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An Integrated English Course Book 4 Unit 1 Unit 1 Unit 1 Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 2 Unit 2 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 3 Unit 3 Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 4 Unit 4 Unit 4 Unit.

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Presentation on theme: "An Integrated English Course Book 4 Unit 1 Unit 1 Unit 1 Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 2 Unit 2 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 3 Unit 3 Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 4 Unit 4 Unit 4 Unit."— Presentation transcript:

1 An Integrated English Course Book 4 Unit 1 Unit 1 Unit 1 Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 2 Unit 2 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 3 Unit 3 Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 4 Unit 4 Unit 4 Unit 5 Unit 5 Unit 5 Unit 5 Unit 6 Unit 6 Unit 6 Unit 6 Unit 7 Unit 7 Unit 7 Unit 7 Unit 8 Unit 8 Unit 8 Unit 8 Unit 9 Unit 9 Unit 10 Unit 10 Unit 11 Unit 11 Unit 12 Unit 12 Unit 13 Unit 13 Unit 14 Unit 14 Unit 15 Unit 15 Unit 16 Unit 16

2 Unit 1

3 Text I Never Give In, Never, Never  Background information:  1. About the text: This text is a speech made by Churchill when he visited Harrow School on Oct. 29,1941. In 1888, Churchill entered this school, which was founded in 1572 under a Royal Charter from Queen Elizabeth. In 1940 he came to this school for a short visit and he came again a year later to hear the traditional songs of this school. This text is a speech made by Churchill when he visited Harrow School on Oct. 29,1941. In 1888, Churchill entered this school, which was founded in 1572 under a Royal Charter from Queen Elizabeth. In 1940 he came to this school for a short visit and he came again a year later to hear the traditional songs of this school.

4  2. about the author: Sir Winston Churchill ( ) was a combination of soldier, writer, artist, and statesman, renowned for his courage, imagination, oratory and intellect. In world war II he served as Prime Minister of UK from 1940 to 1945 and played a leading role in the resistance against German domination of Europe. Sir Winston Churchill ( ) was a combination of soldier, writer, artist, and statesman, renowned for his courage, imagination, oratory and intellect. In world war II he served as Prime Minister of UK from 1940 to 1945 and played a leading role in the resistance against German domination of Europe.

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6 AnalysisAnalysis  This text is an inspiring speech made by Winston Churchill, when he visited Harrow School. The whole speech can be divided into three parts. 1.Part I is the opening remarks 2.Part II is the body of the speech 3.Part III is the closing remarks

7 Part I paragraph 1  The following questions may be asked: 1. What was Churchill ’ s intention of singing some of their songs? 2. Why did Churchill use ill-favoured words such as ups and downs and misfortunes when talking about the menace of the enemy? 3. What lesson had they learnt? 4. Why did Churchill say the mood was different?

8 Part II paragraph 2-5  Questions to be considered: 1. What did Churchill mean by saying “ we must learn to be equally good at what is short and sharp and what is long and tough ” ? 2. Why did Churchill quote Kipling as saying “

9 Part III paragraph 6-8  The following question could be asked: 1. Why did Churchill replace the word “ darker ” with “ sterner ” ?

10 Language Work  Ups and downs : a mixture of good things and bad things The organization has experienced its ups and downs since it was founded in The organization has experienced its ups and downs since it was founded in Sitting beside the window, he recalled the ups and downs of his parenthood. Sitting beside the window, he recalled the ups and downs of his parenthood.  Position: situation at a particular time

11 It is time those companies revealed more about their financial position. It is time those companies revealed more about their financial position. Their soccer team is going to be in a very difficult position if nothing particular shows up. Their soccer team is going to be in a very difficult position if nothing particular shows up.  What is short and sharp and what is long and tough: difficulties and hardships of any kind, imminent or distant, temporary or long-lasting.

12  Noble chance of war: impressive opportunities of war  Throwing our minds back to our meeting here 10 months ago: recollecting our meeting at Harrow School 10 months ago. Please throw your mind back to 1945, when people all over the world were engaged in a great Please throw your mind back to 1945, when people all over the world were engaged in a great and cruel war against the Fascists. and cruel war against the Fascists.

13  Convictions of honour and good sense: strong beliefs in honour and good judgement of duty and justice  Very different is the mood today: how other nations view Britain and how the Britain people think and feel about the war is quite different today from ten months ago.  Our country stood in the gap: our country shouldered the responsibility in isolation. At the critical moment of world economic recession, a powerful government is needed to stand in the gap. At the critical moment of world economic recession, a powerful government is needed to stand in the gap.

14 Structural Analysis  Part I is the opening remarks in which Churchill summarized the great events that had happened in the past ten months and the purpose of his second visit to Harrow School.  Part II is the body of the speech in which he analyzed the world situation and how other nations looked at Britain and then called on the people not to give in.  Part III is the closing remarks in which he told the audience that he wanted to change a word in the song and explained why he wanted to do so.

