2 13.1 After You Read: Streams and Rivers What is a drainage basin, or watershed? What separates two drainage systems from each other?A drainage basin, or watershed, is all of the land that drains into a certain river and its tributaries. A divide separates two drainage basins.Oxygen acting on ironBurrowing animals
5 13.1 After You Read: Streams and Rivers GradientHow much energy river has to erode materialsDischargeSize and shape of channel
6 13.2 Stream Erosion and Deposition What is the difference between a stream’s competence and its capacity?The competence is the maximum size of the particles a stream can carry, while capacity is a measure of the total amount of sediment it can carry.
7 13.2 After You Read: Stream Erosion and Deposition In suspensionIn bed loadIn solutionIn bed loadIn suspensionIn bed loadIn solutionIn suspension
8 13.3 River ValleysGullyCanyonV-shaped valleyBase Level
9 13.3 River Valleys After You Read Explain how Niagra Falls illustrates the process of recession by undermining.Niagra Falls’ falling water erodes the shale rock around its plunge pool, leaving the overhanging layer of dolomite rock unsupported.ES1305 – Waterfall Erosion
10 13.3 River Valleys After You Read How can headward erosion lead to stream piracy?When land is worn away at the head of a stream and the stream eventually breaks through a divide, the first stream can capture the headwaters of a second river.
12 13.4 Floodplains and Floods List the advantages and disadvantages, or limitations, of three methods of flood control; replanting where vegetation has been removed, building dams, and building artificial levees.Can reduce runoffCannot prevent floodsIf dam breaks, resulting flood is worse than without damReservoirs can store excess runoffDeeper depth of river produces greater velocity and greater erosive forceAllows deeper river to hold more water
13 13.4 Floodplains and Floods List three human activities that can cause or worsen floods and tell how they cause problems. Covering land with pavement makes land unable to absorb water; removing vegetation from slopes increases runoff; and development displaces the wetlands that would otherwise act as natural sponges.