Presentation on theme: "AIM: How has journalism developed in this country? HISTORIC TIMELINE FIRST NEWSPAPERS IN THE AMERICAS: 1690 – PUBLICK OCCURRENCES – BENJAMIN HARRIS IT."— Presentation transcript:
AIM: How has journalism developed in this country? HISTORIC TIMELINE FIRST NEWSPAPERS IN THE AMERICAS: 1690 – PUBLICK OCCURRENCES – BENJAMIN HARRIS IT WAS SQUASHED BY BRITISH GOVERNMENT AFTER ONE ISSUE BECAUSE THEY DIDN’T LIKE WHAT HE AND THE PAPER SAID.
AIM: How has journalism developed in this country? 1704 – Boston News-Letter – John Campbell 1 st continuously printing newspaper. Why wasn’t this one squashed? It was published “by authority” – it was monitored and approved by British government.
REVIEW: WHAT WAS THE FIRST NEWS PAPER? WHAT WAS THE FIRST CONTINUOUSLY PRINTED PAPER? WHAT CONCLUSION CAN WE DRAW ABOUT THE TYPE OF NEWS PRINTED AT THIS TIME? HOW MIGHT THE COLONIAL POPULATION REACT TO THESE TYPES OF NEWSPAPERS?
WHO IS J.P. ZENGER??? John Paul Zenger fought back in – New York Weekly Journal – Zenger printed articles critical of then Governor William Crosby – it was the beginning of the representation of the Whig party. -What is the Whig party? Zenger was jailed November 17, 1734, but awaited trial until August 4, 1735 (Pre Bill of Rights) AIM: How has journalism developed in this country?
1735 – Andrew Hamilton represented Zenger and admitted to the printing of the so called “seditious libel.” However, he pointed out that libel meant damaging falsehoods, and not oppositional truths. [Vocabulary: libel, slander] Libel – printed false defamation Slander – spoken false defamation
What was the verdict? Why? The jury was made up of colonials: NOT GUILTY. How might this contribute to the sentiments that led up to 1776? Why did this case set the tone? AIM: How has journalism developed in this country?
Review What were the first newspapers we discussed yesterday? What do we need to know about them? Who is JP Zenger? What resulted from his arrest? How have each of these newspapers contributed toward the creation of the USA?
Late 19 th Century Yellow Journalism – unethical, irresponsible brand of journalism given to hoaxes, altered photographs, screaming headlines, “scoops,” frauds and endless promotions of the newspapers themselves. “EMERGENCY EVACUATION AT FPM 3 DAYS PRIOR TO NINE-ELEVEN!!!”
Two Notable Yellow Journalists (and competitors): William Randolph Hearst – NY Journal Joseph Pulitzer – NY World These two papers helped bring about the Spanish-American War by supporting Cuban Nationalists with outrageous headlines about the sinking of the Maine in a Cuban port.
“…the investigation went on and nobody was found responsible for sinking the Battleship [The Maine]. The press had already made their minds up on who did it, it was the ‘cowardly Spanish.’ For months the papers provided detailed horror stories of Cuban life under the oppressive Spanish rule. The presses released stories with headlines such as ‘Spanish Cannibalism,’ ‘Inhuman Torture,’ ‘Amazon Warriors Fight for Rebels.’”
Nellie Bly (Elizabeth Cockrane) – She was considered a yellow journalist by creating her own news: -Jules Verne’s Around the World in Eighty Days was the inspiration for her circumnavigational stunt: she went around the world in 72 days, reporting all the way. -Another notable news creation of Bly’s was when she faked mental illness and had her self committed. She then reported on the horrible conditions at the asylum which then led to reform. What era of journalism are we about to segue into? Why?
Yellow Journalism eventually led to a movement of reform in the late 19 th century. Muckrakers – Social Consciousness -fought child labor, big business, meat packing industry -promoted hospitals, civil rights, help for the poor How or why did yellow journalism become muckraking?
Summary What were the first newspapers? WHO IS J.P. ZENGER? What resulted from his trial? What is Yellow Journalism? Who are William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer? Who is Nellie Bly? What is a Muckraker? How did yellow journalism lead to muckraking?
The Penny Press Early newspapers were often filled with essays, letters and editorials (things that take time to write) Benjamin Day founded the New York Sun, which was packed with news (events, tragedies, police beat) Toned down the opinions Sold on the street rather than by subscription Reached a massive audience, particularly the working class Advertising now played a major role in newspapers What is the impact of each of these? Many subsequent newspapers followed this format
The NY Times Started in 1851 by Henry Raymond Set the standard of accurate reporting, even from the beginning Today it considered one of the most reputable papers in the country
The telegraph Invented in 1844 Electric current flowed through wires across great distances Widespread use began 17 years later during the Civil War. Why? News from the “fronts” was transmitted instantaneously. The telegraph was unreliable and so the main details came first and the language was direct. This is the beginning of the inverted pyramid.
The inverted pyramid The most important aspects of the story are first (who, what, where, when). The comes the how and why and the meat of the story. Lastly, the peripheral details of the story are added. They may be cut off without hurting the story They may be trimmed to fit space on a page.
Radio – 1906 – the key breakthrough was based on Dr. Lee DeForest’s improvements on the vacuum tube which allowed broadcasting. What is broadcasting? Radio AM = amplitude modulation FM = frequency modulation
Radio continued First news broadcast occurred in 1916 over a limited area. First major (and regular) news broadcasting occurred 1920 – Harding-Cox election results National Broadcasting Company (NBC) – 1926 Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS) – 1927 Mutual Broadcasting System went on air in It became American Broadcasting Company in 1945 (ABC) The FCC was borne out of the Radio Act of 1927 which is a stronger version of the law passed in 1912 that called for the licensing of radio wavelengths.
Radio over the decades Before TV, radio was not only news, but also variety shows with sound effects, voices, music, dramas, etc. TV nearly caused the end of radio, but rock and roll of the 1950s helped to resurrect radio, causing it to focus primarily on music. There was still news. Talk radio began to make a comeback in the 1990s followed by the growing popularity of “shock jocks” such as Don Imus, Howard Stern and Opie and Anthony. They are not journalists! However, other talk radio shows began to emerge where news was discussed. Satellite radio has made its mark as a subscription based medium. No censorship.
Television The first news broadcast was in TV took away the entertainment shows from radio and took away the breaking news from newspapers. The public could hear and see breaking news on TV and this caused the other news media to change their format to adjust. News requirement. TV helped begin a “global village” by allowing the entire world to view worldly events such as the Olympics at the same time. New networks offered other options for news (PBS, CNN, FOX, MSNBC and others)
Yellow Journalism and Television Jerry Springer, et al. Graphic footage of world events (Columbine shootings, 9/11) Like Nellie Bly’s foray into the mental health asylum led to reform, so did graphic footage of recent (horrific) events. School responses and state laws to cope with bullying in schools Airline security There are now over 1400 TV stations (and growing) to offer specialized programming.
The Internet While the internet began in the 1960s, it became public and popular in the 1990s. News is as immediate as any other media. Archiving easier allows access to older news stories. Blogging allows a wider response to news stories bring more participation into current events. Smartphones allow anyone to access news (audio and photo/video), or disseminate news from virtually anywhere.
Review Early newspapers Yellow journalism/muckrakers Telegraph Radio TV Internet