15 Rhetorical Features  The following antonyms are used in the speech: ups/downs, short/long, triumph/disaster, ups/downs, short/long, triumph/disaster, darker days/great days. darker days/great days. some of these antonyms are used to describe the terrible nature of the war, some of them are used to express the determination of the British people to fight on for the final victory, and some are used to encourage the audience not to lose hope. some of these antonyms are used to describe the terrible nature of the war, some of them are used to express the determination of the British people to fight on for the final victory, and some are used to encourage the audience not to lose hope.

16 Text II Winston Churchill  Reference for questions 1. Churchill stepped onto the world stage at the outbreak of World War I in the capacity of the First Lord of the Admiralty of Great Britain. 2. Because he knew very well that his country alone was not demographically strong enough to win the victory of the war, and the intervention of the USA would bring the war to its end much sooner.

17 3. In order to get the USA involved in the war, he established a personal relationship with Roosevelt, and he was optimistic and believed that things would work his way. The later development of the world situation proved that he was right.

18 Unit 2

19 Text I Space Invaders  Background information:  1. About the text: This text was originally published in New Yorker on July 24, later in 2001 it appeared again in The Princeton Anthology of Writing: Favorite Pieces by the Ferries Writers at Princeton University. This text was originally published in New Yorker on July 24, later in 2001 it appeared again in The Princeton Anthology of Writing: Favorite Pieces by the Ferries Writers at Princeton University.  About the author: Richard Stengel is a senior writer working for Time magazine.

20  3. malthusian logic: the theories of the British economist Thomas Robert Malthus( ), which state that population increases faster than the means of subsistence unless war, famine, or disease intervenes or efforts are made to limit population.  4. long island: an island in southeastern New York. The New York city boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens are at its west end.

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22 AnalysisAnalysis  The writer points out that nowadays people are more and more concerned about themselves and want to have a larger personal space than decades ago, and then he analyses the cause of space invasion. It can be divided into three parts It can be divided into three parts

23 Part I paragraph 1-2  The following question may be asked: 1. How did the author describe the violation of personal space that happened in a bank?

24 Part II paragraph 3-7  The following questions could be asked : 1. Is “ personal space ” a phrase of the seventies? Is it out of date nowadays? Why or why not? 2. Do you agree with the author about the reasons of space invasion given in Paragraph 4? What other factor have caused it? 3. What does the author mean by saying “ personal space is mostly a public matter ” ? 4. Do space invaders respect other people ’ s personal space?

25 Part III paragraph 8-9  Questions to be asked: 1. Do you agree with the writer ’ s view that the contraction of the outer, personal space is proportion to the expansion of the inner space of modern man? 2. Do you think we Chinese people have comparatively more personal space or less? Is Chinese personal space now the same as it was decades ago? 3. Why does the author decide to expand his contracting boundaries of personal space?

26 Language Work  snake : move in a twisting way the train was snaking its way through the mountains. the train was snaking its way through the mountains.  Some tired velvet ropes : some slackened velvet ropes  inch: move very slowly and carefully Howard inched the van forward. Howard inched the van forward.

27  Shuffle: walk by dragging one ’ s feet along or without lifting them fully from the ground He slipped on his shoes and shuffled out of the room. He slipped on his shoes and shuffled out of the room. shuffle sth. off: avoid talking or thinking about sth. because it is not considered important shuffle sth. off: avoid talking or thinking about sth. because it is not considered important He shuffled the question off and changed the topic. He shuffled the question off and changed the topic. shuffle out of sth. Try to avoid some unpleasant task by acting dishonestly shuffle out of sth. Try to avoid some unpleasant task by acting dishonestly I mistrust the way in which they shuffle out of I mistrust the way in which they shuffle out of sustained efforts. sustained efforts.

28  Ring: a quality, or an impression of having the quality that is mentioned Her story has a ring of truth about it. Her story has a ring of truth about it. The books he mentioned had a familiar ring about them. The books he mentioned had a familiar ring about them.  Penetrate: succeed in forcing through sth. They penetrated into the territory where no man had ever been before. They penetrated into the territory where no man had ever been before.

29  Wedge: force into a narrow space Open the door wide and wedge it with a pad of newspaper. Open the door wide and wedge it with a pad of newspaper.  “ don ’ t tread on me ” could have been coined only by someone with a spread: “ don ’ t step into my space ”. This could have been said only by a person who has a large personal space.

30  Personal space is psychological, not physical: it has less to do with the space outside us than our inner space: personal space is more a psychological matter than a physical one.  Be proportional to: increase or decrease at the same rate as the other thing The output should be proportional to the input. The output should be proportional to the input. As a rule the suicide rates are proportional to the size of the city. As a rule the suicide rates are proportional to the size of the city.

