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Creation & Cosmology Lecture for Insaniah Medical Students

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1 Creation & Cosmology Lecture for Insaniah Medical Students
Omar Zaid, M.D. Lecture for Insaniah Medical Students Course: Islamic Revealed Knowledge Insaniah Medical School Alor Setar, Kedah, Malaysia 2012

2 Classical Islamic Cosmology
God is said to be established on a throne Quran 7:54, 10:3, 13:2, 20:5, 25:59, 32:4, 57:4), and that this throne either rests on water (11:7) or is borne by angels (69:17) and that it encompasses the heavens and the earth (2:255). The sky, frequently described as a canopy spread over the earth (2:22, 20:53, 21:32, 40:64, 43:10, 50:6, 78:6), was raised without any supports that humans could see (13:2) and is illuminated by the sun and the moon (25:61, 71:16, 78:12) the seven heavens it is said to comprise (2:29, 17:44,41:12, 65:12, 67:3, 71:15, 78:12) exist only the lowest heaven is described as adorned with the beauty of the stars (37:6,41:12, 67:5). the earth, spread wide and held firmly in place by mountains (13:3, 15:19, 16:15, 21:31, 31:10, 50:7, 51:48, 55:10, 78:7, 79:32), proves to be only one of seven earths that match the seven heavens (65:12); the other six earths, however, remain totally obscure. Hence: in broad outline, the Quranic universe is a hierarchical, multilayered complex that stretches from the throne of God (on top), through the seven heavens (in between) down to the seven earths at bottom, with our earth as the only visible earth. For the most part, mainstream religious scholarship stayed clear of concentrated reflection on the structure and nature of the universe. Most scholars even looked askance at attempts to construct comprehensive cosmologies. Why? The Quran does not contain a systematic cosmology. The hadith corpus is richer in cosmological content but it is hardly possible to build a homogeneous cosmology on the hadith because of the disconnected, inconclusive, and frequently irreconcilable nature of the reports in question. It is not mistaken to state that the great majority of Hellenized Muslim philosophers and scientists allotted a substantial role to human reason (as opposed to revelation) in their quest for the truth and that they subscribed to Ptolemaic Cosmology, which then became the most widely accepted view of the universe among educated Muslims. In summary, owing to the indifferent attitude of traditionalist religious scholars toward cosmological speculation, systematic reflection on the structure of the universe was a challenge taken up by Philosophers and by Gnostics and Mystics. The works produced by these groups, were viewed with suspicion in legalist circles and yet they form the major source of cosmographical diagrams in Islam. Cosmographical Diagrams by AHMET T. KARAMUSTAFA

3 Hence, when God says ‘Be’, the pen writes , the tablet records, and the created ‘thing’ or ‘creature’ must ‘read’ (exist or live) in obedience to what is recorded. As we shall see, this process is ongoing to the Day of Resurrection and beyond. Some have called this Tablet the ‘Universal Soul’ of Religio Perrenialism and have actually ascribed to it a living identity as a god-like entity, an extremely dangerous thing to do.

4 String Theory Predicts the Samawat (other dimensions)
Praise be to Allah, the Cherisher and Sustainer of the Universes (Alamin); Jannaat 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Arsh Water Kursi unseen other dimensions “Samawat-wal-Ard” “Ard” refers to all the matters of the Universe, such as, the stars, planets, Asteroids, free dust etc. scattered in space. Samawat This verse mentions more than one universe: Alamin Subsequently, the Quran teaches there are two universes: Samawat: First Universe contains other dimensions (skies) skies: “Samawat–wal–Ard” (Skies and Lands). Jannaat: called Paradise Second Universe Seen Dimensions Material Universe Earth String Theory Predicts the Samawat (other dimensions)

5 "We made the sky a preserved and protected roof yet still they turn away from Our Signs..“
(The Qur'an, 21:32) magnetosphere layers, created by the magnetic field of the Earth, work as a shield protecting the earth from celestial bodies and harmful cosmic rays and particles. In the above picture this magnetosphere layer, which is also known Van Allen Belts, is seen. These belts at thousands of kilometres above the earth protect and guard the living things on the Earth from the fatal and deadly energy that would otherwise reach and destroy it.

