Presentation on theme: "Stormwater Forum May 8, 2007 Clarion Townhouse Hotel Columbia, SC Linking Land Use and Water Quality: A Challenging (But Critical) Message to Convey."— Presentation transcript:
Stormwater Forum May 8, 2007 Clarion Townhouse Hotel Columbia, SC Linking Land Use and Water Quality: A Challenging (But Critical) Message to Convey
Are You At the Top of the Org Chart…?
Ever Feel Overloaded…?
Ever Get Mixed Signals…?
Ever Required to Consider Economics…?
Ever Been Confronted with What Might Have Been a Poor Decision…?
Overview Working with Local Officials –Tough audience NEMO Strategy –Comprehensive planning –Site design –Best Management Practices
Facts About Local Officials n Most are volunteers n Limited training
n Complex issues n Politically motivated Facts About Local Officials
n Regulator vs. administrator n High turnover Facts About Local Officials
Reaching Local Officials n Focus on rational decisions n Present information in context of responsibilities n Watch informational material overload
n Reconcile regulations with comprehensive plans n Continuity of message n Follow up! Reaching Local Officials
n Understand legal roles and responsibilities n Address site and “big picture” issues n Don’t be afraid of saying “I don’t know” Reaching Local Officials
n Use local data and information n Use humor…they need every bit they can get! n Use latest technology Logistical Tips
Nonpoint Nonpoint Education Education for Municipal Officials Officials Linking Land Use to Water Quality in South Carolina
SC NEMO Goal Develop a process to educate elected and appointed municipal officials about the impacts of land use on water quality and about options available for managing those resources
WaccamawCouncilofGovernments BCD Council of Governments Ocean and Coastal Resource Management Community Decision-Makers EPA and NOAA USC Center for Environmental Policy USC Earth Science and Resources Institute ClemsonUniversityExtension SC Sea Grant Extension Program
Point Source Pollution Nonpoint Source Pollution Photo: AM Johnson
SANTEE PEE DEE EDISTO SAVANNAH SALUDA BROAD CATAWBA SALKEHATCHIE Major Watersheds in South Carolina
Land Use Impacts on Water Quality
50%50% 10%10% 15%15% 55%55% Development Impacts On the Water Cycle
STUDY AREA WATERSHED
Fecal Coliform Impairment
Heavy Metal Impairment:
Dissolved Oxygen Impairment
Aggregated Impaired Sub-Watersheds
Composite of All Impairments
Land Cover or Land Use? Cover - what is physically on the ground - Forested - Wetlands Cover - what is physically on the ground - Forested - Wetlands Use - what is practiced, permitted or planned - Recreational
What to Look For: Polluted runoff from Forested & Wetland areas Nutrients:Pathogens:Sediment:Toxic:Debris:Thermal: wildlife removal of streamside vegetation erosion from timber harvesting
What to Look For: Polluted runoff from Open and Agricultural Areas Nutrients:Pathogens:Sediment:Toxic:Debris:Thermal: pet & wildlife waste removal of natural vegetative buffers, shallow water impoundments erosion from agricultural fields fertilizer from farms, parks, golf courses pesticides from farms & golf courses litter & illegal dumping
What to Look For: Polluted runoff from Residential areas Nutrients:Pathogens:Sediment:Toxic:Debris:Thermal: malfunctioning septic systems, pet waste heated runoff, removal of natural vegetative buffers construction, road sand, erosion from lawns & gardens lawn fertilizers & septic system effluent household products, pesticides litter & illegal dumping
What to Look For: Polluted runoff from Commercial & Industrial areas Nutrients:Pathogens:Sediment:Toxic:Debris:Thermal: malfunctioning or overloaded septic systems & lagoons heated runoff, removal of natural buffers construction, road sand, roadside erosion acid rain and car exhaust auto emissions, industrial pollutants litter & illegal dumping
Wait a minute Cal. All that material can be so overwhelming. What can I really do to address stormwater?
