Theory Seek to eliminate or subjugate existing religious institutions/organisations Religions represent rival ideologies, value systems, and concepts of ethics and morality. ASPS wish to impose their own values, ideology, philosophy and world views. Religious organisations possess property, hierarchical structures, an economics base, communication skills and educations systems, and an active role as providers of services to the population. Their traditions, wealth and infrastructure also pose a challenge to the single party state. Religious groups have international connections and may receive spiritual and physical support from powerful countries and individuals. Many seek to establish their own version of religious worship through adopting some aspects of established religion. To satisfy the human need for psychological engagement and the emotional support provided by religious belief. Religious foundation personified through the cult of personality
Evidence Wanted to restrict the Churches to a purely spiritual role. This opposed the desire of most churchmen to maintain the Church’s role in other activities. Nazis saw the Church and Christianity as a threat to their policies. 28 Protestant groups in Germany, and they merged to form the National Reich Church in May 1933. A member of the Nazi party was elected Bishop of the Church. Non-Aryan ministers were suspended. Confessional schools abolished, religious teaching downgraded in schools, hindrance in Church attendance due to Hitler Youth. Catholic Church agree to the dissolution of the Centre Party and signed a Concordat (July 1933). Concordat: Vatican recognised Nazi regime, promised not to interfere with politics. State promised not to interfere with Church.
Evidence The following religious groups disappeared from Germany: The Salvation Army Christian Saints The Seventh Day Adventist Church The following groups were banned: Astrologers Healers Fortune tellers
Evidence Reich Church: Nazi’s version of religious worship which banned the bible and cross. Attempt to resurrect Gods of ancient Teutonic folklore Fuhrer, or "Lord.“Many Germans looked to Hitler as a godlike figure. Ordinary people became emotionally attached to a charismatic leader like Hitler and, because of this attachment, were willing to embrace his ideas and carry out his plans.
Conclusion Hitler’s Nazi Germany was a typical ASPS in terms of the treatment of religious groups in some ways. Many groups were eliminated, and religion was controlled. Hitler built a cult of personality around himself and people worshipped him. However unlike in ASPS like Stalin’s USSR, religion was not entirely banned.
Theory Minorities: homosexuals, mentally and emotionally challenged individuals, and those with physical disabilities other than war-related injuries. Varies from state to state and will depend on the ideological nature of the regime. Main reasons for such treatment: 1. Result of beliefs 2. To gain favour with majority 3. Seen as representing alternative philosophies which conflict with regime’s views 4. Leaders’ appeal seen as threatening to dominance of ASPS leader Minorities impede the desire to create a uniform culture, language or ideal racial type in the society. Placed in inferior positions legally and socially, and the regime establishes a racial hierarchy to indicate it. In more extreme cases they may be regarded as working with outside forces to undermine the new regime.
Evidence Anyone who failed to fit Nazi criteria for Volksgenossen were subject to such treatment. Treatment depended on circumstances. Asocials -“social deviance” as something that was biologically determined. Those with mental or physical disabilities- “burdens on the community”. Gypsies-alleged inferior racial character. Jews- serious racial threat and the root cause of Germany’s ills, and his ideology of anti-Semitism.
Evidence Treatment of Asocials 1933: so-called beggars and tramps rounded up.. Some were given a permit, and some had to perform compulsory work in return for board and lodgings. However “work-shy” sent to concentration camps and could be compulsorily sterilised “Social deviance” was considered a biological inheritance 1940: Youth concentration camp set up
Evidence Treatment of the disabled Propaganda campaign devaluing disabled 1939: Secret euthanasia campaign By 1945, 5000 children murdered 1941: campaign officially stopped due to public outrage Secret programme led to gassing of 30,000-50,000
Eugenics Poster from Nazi Germany: “This is what this person suffering from hereditary defects costs the Community of Germans during his lifetime. Fellow Citizen, that is your money, too. Read ‘New People’, the monthly magazines of the Office for Race Politics of the NSDAP.
Evidence Treatment of gypsies Included in Numberg Laws(1935) forbidding marriage between Aryans and non-Aryans From Dec. 1938, gypsies registered and sent to Polish concentration camps Some killed, some became forced labourers, some used for human medical experiments Some killed for later dissection
Children in concentration camps who had been used for medical experiments.
Evidence Treatment of homosexuals: Classed as a “degenerate form of behaviour” that threatened the nation’s “disciplined masculinity” Denounced as "antisocial parasites" and as "enemies of the state” More than 100,000 men were arrested under a broadly and approximately 50,000 men served prison terms as convicted homosexuals, while an unknown number were institutionalized in mental hospitals. Gay men, in particular, were subject to harassment, arrest, incarceration, and even castration Lesbians were seen as still capable of reproducing and were not systematically persecuted, but they did suffer the loss of their own gathering places and associations.
Evidence Treatment of Jews Portrayed as the cause of Germany’s ills March 1933: first state sponsored persecution Civil servants dismissed Persecution increased from 1935, marriage between Germans and Jews forbidden 1938:Deprived of public contracts. All Jewish property valued over 5000 Marks had to be registered and couldn’t be sold; Jews could not be employed in businesses; Jewish doctors, dentists and lawyers were forbidden to serve Aryans; Jewish children were required to bear certain names like Israel or Sarah; and Jews had to carry ID cards and have passports stamped with a “J”. Expelled from economic life, cinemas, universities, theatres, and sports facilities Forbidden to enter areas designated “for Aryans only” Put in ghettos and forbidden to change residence, were subject to a curfew, had to wear a yellow star on their clothing and were compelled to perform labour service. Gassed in extermination camps where 6 million died.
Conclusion Hitler’s Nazi German was a typical ASPS in the treatment of minorities Persecution of many minority groups including homosexuals, mentally and emotionally challenged individuals, those with physical disabilities, Jews and gypsies. Reasons for his treatment of minorities were also of a typical ASPS Placed these minorities in inferior positions and persecuted them, common in ASPS.