6 The Samawat: With power and skill did We construct the Skies (Samawat/Universe): for it is We Who cause it to expand – Al Quran 51:47 Do not the unbelievers see that the skies and the lands were joined together (as one unit of creation) before We clove them asunder. - Quran21:30 1 light year is approximately ten million million kilometers Milky Way measures one hundred thousand light years across__ the distance of our Solar System from the galactic center is about 32,000 light years. 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Milky Way Do not the unbelievers see that the skies and the lands were joined together (as one unit of creation) before We clove them asunder– Al Quran 21:30 Hydrogen & Helium

7 We have built The Sama - Firmament - with might, We indeed Have vast power; to create the vastness of Space and continue to expand it, And We have spread out Ardh – [Ground; interior or lower part of the Universe; the dark matter holding the galaxies] -: How excellently We do spread outใ (Surah No. 51, verse ). [Quran 21.30] Do not those who disbelieve see that the heavens and the Earth were meshed together then We ripped them apart? And then We made of water everything living? Would they still not believe?

we cannot think of the big bang as a beginning or even an explosion ... it is actually a term that marks the limit of our knowledge on the matter, beyond which we can know nothing. Arsh Water Kursi at 1 second we have free neutrons and protons 95% of the universe is not yet comprehensible Expanding Radius 10 seconds from the Big Bang free protons and neutrons are being formed into light nuclei – this is the only point of which today's physicists have direct experimental confirmation of theory for 1 million years after the big bang there were no stars or galaxies, all was an expanding pool of hot gas that cooled. The only elements were hydrogen, Helium & lithium After cooled to 1X10 32 Kelvin, star cosmology began at about 370,000 years after the big bang, electrons combine with hydrogen nuclei to form atoms (as universe cools, they stick together) THE BIG BANG IS A THEORY NOT A FACT

9 About 25 billion light years Milky Way
1 Mpc = × 1022 meters About 25 billion light years Milky Way Cabalist Theory God Withdrew from Here to make room for the Material Universe Kabalist Cosmology insists that God withdrew to make space (Vacuum) for creation and that their job (as Cabalist Jews - Magi) is to liberate the divine energy (light/SPARKS) now trapped in material in order to: RESTORE THEM TO DIVINITY

10 Milky Way = 100 giga stars and universe has 200 billion galaxies
13.7 billion yrs post Big Bang Milky Way = 100 giga stars and universe has 200 billion galaxies is big and is getting bigger (expanding as a function of time) do not know if limited or infinite ... but do know relevant size galaxies do not expand (only the space between them) same in everyplace (homogeneous) and in every direction (isotropic) microvave radiation is endemic remnant of big-bang particle density and energy density decrease as universe gets larger vacuum energy (space) remains constant

11 He withholds the heaven from falling on the earth except by His Leave.
The Quran told us about this expansion 1400 years before it was discovered. “With power and skill did We construct the skies: for it is We Who cause it to expand” or ‘and We are still expanding’ – Al Quran 51:47 This Verse talks about “power” that is provided to the Skies to cause the expansion— Probably “Dark Energy” is the power that the Verse talks about. 1990s: Supernova Cosmological Project and High-Z Search Team suggested that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating. Dark Energy is a repulsive force that opposes self attraction of matter (gravity) and causes the expansion of the Universe to accelerate. Dark Energy otherwise remains in complete mystery. Dark Matter is only known by its gravitational effect on the matter. It cannot be seen and it appears to be transparent and trans-matter in that physical substance can pass right through it  it may represent another dimension Recent satellite observations reveal that the Universe is made up of 73% Dark Energy, 23% Dark Matter, and 4% ordinary matter. As the distance increases, the attractive gravitational force decreases but this mysterious repulsive force increases. This repulsive force is pushing galaxies apart; the greater the distance the greater the repulsion. Scientists today do not know what this "Dark Energy" is, but they know that it is causing the entire universe to expand at an increasing rate. He withholds the heaven from falling on the earth except by His Leave. Verily, Allâh is, for mankind, full of Kindness, Most Merciful. - al-Hajj 22:65. 