31 Structural Analysis  The author looks at the causes of space invasion in Paragraph 4. He attributes this phenomenon to population explosion first, then to the hot weather and the stimulation of caffeine.  He examines the nature of space invasion and thinks that space invasion is a public matter. It is more psychological than physical.

32 Rhetorical Features  Listed below are the verbs used by the author to give a vivid and accurate description of the behavior of the space invaders 1) Verbs used to described the behavior of space invaders: 1) Verbs used to described the behavior of space invaders: inch, wedge, zigzag, jostle, refuse, press, bump, etc. inch, wedge, zigzag, jostle, refuse, press, bump, etc. 2) Verbs used to describe the reaction of those whose space is being invaded: 2) Verbs used to describe the reaction of those whose space is being invaded: advanced, sidle, shuffle advanced, sidle, shuffle

33 Text II space and distance  Reference for questions: 1. no. the distance we keep from other people depends on our interpersonal relationship. 2. Tell your classmates whether you prefer to sit in the front, in the middle, or at the back of a room. There can be different reasons for different people to make the same choice. 3. In any cases we will turn off the TV before the conversation starts.

34 Unit 3

35 Text Ⅰ Alienation and the Internet  Background information  About the author: Will Baker is an essayist in Vermont of the United States.  mantra (Paragraph 4): Originally it is a word or sound in Hinduism and Buddhism repeated to aid concentration in meditation. Here it means a statement or slogan repeated frequently.  Utopia ((Paragraph 7): Originally it refers to an imaginary island described in Sir Thomas More ’ s Utopia (1516) as enjoying perfection in law, politics, etc. Here it is used for an ideal state.

36 AnalysisAnalysis  This piece of argumentative writing falls into three parts. The first two paras serve as an opening part. The first two paras serve as an opening part. The following four paras constitute the body of argumentation. The following four paras constitute the body of argumentation. In the final para, the writer reiterates his main idea. In the final para, the writer reiterates his main idea.

37 Part I paragraph 1-1 Part I paragraph 1-1  1. What is the author ’ s long cherished position about the strong points of the Internet?  2. How did the author start his argumentation?  3. When and how did the fragmentation of society begin?

38 Part II paragraph 3-6  1. What ’ s the “ cruel irony ” concerning the use of the internet mentioned in para4?  2. In para 5, why does the author narate his own story?  3. why does the author discuss the question whether the internet is a real place?

39 Part III paragraph 7  1. According to the author, what underlies the trend of overusing the Internet in our society?  2. Does the author believe it is within human capacity to reap the benefit of the Internet without being penalized?

40 Language work  further: help forward Additional training is probably the best way to further your career these days. Additional training is probably the best way to further your career these days. The interests of an organization will never be furthered through acts of terrorism. The interests of an organization will never be furthered through acts of terrorism.  alienate: cause (someone) to feel very distant from or not welcome to someone else She was alienated from her brother by her foolish behavior. She was alienated from her brother by her foolish behavior. All these changes to the newspaper have alienated its traditional readers. All these changes to the newspaper have alienated its traditional readers.

41  addicted: being dependent on something and wanting to spend as much time doing it as possible. Some youngsters are hopelessly addicted to video games. Some youngsters are hopelessly addicted to video games. She ’ s become addicted to love stories. She ’ s become addicted to love stories.  skew: cause to be not straight or exact; twist The company ’ s results for this year are skewed because not all our customers have paid their bills. The company ’ s results for this year are skewed because not all our customers have paid their bills. Today ’ s election will skew the results in favour of the northern end of country. Today ’ s election will skew the results in favour of the northern end of country.

42  lament: express sadness and regret about something He lamented the death of his friend. He lamented the death of his friend. She lamented that she had never been to Paris. She lamented that she had never been to Paris.  at the expense of: at the sacrifice of According to this study, women have made notable gains at the expense of men. According to this study, women have made notable gains at the expense of men. The orchestra has more discipline now, but at the expense of spirit. The orchestra has more discipline now, but at the expense of spirit.

43  confront: meet face to face; set face to face He challenged his accusers to confront him openly. He challenged his accusers to confront him openly. The lawyer confronted the accused man with the forged check. The lawyer confronted the accused man with the forged check.  value: regard highly; esteem We value your cooperation and would like to expand business with you. We value your cooperation and would like to expand business with you. I value your comments on the report. I value your comments on the report.

44 Structural Analysis  This text falls into the genre of argumentation, which is typically composed of three parts, i.e. the opening part or the thesis part, the argument part, and the summary part or conclusion part.  The first two paragraphs serve as an opening part, in which the writer presents his thesis.  The following four paragraphs constitute the body of argumentation, where the author supports his point with evidences and reasons.