Three-tiered Strategy for Coping with Polluted Runoff 1st: Natural Resource Based Planning (Community Scale) (Community Scale) 2nd: Site Design (Community & Site Scale) (Community & Site Scale) 3rd: BMPs & Remediation (Site Scale) (Site Scale)
1st: Natural Resource Based Planning 2nd: Site Design 3rd: BMPs & Remediation Strategy for coping with polluted runoff n Inventory natural resources n Prioritize areas for protection and for development n Incorporate open space planning n Develop plans of action n Revise zoning and land development regulations to support plans
COMPREHENSIVE PLAN ELEMENTS Comprehensive Plan Population Land Use Housing Natural Resources Community Facilities Economics Cultural Resources
For Example Suggested Language for Local Ordinances 1. Consider it’s location within the watershed 2. Minimize disturbance of natural grades and vegetation 3. Protect natural wetlands and stream buffers. 4. Maximize infiltration of stormwater 5. Minimize impervious surfaces. 1. Consider it’s location within the watershed 2. Minimize disturbance of natural grades and vegetation 3. Protect natural wetlands and stream buffers. 4. Maximize infiltration of stormwater 5. Minimize impervious surfaces. The Town of _____ wishes to protect the health of its water resources, and seeks to reduce the impact of development on those resources. In particular, the commission requires that all new or re-development projects : The Town of _____ wishes to protect the health of its water resources, and seeks to reduce the impact of development on those resources. In particular, the commission requires that all new or re-development projects :
Planning for Open Space Encourage incentives & flexibility to promote conservation of water and land resources Conduct Open Space (Natural Resource) Inventory Prioritize for preservation Categorize open space by function Organize into corridors or greenways
1st: Natural Resource Based Planning 2nd: Site Design 3rd: BMPs & Remediation Strategy for coping with polluted runoff n Reduce impervious area n Contain stormwater on-site
Reduce Impervious Area Reduce Road Widths – Alternative street lay-outs, one way streets, queuing streets, back alleyways for utility infrastructure and parking, setbacks, alternative materials Reduce Parking Area – Lower allocation ratios, angled parking, narrower slots Alternative Driveway Design – Shared driveways, lot frontage setbacks, pervious materials Reduce Paved Sidewalk Area – On one side of street only, alternative materials Site Design Strategies
Contain Stormwater On-Site Use inverted streets as stormwater collectors – Bio- filters Invert parking islands to collect water Reduce use of street curbing – Grassed or vegetative swales Direct rooftop runoff from gutters onto pervious areas Site Design Strategies
Site Plan Review 65% Transportation 65% Transportation 35% Structures 35% Structures Parking Lots Roads Driveways Sidewalks Parking Lots Roads Driveways Sidewalks Derived from the City of Olympia, WA ISRS Final Report The Impervious Surface Budget Offices Stores Houses Patios Offices Stores Houses Patios
Pavement = 24’ R.O.W. = 48’ SubbaseSubbase Shoulder/swale= 12’ Pavement Width can be much less than the right-of-way
Right-of-Way Widths Paved right-of-ways contribute a significant amount to the imperviousness of a community. Narrowing roadwaysNarrowing roadways Reducing sidewalk widths or restricting sidewalks to one side of the streetReducing sidewalk widths or restricting sidewalks to one side of the street Requiring ROWs be permeable (grass, dirt, permeable pavement)Requiring ROWs be permeable (grass, dirt, permeable pavement) Reducing the border width between the street and the sidewalkReducing the border width between the street and the sidewalk Installing utilities under street pavementsInstalling utilities under street pavements Placing sidewalks and utilities within easements outside of the ROWPlacing sidewalks and utilities within easements outside of the ROW Redesign the main components of the ROW by:
Street Lengths and Widths Streets are the greatest source of impervious cover in most subdivisions. Vary pavement width according to the proposed use LocalLocal 18 to 24 feet CollectorCollector 22 to 30 feet ArterialArterial 24 to 32 feet A hierarchy of road standards
Reduced Road Width
Examples of Reduced Road Width
Setbacks Relax Side Yard Setbacks & Narrow Frontages Reduce total road length Reduce total road length Increase # homes/unit length Increase # homes/unit length Relax Front Setback Requirements Minimize driveway lengths Minimize driveway lengths Reduce overall lot imperviousness Reduce overall lot imperviousness
Alternative Cul-de-Sacs Cul-de-sacs = huge bulb of impervious cover Applicable to all development types Reduces impervious cover and stormwater runoff Source: Center for Watershed Protection 40 foot cul-de-sac with landscaped island 30 foot radius cul- de-sac T-shaped hammerhead Loop Road
Examples of Alternative Turnarounds
Parking Reducing the Effects of Imperviousness Require on-site treatment of stormwater using bio- retention medians or other filter typesRequire on-site treatment of stormwater using bio- retention medians or other filter types Require landscaping and buffersRequire landscaping and buffers Regulations should require no more parking than the amount actually needed for specific land uses and encourage pervious areas for the high- demand overload. Reducing Imperviousness Allow smaller parking spaces for compact carsAllow smaller parking spaces for compact cars Encourage use of alternative pavement typesEncourage use of alternative pavement types Require use of non-black materials for pavementRequire use of non-black materials for pavement
Good candidates for permeable parking areas … Sports complexes Sports complexes Small office parking lots Small office parking lots Churches Churches Museums Museums Overflow parking areas Overflow parking areas
DrivewaysDriveways Problems … Can contribute 15% to the impervious surface areaCan contribute 15% to the impervious surface area Are hot spots for pollutant accumulationAre hot spots for pollutant accumulation Can be “heat islands”Can be “heat islands”
Shared driveways Minimal front yard setbacks Limits on pavement Alternative paving surfaces Various driveway designs Reducing Imperviousness … Grassed swales Grassed swales Disrupt the connection Disrupt the connection Non-black paving material Non-black paving material Allow on-street parking to count towards the driveway requirement per dwelling.