12 Jannaat, known as paradise is a separate Universe:
the width of Jannaat is equal to the width of the Universe.  If two entities are equal in width – one cannot be inside another.  Therefore, Jannaat is a separate Universe. Be ye foremost forgiveness from your Lord, and the Jannaat, the width of which is as the width of the ‘Skies and Lands’ (universe) –Al Quran 57:2. Because only a few will be saved, God created two worlds, instead of only one – 2 Esdras: 7:50, Holy Bible. “In Jannaat, one from the lower class will observe the higher, like a rising star in the eastern or western corner of the Sky.” – Bukhari Sharif. But give glad tidings to those who believe and work righteousness, that their portion is Jannaat, beneath which rivers flow. Every time they are fed with fruits there-from, they say: “Why, this is what we were fed with before,” for they are given things in similitude; and they have therein companions pure; and they abide therein Al’Qur’an 2:25 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Earth Like

13 Great Attractor: an immensely powerful gravitational anomaly appears in the direction of the Centaurus at a distance of about 211 light years from the Earth. All matters out to a distance of about 250 light years are flowing toward the Great Attractor on the order of 600 km/Sec.  A mass of 1016 suns would account for such a powerful attraction. A search by astronomers, of that region of the sky, finds ten times too little visible matter. But, the Great Attractor is certainly there as its gravitational influence is clearly visible. What is it? We don’t know Light Yrs Gravitational Fields Folded Universe beyond 250 mil light years, space is curved in opposite direction

14 Diameter 500 MLY Great Attractor


16 - - - - - - 4 Billion Light Years - - - - - - -

17 Wrapped or folded like a scroll

18 Doors of the Skies One layer of space (Sky) is not completely separated from another layer. Curvatures of space-time that make up Seven Skies are like sound waves produced in the air (transverse waves). The fabric of space is denser in the middle of each layer than the sides; and the edges of two adjacent skies are joined to each other. Therefore, light can travel from one Sky to another. Since Skies are created by curving the space, matter cannot normally move from one Sky to another. However, according to the Quran and Hadith, there are many paths to move from one Sky to another. Those paths have entries and exits. The entries and exits are guarded by angels. If space curvature makes a path, it must be very difficult to go out of that path except through exits. From Hadith we know that during Miraz Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) visited all the Skies. He saw Prophet Adam (pbuh) in the First Sky, Prophet Jesus (pbuh) in the Second Sky, Prophet Moses (pbuh) in the Sixth Sky The Angel who accompanied Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) asked permission from guardian angels while crossing over through the gates of each Sky. Sound waves in water producing light Sound waves in the Sun’s atmosphere

19 Arsh Water Kursi No just estimate have they made of Allah, such as is due to Him: On the Day of Judgment all of the lands (stars, planets etc.) will be in His hand, and the skies will be rolled up in His right hand: Glory to Him, high is He above the partners they attribute to Him                            –Al Quran 39: 67 “On the day when we will roll up the skies like the rolling up of the scroll for writings” –Al Quran 21:104. “…The sky disappeared like a scroll being rolled up, and every mountain and island was moved from its place…” –Revelation 6: (12–14) Holy Bible

20 Jannaat ? According to the latest theories, there are 11 dimensions in the universe all in the form of one dimensional planes waving like the sea across time. There is only one [material] universe that contains many different spaces [dimensions]. What we consider our current universe is just ‘our space’ and the rest of the spaces are yet to be found

21 Examples of Cosmic Collapse
Example of cosmic collision VOID ? NO! A dark molecular cloud - a mass of of dust and gasses which combine to blank out all the visible light from the background stars. Many of these 'dark absorption nebulae' have been discovered across the galaxy, with this one called Barnard 68 in the Ophiuchus constellation. Measurements place this at a relatively close only 500 light years away

22 Creation in Progress = ongoing process of divinely controlled evolution

23 Big Crunch & Big Bang II ?? The day when We will roll up the skies like the rolling up of scroll for writings [or: like the folder compacts the books]: as We originated the first creation, We shall reproduce it; a promise on Us: Truly We will fulfill it. – Al Quran 21:104 New Samawat ? New Hell ? And We have adorned the lowest sky with lamps (stars) Have made such missiles (asteroids) to drive away the satan And have prepared for them the penalty of the blazing fire of hell. –Al Quran 67:5 How can you reject the faith in Allah seeing that you were without life, and He gave you life; then He will cause you to die, and will again bring you to life; and again to Him will you return. Al’Qur’an 2:28 Hadith: During Miraz I saw in the Seventh Sky that, there was thunder and roaring sound and a group of people. Their bellies were as big as houses. In those, there were many snakes, which were being seen from the outside. I asked to Zibrael, which kind of people they were? He said, “It is the scene of those, who took interest (riba) by lending money. –Sahih Al Bukhari

24 Hadith: on the Miraj On the day of final judgment Allah will assemble all of mankind. Then Allah will say: ‘People will follow whom they worshipped, he must go with him’. Accordingly, those who used to worship the Sun will follow the Sun. That means, they will be compelled to go there, where the Sun will reach. Those who used to worship the Moon, will be compelled to follow the Moon. Those who used to worship different idols, will be compelled to follow those idols. That means, they will be compelled to go there, where those idols will reach. –Bukhari Sharif On the day when Earth will be swapped by another Earth and so will be the heavens; and all (creatures) will resurrect before the One God. Quran 14.48