45  The final paragraph is the conclusion of the text, where the writer reiterates his main idea.  Topic sentence: However I am also troubled by the possible unintended negative consequences.  Concluding statement: All this being said, I believe that the key to realizing the potential of the Internet is in achieving balance in our lives.

46 Rhetorical Features  The author of this text seems to believe that the Internet has both advantages and disadvantages. This self-contradiction is partly illustrated by the use of antonyms such as globalization and alienation. Some other pairs of antonyms (including words and expressions) are used for the same purpose.

47 Text Ⅱ American Online: Losing the Battles, but Winning the War  Reference for questions 1. He imagined a world in which computers would be connected so that they could work much faster and everybody could use them. 1. He imagined a world in which computers would be connected so that they could work much faster and everybody could use them. 2. Because it was by no means easy to get a large number of subscribers, especially at the very beginning. AOL had to start with this unique marketing approach to make its product known to the general public. As a matter of fact, it took five years for this company to attract a million subscribers. 2. Because it was by no means easy to get a large number of subscribers, especially at the very beginning. AOL had to start with this unique marketing approach to make its product known to the general public. As a matter of fact, it took five years for this company to attract a million subscribers.

48 3. It did not expect the fast increase of subscribers and failed to satisfy the needs of its customers. As a result, it lost a lot of money and consumer confidence. 3. It did not expect the fast increase of subscribers and failed to satisfy the needs of its customers. As a result, it lost a lot of money and consumer confidence. 4. It got a large amount of revenue from advertising on the Internet and selling products online. 4. It got a large amount of revenue from advertising on the Internet and selling products online.

49 Unit 4

50 Text I A View of Mountains  background information 1. about the text 1. about the text This text is the epilogue from Jonathan Schell’s book The Gift of Time: The Cause for Abolishing Nuclear weapons Now published by Henry Holt& Co. in This text is the epilogue from Jonathan Schell’s book The Gift of Time: The Cause for Abolishing Nuclear weapons Now published by Henry Holt& Co. in about the author 2. about the author Jonathan Schell is the author of The Village of Ben Sue and The Fate of the Earth. He was a writer for the New Yorker from 1967 to 1987 and a columnist for Newsday from 1990 to He teaches at Wesleyan University and the New School, and is the Harold Willens Peace Fellow at The Nation Institute. Jonathan Schell is the author of The Village of Ben Sue and The Fate of the Earth. He was a writer for the New Yorker from 1967 to 1987 and a columnist for Newsday from 1990 to He teaches at Wesleyan University and the New School, and is the Harold Willens Peace Fellow at The Nation Institute.

51 3. The Nagasaki is a city which is the seaport in southwest Japan( 长崎 ) and is one the two cities that got nuclear bombing in the War II. 4. The Hiroshima is a city which is the seaport in southwest Japan( 广岛 ) and is the other city that got nuclear bombing in the War II. 5. The Kokura refers to the city which is the seaport in Kitakyushu( 九洲 ),Japan( 小仓 ).

52 AnalysisAnalysis This argumentative essay comprises three parts. This argumentative essay comprises three parts. In the first part, i.e. Paragraphs 1, the writer puts forward his thesis: a view of mountains in the background suggests the real extent to which the city was destroyed by the atomic bombing In the first part, i.e. Paragraphs 1, the writer puts forward his thesis: a view of mountains in the background suggests the real extent to which the city was destroyed by the atomic bombing In the second part, the author argues that the bombing of Nagasaki is more representative of the nuclear peril threatening the world than that of Hiroshima and that we need to take actions to dispel nuclear threat from the Earth. In the second part, the author argues that the bombing of Nagasaki is more representative of the nuclear peril threatening the world than that of Hiroshima and that we need to take actions to dispel nuclear threat from the Earth. In the last part, i.e. Paragraph 4, he restates his main idea, i.e. we should not just worry about the nuclear peril but take the actions to eliminate it to create a safer world. In the last part, i.e. Paragraph 4, he restates his main idea, i.e. we should not just worry about the nuclear peril but take the actions to eliminate it to create a safer world.

53 Part I paragraph 1  In paragraph 1 the writer describes what Yamahata ’ s pictures display: the effects of a nuclear weapon on human beings. And then he repents the main point of his argument: the true measure lies not in the wreckage but in the gone city, and this is where the significance of a view of mountains in the background of one of the pictures lies.

54  1. why does the author think that Yamahata ’ s pictures compose the fullest record of nuclear destruction in existence?  2. Why were the bodies often branded with the patterns of their clothes?  3. why does author particularly mention “ a view of mountains ” in one of the pictures?

