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Presentation on theme: "NAFSA PRE-CONFERENCE WORKSHOP INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION RESEARCH: THE NUTS AND BOLTS IN THREE DIMENSIONS Washington, DC Sunday, May 24, 2008 8:00AM - 5:00PM."— Presentation transcript:


2 Facilitators Peter Briggs, Director, Office of International Students and Scholars, Michigan State University Kevin Gormley, Senior Program Officer, NSEP Bruce LaBrack, Director, Pacific Institute for Cross Cultural Training, University of the Pacific Rick Sutton, Assistant Vice Chancellor for International Education, U. System of Georgia Mick Vande Berg, Vice President for Academic Affairs, CIEE

3 Workshop Learning Goals When the workshop ends, you will: Be able to identify key elements of research theory and design Be able to identify major developments in the evolution of US international education research Understand some of the salient issues facing researchers in three domains: study abroad, international students and scholars, and the internationalization of higher ed. Institutions Be aware of a number of major funding possibilities for international education research Understand the importance of collaborating in designing and carrying out international education research Be able to collaboratively design an international education research project

4 Workshop Agenda Introductions & Workshop Overview Research Theory and Design Domain I: Research on Study Abroad BREAK (10:10-10:25) Domain II: International Student Research Domain III: Research on Internationalization of Institutions Research Funding Possibilities LUNCH (12:30-1:30) Designing Group Projects I Review of Group Project Status BREAK (3:00-3:15) Designing Group Projects II Group Project Presentations Open Discussion, Wrap-Up

5 Research Domain I: The Evolution of Study Abroad & Study Abroad Research Mick Vande Berg

6 The Traditional Learning Paradigm: Widespread, Long-lasting Influence Focus on the teacher: credentials, achievements “Font of Wisdom”: teacher gathers, creates & provides knowledge Tradition and authority Pre-existing knowledge Lectures in formal classrooms Students are willing and respectful receivers of knowledge Teachers give students feedback through exams and papers

7 The Rapidly Emerging Learner-Centered Paradigm Focus on the learner Teacher creates learning environments Teacher facilitates learning: orients, organizes, motivates learners Frequent informal as well as formal feedback Students “construct” own learning: connect prior & new information, & consider how it might be applied Interactive learning: in and beyond classrooms Students reflect on their own learning Teacher and students identify learning goals (For a very good overview of many of the issues involved in the paradigm shift, and an excellent bibliography, see Maryellen Weimer. Learner-Centered Teaching: Five Key Changes to Practice. (2002). Jossey-Bass: San Francisco.)

8 The Traditional Learning Paradigm: U.S. Study Abroad Demographics: Relatively few participants: 48,000 in 85-86 Homogeneous Participants Ethnically Gender Socio-Economically Academically Homogeneous Destinations: 80% western Europe

9 The Traditional Learning Paradigm U.S. Study Abroad (1880s to 1990s) Assumptions about Teaching & Learning Focus on Inputs: location, duration, reputation of host university, faculty credentials, student GPA Teacher-Centered is best teaching strategy Lectures are most effective way of teaching: teacher as font of wisdom Students are willing and respectful Students learn effectively through contact with the new culture

10 The New Student Learning Paradigm Study Abroad (1990s to present) Demographics: 365%+ enrollment increases in 21 years: 224,000 US students abroad in 05-06 Increasing Number of Study Destinations Increasing Diversity of Students Increasing Diversity of program types (“learning opportunities”)

11 The New Study Abroad Learning Paradigm Assumptions about Teaching & Learning Educators need: To focus on learning goals—on what they want students a) to know b) to understand, and c) to be able to do by the end of the course or program. To provide feedback and assess learning To intervene: to design & deliver learning opportunities that allow learners to be active and reflective about their learning (“Intervention Hypothesis”)

12 Study Abroad Research Growth* DecadeStudiesGrowth 1950s34+127% 1960s117+244% 1970s189+62% 1980s377+99% 1990s675+79% 2000-05c. 500N/A (* Bolen, M. (2007). A Guide to Outcomes Assessment in Education Abroad. Carlisle: Forum on Education Abroad, p. 99.)

