# Mission Aircrew Course Chapter 9: Search Planning and Coverage (Feb 2005)

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Mission Aircrew Course Chapter 9: Search Planning and Coverage (Feb 2005)

m O-2004 USE A POD TABLE (P) m P-2021 DISCUSS HOW ATMOSPHERIC AND LIGHTING CONDITIONS AFFECT SCANNING EFFECTIVENESS (S) m P-2025 DISCUSS COMMON SEARCH TERMS (S) m P-2026 IDENTIFY WHAT TO LOOK FOR AND RECORD DURING DAMAGE ASSESSMENT MISSIONS (S) Aircrew Tasks

m In basic terms, discuss how search planners determine the Maximum Area of Probability and then the Probability Area. {P; 9.2.1 & 9.2.2} m Given a POD table, discuss the advantages and disadvantages of various search altitudes and speeds over the three major types of terrain. {P; 9.2.3} m Discuss the importance of proper execution of search patterns. {P; 9.2.4} Objectives

m Optional – Review POD Example {9.3} Objectives

m Define the following search terms: {S; 9.1} Ground and Search Track Maximum Area of Possibility Meteorological and Search Visibility Probability Area Probability of Detection (POD) Scanning Range Search Altitude Track spacing (S) Objectives

m Discuss how a disaster can effect CAP operations. {S; 9.4.1} m Discuss the types of questions you must always be asking yourself during damage assessment missions. {S; 9.4.5} m List typical things you are looking for during a damage assessment mission. {S; 9.4.5} m List the information you should obtain when over a damage assessment site. {S; 9.4.5} m Discuss the limitations of an air search for a missing person. {S; 9.5} Objectives (Con’t)

m Ground track is an imaginary line on the ground that is made by an aircraft’s flight path over the ground m Maximum Area of Possibility is normally a circular area centered at the search objective’s last know position, with certain corrections m Meteorological visibility is the maximum distance at which large objects (e.g., a mountain) can be seen m Probability Area is a smaller area, within the maximum area of possibility, where there is an increased likelihood of locating the search objective m Probability of Detection (POD) is the likelihood, expressed in percent, that a search airplane might locate the objective Search Terms

m Scanning range is the lateral distance from a scanner’s aircraft to an imaginary line on the ground, parallel to the ground track, that a scanner is expected to have a good chance at spotting the search objective m Search Altitude is the altitude the aircraft will fly above the ground (AGL) m Search track is an imaginary swath across the surface formed by the scanning range and the length of the aircraft’s ground track m Search visibility is the distance at which an object on the ground can be seen and recognized from a particular height m Track Spacing (S) is the distance between adjacent visual or electronic search legs Search Terms

Narrowing the Search m Search Involves Estimating the position of the wreck or survivors Determining the area to be searched Selecting the search techniques to be used m Maximum Possibility Area Circle around the Last Known Position (LKP) The radius is equal to the endurance of the aircraft Correct for wind m Probability Area Where is the aircraft likely to be

Search Altitudes & Airspeed m Altitudes Maintain a minimum of 500 feet above the ground, water, or any obstruction within a 1000' radius during daylight hours, and a minimum of 2000' AGL at night (except for takeoff and landing). [Refer to CAPR 60-1 for special restrictions for over- water missions.] For SAR/DR/CD/HLS reconnaissance, the pilot will maintain at least 800 AGL. Pilots may descend below the designated search altitude to attempt to positively identify the target (but never below 500 AGL or within 500 feet of any obstructions within a 1000' radius); once the target has been identified the pilot will return to 800' AGL or higher. m Airspeed No lower than Vx

Search Factors m Factors which effect detection Weather; terrain; lighting conditions Sweep Width (W) Track Spacing (S) Coverage Factor (C) Probability of Detection (P) m Determine factors for search area coverage Type and number of aircraft available Search visibility m Probability Of Detection (POD)

Determining the Maximum Possibility Area LKP Corrected for wind Wind vector No wind endurance Maximum possibility area Flight level winds: 330/20 Aircraft Speed: 100 Kts Endurance: 2 Hours 200 NM 40NM

Probability Area m Where was the last point where RADAR had the aircraft identified? m Is there an ELT? m Was there a flight plan (even if not on file with the FAA)? m Dead reckoning from LKP and heading m Reports of sightings Other aircraft People living along the intended route of flight

Narrowing the Probability Area m Flight plan m Weather information m National Track Analysis Program data m Airports along the intended flight track m Aircraft performance m Pilots flying habits m Radar coverage as a limiting factor m Nature of terrain along the flight track m Position reports — fuel stops, etc. m Most likely within 5 miles of intended track

Search Priorities m Areas of bad weather m Low clouds and poor visibility m Areas where weather was not as forecast m High terrain m Areas not covered by radar m Reports of low flying aircraft m Survival factors m Radio contacts or MAYDAY calls

Probability of Detection (POD) m POD expressed as a “percent” search object was detected m Four interrelated factors used to calculate: Track Spacing Search Visibility Search Altitude Type of Terrain m Cumulative POD calculated using a chart m “Effectiveness” must also be considered

POD Table (back of 104)

POD Chart - detail 500 Feet 0.5 nm35%60%75% 1.0203550 1.515253540 700 Feet 0.5 nm40%60%75%80% 1.020355055 1.5152540 1,000 Feet 0.5 nm40%65%80%85% 1.0254055 1.515304045 OPEN, FLAT TERRAIN SEARCH ALTITUDE (AGL) Track Spacing SEARCH VISIBILITY 1 mi 2 mi 3 mi 4 mi 50 2.0102030 2.010203035 60 2.015203035

Cumulative POD Chart 5-10%15 11-20%2025 21-30%303545 31-40%40455060 41-50%5055606570 51-60%606565707580 61-70%70707580808590 71-80%8080808585909095 80+%858590909095959595+ 5-10%11-20%21-30%31-40%41-50%51-60%61-70%71-80%80+% POD For This Search Previous POD

QUESTIONS?

m Natural and man-made m Examples of CAP services: Air and ground SAR services Air and ground visual and/or video imaging Flood boundary determination Air and ground transportation Courier flights Radio communications support Disaster Assessment

m Effects of extreme weather m Physical landscape may be so altered as to make maps obsolete or make navigation difficult m Damage or destruction of area infrastructure m Effects of biological, chemical or radiological terrorism (or accidental release) How Disasters Can Affect CAP Operations

m Flying damage assessment sorties is not much different from our SAR search patterns m The big difference is what you look for m Should be asking questions such as: What is the geographical extent and severity of the damage? Is the damage spreading? If so, how far and how fast? How has access/egress been affected? What are the primary and secondary hazards? Is the disaster threatening critical structures or areas? Have utilities been affected or are they threatened? Can you see alternatives to problems? Assessment

m Some specific things to be looking for are: Breaks in pavement, railways, bridges, dams, levees, pipelines, runways and structures Roads/streets blocked by water, debris or landslide Downed power lines Ruptured water lines Motorists in distress or major accidents Alternate routes for emergency vehicles or evacuation Distress signals from survivors Assessment

m At each site, besides sketching or highlighting the extent of the damage and identifying access and egress routes, you should record: Latitude and longitude Description Type and extent of damage Photo number, or time reference for videotape Status and trends Assessment

Aerial survey of WTC

Flooding over levee

Seeping behind levee

Flooded approach

Bridge damage

Wide image of train wreck Chemical spill (hazmat)

Close image of train wreck

Infrared image of train wreck

Plume from train wreck

QUESTIONS?

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