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Renaissance and Humanism. 1. Italian city-states 2. Ancient culture 3. Early modern state.

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Presentation on theme: "Renaissance and Humanism. 1. Italian city-states 2. Ancient culture 3. Early modern state."— Presentation transcript:

1 Renaissance and Humanism

2 1. Italian city-states 2. Ancient culture 3. Early modern state

3 Renaissance and Humanism 1. Italian city-states – 11 th -12 th centuries 100 Italian towns practice communal form of government and debate republicanism (developing self-government – 14 th century princes take over after economic collapse (Black Death); but Florence and Venice survive free and produce the Renaissance – Not democracies, not egalitarian, but cultures with environments of competition and freedom that allow creativity, discussion, and debate – Patricians control property, but patronize scholars and artists

4 Renaissance and Humanism 1. Italian city-states – Florence and the Medici: Medicean age ; the Medici meddle in political affairs from behind the scenes – Venice: a true republic from , though only 2500 out of could vote or hold office – Renaissance spreads to Italian principalities – Upper class citizens regularly read, collected art, and patronized artists, scholars, and architects – The ideal citizen was encouraged to hold public office, pay taxes honestly, and patronize the arts – The ideal courtier (at the court of the prince) performed services for the prince, requiring cultivation in many skills: horsemanship, swordplay, athletics, drawing, dancing, music, conversation, foreign language, classical education, all for diplomacy and peace of the state

5 Renaissance and Humanism 1. Italian city-states – Papal princes After Great Schism, the popes having lost moral authority had to force European princes into submission Julius ii ( ) put on armor and led his troops into battle Alexander vi ( ) fathered four children by his favorite mistress Patrons of the arts during Renaissance; Cf. Leo x ( ) and the rebuilding of St. Peter’s Basilica

6 Renaissance and Humanism 2. Ancient culture – Greece and Rome provide models for Renaissance Italy in art, politics, philosophy, etc. – Artists foster rebirth; imitation, collection rampant – Scholars reexamine ancient culture: humanists (textual criticism, grammar, rhetoric, poetry, history, ethics: a basis of modern Humanities curriculum)

7 Renaissance and Humanism 2. Ancient culture – Humanists Petrarch ( ) develops textual criticism (called philology) Humanists sought to resurrect Ancient Latin; shaped culture through comparison with the ancients’ perspective Donation of Constantine (Valla’s philological proof) The “Renaissance” Man: a master of many topics Education aimed at intellectual breadth (cf. gen ed requirements at university today)

8 Renaissance and Humanism 2. Ancient culture – Scientific innovation Ancient authorities provide little basis for understanding modern experience in regard to science (what the ancients called natural philosophy), but texts are debated Astronomy (Nicolaus Copernicus ): Ptolemaic system (2 nd c.) challenged and refuted textually; not until Galileo Galilei ( ) are Copernicus’ discoveries confirmed by observation Anatomy (Vesalius , Fallopio ): encourage students to do practical observation Beginning of optics through artistic perspective Printing press (1450’s) leads to easier exchange of ideas Da Vinci ( ): amazing inventions, but unpublished

9 Renaissance and Humanism 2. Ancient culture – The Arts Imitation of the ancients is key Focus on natural and idealized representations in painting and sculpture Perfection of linear perspective: depiction of three- dimensional space on a two-dimensional surface Influence of the patron displayed in arts da Vinci, Michelangelo, all artists worked for patrons Renaissance spreads through art experienced by visitors to (and invaders of) Italy

10 Renaissance and Humanism 3. Early modern state – Italian Wars start in 1494: the now strong monarchies of France, Spain, Holy Roman Empire (German states) attempt to take control of peninsula – Italy falls, Rome sacked (1527), Spain ends up in most control by 1530 – Resulting relations between states lead historical and political questions about how states exist and must be ruled (e.g. Niccolo Macchiavelli )

11 Renaissance and Humanism 3. Early modern state – The State System that comes out of the Renaissance: A system of interrelated changes Governments establish standing armies Governments modernize armies or face defeat (e.g. infantry, gunpowder) Need for revenue leads to growing taxation and attendant bureaucracy Need for inclusive taxation leads to elimination of tax exemption and local government Need for strong central government requires submission of aristocracy and church (which is most effective in France, England, and Spain; not as effective in Poland, Bohemia, and Hungary) Need for governmental autonomy requires diplomatic presence abroad, leading to ambassadorial representation at foreign courts


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