55 Part I paragraph 2-3  The following questions can be considered: 1. Why is the meaning of Yamahata ’ s picture universal? 1. Why is the meaning of Yamahata ’ s picture universal? 2. Why has Nagasaki always been in the shadow of Hiroshima? 2. Why has Nagasaki always been in the shadow of Hiroshima?

56 3. Do you agree with the author when he says the bombing of Nagasaki is the fitter symbol of the nuclear peril? Why or why not? 4. What should we do in addition to apprehending the nuclear peril? 5. What do we need to meet the more important challenge of eliminating nuclear weaponry?

57 Part I paragraph 4  In this part the writer calls on us to take the responsibility of creating a safer world for new generations. what should we do to ensure a safer world for the future generations? what should we do to ensure a safer world for the future generations?

58 Language work  constitute: 1) compose; form. e,.g. Nitrogen constitutes 78% of the earth ’ s atmostphere.2) be equal to, it is up to the teacher to decide what constitutes satisfactory work. it is up to the teacher to decide what constitutes satisfactory work.  char: make or decide what constitutes satisfactory work. Halve the peppers and char the skins under a hot grill. Halve the peppers and char the skins under a hot grill.

59 . … their bodies are often branded with the patterns of their clothes … : … their bodies are often marked with the patterns of their clothes …  Hang over: menace; overshadow The threat of nuclear war hangs over us, we couldn ’ t enjoy our vacation. The threat of nuclear war hangs over us, we couldn ’ t enjoy our vacation.

60  spare: refrain from harming, punishing or killing It will spare him embarrassment if you speak to him about it in private. It will spare him embarrassment if you speak to him about it in private.  depel: cause to vanish In his latest novel he aims to dispel the myth that real men don ’ t cry. In his latest novel he aims to dispel the myth that real men don ’ t cry.  … we ensure their right to exist: … we guarantee a safe living environment for them.

61 Structural analysis  What makes clear the author's opinion about the meaning of Yamahata ’ s pictures is the sentence that appears at the end of the first para.  What makes clear the author's opinion on what should be done about the existing nuclear peril is the sentence that appears in the middle of the last paragraph: Performing that act is the greatest of the responsibilities of the generations now alive.

62 Rhetorical features  Apart from the two sentences that have been already mentioned, we can find the following sentences with the “ A but B ” structure in the text: The true measure of the event lies not in what remains but in all that has disappeared.( Para 1) The true measure of the event lies not in what remains but in all that has disappeared.( Para 1) … the challenge is not just to apprehend the nuclear peril but to seize a God- given opportunity to dispel it once and for all … (para3) … the challenge is not just to apprehend the nuclear peril but to seize a God- given opportunity to dispel it once and for all … (para3)  Apart from the “ A but B ” sentence structure, we can also find the “ A yet B ” type: Nagasaki has always been in shadow of Hiroshima … ye t the bombing of Nagasaki is in certain respects the fitter symbol of the nuclear danger that still hangs over us. (para2) Nagasaki has always been in shadow of Hiroshima … ye t the bombing of Nagasaki is in certain respects the fitter symbol of the nuclear danger that still hangs over us. (para2)

63 Yamahata ’ s pictures afford a glimpse of the end of the world. Yet in our day … (para3) Yamahata ’ s pictures afford a glimpse of the end of the world. Yet in our day … (para3)  And we can find a sentence that organizes information in a similar way without the use of the conjunction but or yet: Arriving a half-century late, they are still news. (para2) Arriving a half-century late, they are still news. (para2)  By admitting something is correct first and then saying something else is even more correct, or admitting something is urgent first and then saying something else is more urgent with the help or the above-mentioned sentence structures, the author succeeds in making his sentences well balanced and his argumentation forceful and convincing.

64 Text II Statement of the 2003 Session of United Nations Disarmament Commission  Question refence for discussion 1. it is uncertain and unpredictable because military confrontation caused by disputes over territory, resource, religion and interest continues and non- traditional security threats characterized by terrorism and proliferation of weapons of mass destruction have become more salient. 1. it is uncertain and unpredictable because military confrontation caused by disputes over territory, resource, religion and interest continues and non- traditional security threats characterized by terrorism and proliferation of weapons of mass destruction have become more salient.

65 2. The speaker proposes nine measures for nuclear disarmament.. Refer to para The speaker proposes nine measures for nuclear disarmament.. Refer to para In para22-25, the speaker talks about the concrete and practical measures taken by China in recent years to build up confidence between China and its neighboring countries. 3. In para22-25, the speaker talks about the concrete and practical measures taken by China in recent years to build up confidence between China and its neighboring countries.

66 4. The multilateral approach is necessary because more than one country possess nuclear weapons and these weapons cannot be reduced and destroyed without willing cooperation between the nuclear states, especially the nuclear powers like the United States. 4. The multilateral approach is necessary because more than one country possess nuclear weapons and these weapons cannot be reduced and destroyed without willing cooperation between the nuclear states, especially the nuclear powers like the United States.

