. Then give the leading coefficient. 3. 24g g5 – g2 4. 14 – x4 + 3x2 5 4 7g5 + 24g3 – g2 + 10; 7 –x4 + 3x2 + 14; –1

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Lesson Quiz: Part II Classify each polynomial according to its degree and number of terms. 5. 18x2 – 12x + 5 quadratic trinomial 6. 2x4 – 1 quartic binomial 7. The polynomial 3.675v v2 is used to estimate the stopping distance in feet for a car whose speed is y miles per hour on flat dry pavement. What is the stopping distance for a car traveling at 70 miles per hour? ft

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Warm Up Evaluate each expression for the given value of x.

Warm Up Evaluate each expression for the given value of x.

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