13 Study Abroad Research Evolution Early Research: 1950s-60s Primary Domain: Second Language Learning Intent: Document that Learning was Taking Place

14 Recent Research: 1990s-2000s Increasingly Sophisticated & Rigorous From One Learning Domain to Many Validity & Reliability Control Groups Research Partnerships From Simply Documenting Learning to Documenting Impact of Variables on Learning

15 Recent Research: 1990s-2000s More Complex Research Questions Multiple Learning Domains Second Language: Four Skills Intercultural Sensitivity or Competence Global Awareness Academic Disciplines Workplace Values and Skills

16 Recent Research: 1990s-2000s Focus on Environmental Impacts on Learning Program Duration Second Language used in Courses Abroad On-Site Intercultural Mentoring Contact with Host Nationals Housing Types Home Institution Grading Policy

17 Recent Research: 1990s-2000s Focus on Learner Characteristics Gender Academic Discipline Previous Language Study Learning Aptitude Learning Readiness Student Attitudes: Motivations, Expectations, Goals

18 A Research Breakthrough: The Engle & Engle Classification Approach Key Variables that Impact Student Learning: Length of Stay Entry Target Language Competence Target Language Used in Coursework? Context of Academic Work Type of Housing Cultural/Experiential Learning? Mentoring: Student Reflection on Learning

19 Research Increasingly Self Reflective Appearance of Research Journals: Frontiers (1995) Journal of Studies in International Ed (1996) Collections of Articles: Freed, B. (1995). Second Language Learning in a Study Abroad Context. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Vande Berg, M. (ed.) Assessment of Study Abroad Learning, Special Issue of Frontiers: the Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad. Volume X, Fall 2004.

20 International Ed Databases, Biblios, & Guides Three annotated bibliographies at Chao, Maureen. (Ed.). Research on U.S. Students Abroad, Volume II, A Bibliography with Abstracts 1989-2000. (NAFSA: Association of International Educators/SECUSSA, 2001). Comp, David. (Ed.) Research on U.S. Students Abroad, Volume III, 2001 to 2005 with Updates to the 1989 and Volume II Editions. (Loyola Marymount University, 2005.) Weaver, Henry D. (Ed.). Research on U.S. Students Abroad: A Bibliography with Abstracts. (Council on International Educational Exchange; Education Abroad Program, University of California; Institute of International Education; and National Association of Foreign Student Affairs, 1989). Bolen, Mel. (Ed.). The Guide to Assessment for International Education. (The Forum on Education Abroad, 2006, pending).

21 Three Representative Studies Paige, R. Michael, Andrew D. Cohen, et al. “Assessing the Impact of a Strategies Based Curriculum on Language and Culture Learning Abroad,” Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 10 (2004): 253-273. Impact of Maximizing Study Abroad on student learning abroad Two domains: second language and intercultural learning Pre-existing and Specially-developed Instruments Quantitative & Qualitative Approaches

22 Sutton, Richard C., and Donald L. Rubin. “The GLOSSARI Project: Initial Findings from a System-Wide Research Initiative on Study Abroad Learning Outcomes,” Frontiers: The Interdiscip. Journal of Study Abroad, 10 (2004): 65-82 Explores Student Acquisition of Content Knowledge & Cognitive Understanding Multi-year, six-phase study at multiple GA schools Extraordinarily Comprehensive: during past six years, 25,000 students Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches

23 Vande Berg, Michael J., Al Balkcum, Mark Scheid, and Brian Whalen. “The Georgetown University Consortium Project: A Report from the Halfway Mark,” Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 10 (2004): 101-116. Four Diverse Institutions & 61 Programs Abroad Pre- and Post-Testing of Learning In and Across Three Domains: Second Language, Intercultural, Disciplinary Relied on & Tested Engle & Engle Classification System Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches Outside Consultants: Research and Instrument Design, Faculty Workshops, & Analysis

24 In Closing, Some Research Recommendations.... Seek Partnerships, on and/or off campus Be clear about why you’re doing this project Be clear about who your audiences are Identify clear research questions Consider how variables influence learning in different domains (Engle & Engle Program Elements a useful start)

25 Developing the Research Project: a Protocol [Who is the audience you’re doing the research for?] [Who will the Principal Investigator & research team be?] 1. A. Either identify a research idea that interests you, OR 1 B. Identify a policy change you want to see implemented. 2. Identify why this research is important: Advocacy for policy change on campus? Program improvement? Assess for accountability? Assess for improvement? To improve academic advising? To maximize student learning? To contribute to knowledge? etc.? 3. Identify research question or questions 4. Determine who the subjects will be and how they will be selected 5. Identify research methods: Field research? Review/analyze existing data? Surveys? Interviews? Focus groups? Analyze texts? etc. 6. Identify Instrument needs, and identify/discuss development of instruments/data collection methods 7. Identify sequential process for carrying out research, including data collection, analysis and reporting 8. Possible funding source(s)?

26 Closing Activity: Pairs What are the three most important things you learned in this workshop? What do you plan to do with what you have learned? Who are three people you want to share this information with?


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