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68 Unit 5

69 Text I The Tapestry of Friendship  Background information:  1. About the text: This text is taken from Close to Home, which was published by The Boston Globe Company / Washington Post Writers Group in This text is taken from Close to Home, which was published by The Boston Globe Company / Washington Post Writers Group in 1979.

70  2. about the author: Ellen Goodman, is a Boston Globe Online columnist and a stylish writer with a humanizing touch on any issue, public or personal. She is widely acclaimed as a voice of sanity, and readers depend on her to help them make sense of their changing lives and relationships. Ellen Goodman, is a Boston Globe Online columnist and a stylish writer with a humanizing touch on any issue, public or personal. She is widely acclaimed as a voice of sanity, and readers depend on her to help them make sense of their changing lives and relationships.

71 AnalysisAnalysis  This text distinguishes two kinds of friendship: that between men and that between women. It can be divided into four parts.

72 Part I paragraph 1-2  In this part the author reveals what kind of film the woman had just seen and what attitude she had to it. 1. What kind of film did the woman see? 2. What did she think of it?

73 Part II paragraph 3-6  This part describes the woman ’ s observation of the shift of focus of the cinema and advances the argument for the distinction between the two types of friendship: that between men and that between women.

74 1. Why does the author list the movies the woman had seen? 2. What led the woman to think that the cinema has drastically shifted its focus? 3. What was the shift? 4. Do you agree on the point of the distinction between the two types of friendship? Give your own reasons.

75 Part III paragraph 7-18  This part discusses in detail the distinctions between the Male Buddiness and the Female Friendship.  Generally speaking, the former is action-oriented while the latter is emotion-oriented, i. e., the Male Buddiness is based on the need for co-operation in the activities that men are engaged in or in the adverse situations they are confronted with. In contrast, the Female Friendship borders on love, the need for mutual emotional support.

76 1. What ’ s the fundamental difference between buddies and friends? 2. What are the conditions of men becoming buddies and of women becoming friends? 3. Why was the woman shocked by men ’ s description of friendship?

77 Part IV paragraph 19  This part is the Conclusion of the text, which restates the distinction between the two types of friendship. The teacher can ask the students to tell in what ways buddies and friends differ. Buddies are those you can do things together with in your lifetime, but friends are those with whom you can share roses and thorns in your life.

78 Language Work  It was, in many ways, a slight movie. : In many aspects it was a simple, ordinary movie.  big-budget chase scene: a car-chase scene that costs a lot of money  cosmic: 1) very great This earthquake was a disaster of cosmic scale. 2) relating to the universe The other great cosmic reality is time

79  Slowly, it panned across the tapestry of friendship: Step by step it gave an all-sided view of the complex structure of friendship …  across millions of miles of celluloid.: in large numbers of movies  Cull: choose from various sources Here are a few facts and figures I ’ ve culled from the week ’ s papers. Here are a few facts and figures I ’ ve culled from the week ’ s papers. It ’ s a collection of fascinating stories culled from a lifetime of experience. It ’ s a collection of fascinating stories culled from a lifetime of experience.

80  only men … inherited a primal capacity for friendship: only when … were born with the instinctive capacity of making friends.  inherit: 1) receive (money, a house etc.) from someone after they have died 1) receive (money, a house etc.) from someone after they have died When I took on the job of manager, I inherited certain financial problems. When I took on the job of manager, I inherited certain financial problems. 2) be born with (a physical or mental quality that a parent, grandparent or other relative has) 2) be born with (a physical or mental quality that a parent, grandparent or other relative has) Rosie inherited her red hair from her mother. Rosie inherited her red hair from her mother. The child has an inherited disease which attacks the immune system. The child has an inherited disease which attacks the immune system.

81  “ through the wars: together — corporate or athletic or military: through the commercial, athletic or military strives together.  They had to soldier together: had to struggle together

82  The only relationship that gave meaning to the claustrophobic life of George Babbitt had been with Paul Riesling. What made the claustrophobic life of George Babbitt meaningful had been his relationship with Paul Riesling; without his relationship with Paul Riesling George Babbitt would have found his claustrophobic life meaningless. What made the claustrophobic life of George Babbitt meaningful had been his relationship with Paul Riesling; without his relationship with Paul Riesling George Babbitt would have found his claustrophobic life meaningless.