Can be “heat islands” Can collect, concentrate, and convey stormwater Sidewalks Problems … Only as wide as necessary Strategically located Pavement alternatives Non-black paving materials Reducing Imperviousness …
Rooftop Runoff The annual runoff volume from residential development sites can be decreased by as much as 50% by... Turning downspouts toward grassed areasTurning downspouts toward grassed areas Directing flow into stormwater treatment practices (vegetated swales)Directing flow into stormwater treatment practices (vegetated swales) Removing gutters to allow sheet flow of runoff through vegetated areasRemoving gutters to allow sheet flow of runoff through vegetated areas Using rain barrelsUsing rain barrels Using light-colored roofing materialUsing light-colored roofing material Utilizing green roof technologyUtilizing green roof technology Include the building footprint as impervious area
Drainage Curb and gutter systems…do not treat stormwater and contribute to floodingCurb and gutter systems…do not treat stormwater and contribute to flooding Vegetated channels remove pollutants on-site and raise times of concentrationVegetated channels remove pollutants on-site and raise times of concentration Bio-retention areas can be used in parking lots to meet landscape requirementsBio-retention areas can be used in parking lots to meet landscape requirements Sand filters use layers of sand to filter pollutantsSand filters use layers of sand to filter pollutants Permeable pavers allow runoff to naturally filter into groundwaterPermeable pavers allow runoff to naturally filter into groundwater On-site drainage systems range from simple grassed swales to more complex bio-retention medians and sand filters…
n Encourage mostly natural & vegetated stormwater controls n Ensure maintenance of roads, lots, and catch basins n Support restoration where effective n Encourage redevelopment and infilling to avoid further sprawl 1st: Comprehensive Planning 2nd: Site Design è 3rd: BMPs & Remediation Strategy for coping with polluted runoff
Engineered Swales n Promote infiltration n Most effective at sediment removal n Open, above ground systems are easier to maintain and troubleshoot n Installation costs are favorable compared to piped drainage n They look better!
Cost Factors Traditional Drainage $150 - $250 per linear foot Don’t forget, Maintenance Includes: InspectionSediment/debris removalStructural repairs Who will Maintain? Engineered Swales $10 - $25 per linear foot Curbing Catch basins Piping Outlet Structure Detention/Retention Ponds Curbing Catch basins Piping Outlet Structure Detention/Retention Ponds
Stormwater Pond Bio-retention Area Wetlands
Bio-retention Medians Permeable Pavers
è è Want to save money. è è Want to sell lots. è è Want to know the rules. (Clearly Written Regulations can do that) (Reducing impervious surfaces can do that) (Green areas can do that) What About The Developers?
In Conclusion…. n Nonpoint source pollution is the #1 water quality problem in the US n There are a variety of pollutants in runoff n Nonpoint source pollution does not pay attention to jurisdictional boundaries n As growth continues, water quality becomes increasingly important
In Conclusion ….(continued) n Impervious surface coverage is a key indicator of water quality n Through comprehensive planning, innovative site design, and the implementation of BMPs, communities can protect water quality and still grow in a productive way
To Make It Work… n Planners n Engineers n Councils n Stormwater Managers n General Public
Special Thanks n Jim Gibbons, Land Use Planning Specialist, CT Cooperative Extension n April Turner, Coastal Communities Specialist, SC Sea Grant Extension Program
Cal Sawyer Extension Water Quality Coordinator Clemson University 233 McAdams Hall Clemson, SC