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Religion in Afghanistan Joanie Johnson Kenzie Wetzel Per. 1.

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1 Religion in Afghanistan Joanie Johnson Kenzie Wetzel Per. 1

2 Shi’a Muslims believed the position should have been given to the next closest kin, Ali bin Abu Talib (cousin and son in law of Muhammad). Sunni Muslims believed the new Prophet should be elected by the people. The division of Sunni and Shi’a is a result of the death of the Prophet Muhammad.

3 In Afghanistan the two main groups of Islam are are Sunni Muslims and Shi’a Muslims. Sunni Muslims consist of % of the population and Shi’a Muslims consist of 10-20%.

4 Both Sunnis and Shias share fundamental religious beliefs under the Islam religion Both follow the teachings of the Qur'an. Both believe that Mecca, Jerusalem, and Medina are Holy Cities. The Shiites also believe that Najaf and Karbala are Holy Cities.

5 Both the Shi’a and the Sunni believe a man can marry up to four women. Both believe that Allah will resurrect all people to question them about their faith and actions. Both observe Ramadan, a time of reflection and devotion to their Religion, during the ninth month of the islamic calendar.

6 Sunnis- 5 Pillars of Faith Shahada- There is no God except Allah, and Muhammad is his messenger Salut- Prayer 5 times daily Zakat- Giving to the poor Sawm-Fasting (Ramadan) Hajj- Pilgrimage to Mecca

7 Salut- Prayer 3 times daily Sawm- Fasting (Ramadan) Hajj- Pilgrimage to Mecca Zakāh- Giving to the poor Khums- 20% tax Jihad- “Struggling” toward Allah Nahi-Anil-Munkar- Forbidding what is evil Amr-Bil-Ma'rūf- Commanding what is good Tawalla- Express love towards prophets and friends of Allah Tabarra- Isolate selves from enemies of Allah Shi’a- Ancillaries of the Faith

8 The differences between Sunni and Shi’a stemmed from political differences, but over time this has led to some spiritual differences. Sunnis pray with their arms crossed at their stomach or chests. Shias pray with their hands by their side.

9 Sunni Muslims view imams as highly respected prayer leaders, but do not believe they are free of sin. Shia Muslims views imams as spiritual leaders who are direct descendants of Muhammad, chosen by Allah, and free of sin.

10 Sunni and Shi’a both mourn the death of Imam Hussein (grandson of the prophet Muhammad), who died a martyr in the Battle of Karbala in 680 AD on the Day of Ashura. Sunni Muslims view Ashura as the day Israelites were freed from Egyptian Pharaohs. They partake in a day-long fast as tradition because Moses fasted on the day in appreciation. Ashura is solely a day of mourning for the the Shi’a Muslims. They express their grief through punishment of self-flagellation and beating their chests.

11 In 1979, the Iranian Revolution resulted in Shi’a Islamic leader Ruhollah Khomeini’s control of Iran. The Revolution marked the beginning of a radical agenda by the Shi’a muslims against their oppression at the hands of the Sunni. Iranian Revolution

12 Following the Revolution, Iran supported radical Shi’a groups while other nations in the Middle East, such as Iraq and Afghanistan, supported radical Sunni groups, like the Taliban. The religious divide between the Sunni and Shi’a caused many conflicts and was a driving force behind the Iran-Iraq War (September 1980 – August 1988).

13 Current Conflict Much of the conflict today between the Shi’a and Sunni is violence caused by radical groups. This violence comes in different forms including destruction of each other’s mosques, bombings, abductions, and murders.

14 Works Cited "CountryReports" CountryReports. CountryReports, Web 13 Nov Ghouse, Mike. "Will Shiite and Sunni Islam Ever Reconcile?" The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, 24 Mar Web. 12 Nov Huda. "Shia and Sunni Muslims: What's the Difference?" About Religion Web. 10 Nov Sinha, Sanskrity. "Shia Muslims Practice Ritual Self-Flagellation in Muharram." International Business Times. IBTimes, 16 Nov Web. 12 Nov "Sunnis and Shias: Islam's Ancient Schism." BBC News. BBC, 20 June Web. 11 Nov Tristam, Pierre. "How Are Sunni and Shiite Muslims Different?" About News. About. Web. 12 Nov "Understanding Islam And Muslims." The Ultimate Muslim Warriors. World Press, n.d. Web. 12 Nov B., S. "What Is the Difference between Sunni and Shia Muslims?" The Economist. The Economist Newspaper, 28 May Web. 10 Nov "Shia vs. Sunni." Shia vs Sunni. Diffen. Web. 11 Nov "Ancillaries of the Faith." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 27 Oct Web. 12 Nov Miguel. "Difference Between Shia and Sunni Namaz." DifferenceBetween.net. July 28, 2011.


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