83 Structural Analysis  In the text the author discusses the differences between a buddy and a friend in a forceful way. We can summarize the author ’ s viewpoint with the following sentence: A buddy is a fine life- companion but a friend is that part the race with which you can be human.  The more specific differences between a buddy and a friend are: 1. Buddies bonded, but friends loved. 1. Buddies bonded, but friends loved. 2. Buddies faced adversity together, but friends faced each other. 2. Buddies faced adversity together, but friends faced each other. 3. Buddies seemed to “ do ” things together; friends simply “ were ” together. 3. Buddies seemed to “ do ” things together; friends simply “ were ” together.

84 Rhetorical Features  To show the differences between buddiness and friendship effectively, the author of the text coordinates sentences in various ways. Sometimes he uses conjunctions such as but, yet and while. And sometimes he simply puts two clauses together without using any conjunction at all.

85 For example: For example: 1) Buddies bonded, but friends loved. 1) Buddies bonded, but friends loved. 2) Buddies faced adversity together, but friends faced each other. 2) Buddies faced adversity together, but friends faced each other. 3) Men affect each other in the reflection of noble or friendly acts, whilst women ask fewer proofs and more signs and expressions of attachment. 3) Men affect each other in the reflection of noble or friendly acts, whilst women ask fewer proofs and more signs and expressions of attachment. 4) Men often keep their buddies in these categories while women keep a special category for friends. 4) Men often keep their buddies in these categories while women keep a special category for friends.

86 Text II My Daughter, My Friend  Reference for questions 1. Through note writing the daughter told her mother how she felt and what growing pains she had experienced as an adolescent and the mother told her daughter how she felt as a middle aged woman. 2. Mom, your letter make me feel great no matter what kind of mood I ’ m in. sometimes they even make me cry because they touch me so deeply. I ’ m really glad we have the kind of relationship that we do, even though we have our arguments. I love you, Mom! I love you, Mom!

87 3. Here are a couple of hints for your discussion: 1) what is the usual way of communication between members of your family? 1) what is the usual way of communication between members of your family? 2) Do you think your family climate is democratic? 2) Do you think your family climate is democratic? 3) Do you think note writing between family members living under the same roof can lead to some undesirable consequence? 3) Do you think note writing between family members living under the same roof can lead to some undesirable consequence?

88 Unit 6

89 Text I A French Fourth  Background information: Globalization make people can touch their own cultures more easily and children abroad can learn the history of their motherland from school. The culture divide between different countries is less jarring. However, on the other hand, people are less than fully immersed in a truly foreign world. Globalization make people can touch their own cultures more easily and children abroad can learn the history of their motherland from school. The culture divide between different countries is less jarring. However, on the other hand, people are less than fully immersed in a truly foreign world.

90 AnalysisAnalysis  This text talks about the influence of a foreign culture on expatriated families. It can be divided into three parts. In part I, the author starts with a way of celebrating his home country ’ s National Day; In part II he makes a contrastive analysis of the costs and benefits of the expatriated people; In part III, he talks about the effect of globalization.

91 Part I paragraph 1-3  The following question may be asked: 1. Why does the author hang the American flag from his fourth-floor balcony in Paris? 2. The author has kept the old flag for a long time. Why didn ’ t he get a new one? 3. Why do the author and his family go back home for the summer?

92 Part II paragraph 4-9  The following questions could be asked : 1. What are the costs and benefits of raising children in a foreign culture? 2. What is the author ’ s purpose of telling the story of his own children in Paragraph 4 and 5? How is the story related to his argument? 3. Did the author achieve the purpose of his summer travel in the U.S.?

93 Part III paragraph  Questions to be asked: 1. Why does the author recall his own experience as a child in Paragraph 10? 2. What are the differences between the author and his children as expatriates at about the same time in their lives? What causes the differences? 3. Why does the author say the development is sad?

94 Language Work  Fold away : 1) make something into a smaller, neater shape by folding it, usually several times 1) make something into a smaller, neater shape by folding it, usually several times These camping chairs can be folded away and put in the trunk. These camping chairs can be folded away and put in the trunk. The piece of paper was folded away carefully and trucked into her purse. The piece of paper was folded away carefully and trucked into her purse.

95 2) the date and the occasion that prompt its appearance: 2) the date and the occasion that prompt its appearance: The event of the thirteen sates of British colonies declaring their independence on July 4, 1776 brought about the appearance of this flag. 3) suppress such outward signs of their heritage: The event of the thirteen sates of British colonies declaring their independence on July 4, 1776 brought about the appearance of this flag. 3) suppress such outward signs of their heritage: do not give manifestations of their traditional culture handed down from their ancestors. do not give manifestations of their traditional culture handed down from their ancestors.

96  Refuel: Its original meaning is to fill with more fuel for a vehicle but here it means to fill someone ’ s mind with more knowledge of their native culture. Oil tankers will accompany the containers for trans-ocean refuelling. Oil tankers will accompany the containers for trans-ocean refuelling. In a society of intense competition, people have to refuel every year to catch up with the rapid renewal of knowledge. In a society of intense competition, people have to refuel every year to catch up with the rapid renewal of knowledge.