25 On impact they did not collide but simply passed through each other !
He Who created the seven Samawat (sky, Firmament) one above another: no want of proportion wilt thou see in the Creation of (Allah) Most Gracious. So turn thy vision again: seest thou any flaw? Again turn thy vision a second time: (thy) vision will come back to thee dull and discomfited, in a state worn out. Image (right) Two huge clusters of invisible Dark Matter (in blue) clashed with each other. Each with a mass of 10,000 galaxies (each a quadrillion times the mass of the Sun; On impact they did not collide but simply passed through each other ! Gravity, Black Holes, and the Very Early Universe; T.Chow, Springer 2008 (p. 108) wrote: "This means that the world at very small scales is not made up of particles living in three spacial dimensions, but perhaps strings and branes living in nine dimensions. String theories are the most active area of research in physics today..." Traditionally scientists thought that we live in a four dimensional universe: Time and the usual three spacial dimensions of length, width and height (x,y,z). However, today there is evidence for six extra spacial dimensions. We cannot see nor collide with this invisible Dark Matter because it is mass in the remaining six dimensions.

26 String Theory Predicts other dimensions of the Samawat
Quran So [Allah] decreed them as seven heavens (one above the other = layers) in two days and revealed to each heaven its orders (Cosmos). And We [Allah] adorned the lowest heaven with lights, and protection. Such is the decree of the Exalted; the Knowledgeable. Quran Allah is the one who created seven Heavens and from Earth like them (of corresponding type); Allah’s command descends among them so that you may know that Allah is capable of anything and that Allah knows everything. String Theory Predicts other dimensions of the Samawat Quran I swear by the afterglow of sunset... You will ride one layer from another layer. (لتركبن طبقا عن طبق) Quran To Him belongs what is in the Heavens and what is on Earth and what is between them and what is under the soil. Recently discovered evidence suggest that the smallest particle is not ‘point like as previously thought, but rather a vibrating string of energy. But physicists also discovered that these strings need more than three spatial dimensions to vibrate in. Particularly they need six extra spatial dimensions. In all versions of String Theory there are 10 dimensions: "Time" plus the usual three spatial dimensions x,y,z = 4 dimensions = Our Material World or observable universe  plus six extra spatial dimensions making a total of ten dimensions  Seven Heavens

27 CONCEPT OUTLINE Theoretically, Dark Mater in string theory is not only mass in other dimensions but they are in parallel universes (where the laws of physics might not be the same as ours). The only thing shared among those superimposed parallel universes is gravity. Add our universe to those parallel universes you get the Multiverse. [Quran 51.7] And the heaven that [He] weaves (Hubuk in Arabic). Hubuk is plural of Habka which means a knot or a weave (LITERALLY: ‘TIED TOGETHER’) Implication of Knowledge synthesis: the Seven Heavens of the Multiverse are parallel worlds woven together.

I swear by the afterglow of sunset... You will ride one layer from another layer. (لتركبن طبقا عن طبق) - Quran Here "Tabak طبق" is a noun meaning "a layer". The adjective "Tibak طباق" means "superimposed" and is used in describing the seven heavens "سبع سموات طباق". The superimposed heavens of the Quran may well be the extra spatial dimensions of modern physics.   Today we are sure that we are not living in a "Universe" but rather in a "Multiverse". No physicist today believes that we are living in the three-dimensional universe of the Christian Bible (where not even time is a dimension!). Moslems ask how could an illiterate man who lived 1400 years have known that we are living in a Multiverse? [Quran 40.57] The creation of the heavens and earth is greater than the creation of mankind, but most of the people do not know. Those who reject Our Signs and turn away from them with disdain, the gates of spiritual firmament will not be opened for them, nor will they enter Heaven until a camel goes through the eye of a needle. And thus do We requite the offenders. - al-A`raf  7:40  (tr. Maulvi Sher Ali)

29 Summary Cosmology: Study of the Orderly Arrangement of the Universe Samawat: Two Universes, one is a Multiverse containing seven skies which hold other dimensions and/or divisions. Janaat: Paradise = eternal success Question for discussion: What implications arise from cosmological discoveries and knowledge with relation to Health and the Practice of Medicine?

30 The End

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