2Trafalgar SquareThis is one of the nerve-centres of London. It was named Trafalgar Square to commemorate the historical naval victory won on the 21st of October 1805 by the British fleet under the command of Horatio Nelson over the combined French-Spanish fleet commanded by Villeneuve. The battle took place at Cape Trafalgar in the mouth of the Straits of Gibraltar and lasted several hours. Nelson was fatally wounded by a shot which broke his backbone. He died on board his flagship the Victory, but not before being told that he had won the battle.Nelson's Column, with the statue of Admiral Lord Nelson on top, rises in the centre of Trafalgar Square. This most impressive monument is 170 feet (about 52 m) tall. The statue of Nelson, placed facing towards the sea he loved, measures 17 feet (more than 5 m) in height.To the north-east of Trafalgar Square there is the building that houses the National Gallery of Art - one of the most important Art Galleries in the world - and behind is the National Portrait Gallery.Quite often the square becomes the location for meetings and in it crowds of Londoners congregate to celebrate political rallies. So it can be said that Trafalgar Square is the heart from which the beat is emitted to all the Londoners.There are many pigeons in the square and Londoners like to feed them. Everybody knows that the dove is the symbol of peace all over the world.
3Buckingham PalaceBuckingham Palace is one of the major tourist attractions in London. It is the official residency o the British monarchy. At the moment British monarchy is led by Queen Elizabeth II. Each time the royal family is in the palace, a flag flies on the roof. The palace was built in 1705 by the Duke of Buckingham. Buckingham Palace has nearly 600 rooms, including a throne room, a ballroom, a dining-room, picture gallery and even a swimming-pool. One of the most interesting parts of the palace is the Queen’s Gallery, where works of art of the royal collection can be seen. Royal garden and stables are also curious sights. Every day at 11 am Changing of the Guard ceremony takes place. It is the time when colorfully dressed New Guard parades along the building and replace the existing Old Guard. The ceremony is accompanied by music and attracts a lot of viewers.
4The Tower of London The Tower of London is a very old building in London. It is nine hundred years old. The Tower of London stands on the Thames. It comprises 20 towers. The oldest of which, the White Tower, dates back to the llth century and the time of William the Conqueror. The Tower is famous as home of the Crown Jewels. Today they can be viewed in their new jewel house. They include the Crown of Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother which contains the celebrated Indian diamond. In the early days of the history of England the English kings lived in the Tower. Then it was a prison where many people died, black ravens had much food near the walls of the Tower in those years. The black ravens live in the gardens of the Tower now. The English people like them very much. A man looks after the ravens and gives them meat in the morning and in the evening. Legend states that if the ravens were to leave the Tower the Crown will fall, and Britain with it. Now the Tower of London is a museum and many people from other countries come to see it. At ten o’clock every evening the guards lock the big doors of the Tower for the night.
5Tower bridgeThis bridge built in 1894, is still in daily use even though the traffic in and out of the London wharves’ has increased to an extraordinary extent during the course of the 20th century.Even today Tower Bridge regulates a large part of the impressive traffic of the Port of London. Due to a special mechanism, the main traffic-way consisting of two parts fixed to two hinges at the ends can be lifted up. In this way, the entrance and departure of extremely large vessels is possible, and allows them to reach the Pool of London. While the central stay measures 142 feet, each bascule to be raised weighs 1,000 tons. Nowadays the pedestrian path is closed. This footpath crossing which used to be allowed was by the upper bridge which connected the top of each tower, situated at a height of 142 feet above the waters of the famous Thames. Tower Bridge commands wide and magnificent views of both the city and the river. After Tower Bridge, the wharves of London extend until Tilbury. The gigantic port of this city, which has one of the heaviest movements of ocean-going traffic in the entire world, occupies practically the whole of the Thames from Teddington. It is virtually impossible to get a complete idea of its colossal extention. In fact it is one wharf after another, apparently continuing endlessly. There is one way to form a closer idea of the grandiosity of this port: to view it from Tower Bridge on a clear day. To get the most accurate idea of its formidable extension and complexity, one can recommend taking one of the boats that during the summer months are organized to ply popular sightseeing trips along the Thames.
6Big BenThe big clock on the tower of the Palace of Westminster in London is often called Big Ben. But Big Ben is really the bell of the clock. It is the biggest clock bell in Britain. It weighs 13.5 tons. The clock tower is 318 feet high. You have to go up 374 steps to reach the top. So the clock looks small from the pavement below the tower. But its face is 23 feet wide. It would only just fit into some classrooms. The minute-hand is 14 feet long. Its weight is equal to that of two bags of coal. The hour-hand is 9 feet long. The clock bell is called Big Ben after Sir Benjamin Hall. He had the job to see that the bell was put up. Sir Benjamin was a big man. One day he said in Parliament, "Shall we call the bell St. Stephen's?" St. Stephen's is the name of the tower.
7Westminster AbbeyOne of the most attractive constructions is Westminster Abbey. It attracts visitors not only with its architectural glory but also with its rich history and cultural importance. Westminster Abbey is the place where many outstanding Englishmen are buried, among them well-known poets, writers, scientists, statesmen, painters and many others. Many people who visit the Abbey want to commemorate such great men as William Shakespeare, Charles Darwin, Isaac Newton, Robert Burns, Bernard Show, Lord Byron, Walter Scott, Geoffrey Chaucer, and many others. The history of Westminster Abbey dates back to the Middle Ages or even the earlier times, as 900 years ago St. Peter found the first church on the place, where the Abbey is now situated. The present building appeared during the reign of Henry III. According to the ancient tradition all English kings and queens were crowned and wed here. People who visit it for the first time are startled by its beauty and glory.