97  The American in me: the feeling of being American which is deeply rooted in my mind.  Frame of reference: a particular set of beliefs, ideas, or observations on which one bases his judgment. Please see to it that you are dealing with someone with a different frame of reference. Please see to it that you are dealing with someone with a different frame of reference. The observer interprets what he sees in terms of his own cultural frame of reference. The observer interprets what he sees in terms of his own cultural frame of reference.

98  Square dancing: a traditional American dance in which sets of four couples dance together in a square formation  Surveys with fringe on top: old – fashioned horse-drawn carriages with fancy decorations on top.

99  A much less jarring cultural divide : a much less unsuitable cultural divergence The output.  Re-entry … : is likely to be smoother. It seems to be easier for the children to restart the acquisition of their native culture

100 Structural Analysis  In this text there are both general and specific discussions about how to keep the cultural identity of the expatriated people.  The author of this text follows a “ specific- general ” pattern in his discussion.

101 Rhetorical Features  Generally speaking, the author of this text has adopted a plain language style  concessive words and expressions like but are frequently used.

102 Text II Stuck in the Middle  Reference for questions: 1. He was faced with racial discrimination. The American law prohibited him from owning any property or becoming a naturalized citizen, to name only a few examples. 2. No. Although she inherited some rituals from her Chinese ancestors such as being thrifty and polite, she is also influenced by the Caucasian culture and the American culture.

103 3. It is good for people like her because it is easier for them to merge themselves with the local people and get equal opportunities in education, employment and other things. 4. It depends on how you define a Chinese. If we look at the blood relationship, no matter whether they are 1/2,1/4,1/8, or 1/32 Chinese, they are unquestionably Chinese in origin. But they need to have much more to be a Chinese in a broader sense. Language is one of the many things they must possess. Without being able to speak or read the Chinese language, it is simply impossible for them to know, to feel or t sense what a Chinese really is or what the Chinese culture really means.

104 Unit 7

105 Text I The Selling of the President  Background information:  1. PR: public relations  2. IQ: an abbreviation of Intelligence Quotient. A General Intelligence Quotive Score (IQ score) is a statistically derived number which indicates relative and comparative abilities that can be used to obtain academic skills and knowledge.

106  The Associated Press: 美联社  Watergate: some republicans broke into the Democratic Party ’ s National Committee offices in this building but were discovered and arrested. This political scandal led to Nixon ’ s resignation in the word Watergate has become synonymous with corruption and scandal.

107

108

109 AnalysisAnalysis  This text can be divided into three parts. 1.Part I is the thesis of the author 2.Part II is the discussion of the impact of television on American presidential election 3.Part III is the conclusion drawn by the author

110 Part I paragraph 1  The following question may be asked: 1. Why does the campaign strategist say “ I can elect any person to office if he has $ 60,000, an IQ of at least 120, and can keep his mouth shut?

111 Part II paragraph 2-11  Questions to be considered: : 1. What is the most influential medium in an election campaign and why? Does it work in all elections? 2. How does the author start his argumentation? 3. What is the function of the two questions in Paragraph 4? 4. Why does the author mention the four presidents in Paragraph 5?

112 5. Why does the author say “ since the 1960 presidential debates we have elected people, not platforms ” ? 6. What is the difference between print information and television information? 7. What is the main idea of Paragraph 8? 8. What is the author ’ s opinion on the power of television?

113 Part III paragraph 12  The following question could be asked: 1. What does the author mean by “ today ’ s burning issue is tomorrow ’ s historical footnote ” ?

114 Language Work  Generate: cause to arise or come about The Employment Minister said the reforms would generate new jobs. The Employment Minister said the reforms would generate new jobs. John is recalling the excitement generated by the visit to the pyramids in Egypt. John is recalling the excitement generated by the visit to the pyramids in Egypt.  Quote: repeat what is said or written by someone

115 The premier was quoted as saying that he would resist all attempts to disintegrated his nation. The premier was quoted as saying that he would resist all attempts to disintegrated his nation. Heavy teaching loads are often quoted as a bad influence on research. Heavy teaching loads are often quoted as a bad influence on research.  Versus: against Brazil versus Argentina is turning out to be a surprisingly well-matched competition. Brazil versus Argentina is turning out to be a surprisingly well-matched competition.

116  Stage: organize and participate in At the end of this year, the government staged a huge military parade. At the end of this year, the government staged a huge military parade. The workers have staged a number of strikes in protest at the republic ’ s declaration of independence. The workers have staged a number of strikes in protest at the republic ’ s declaration of independence.  Stand for: support the party is trying to give the public the impression that it alone stands for democracy. the party is trying to give the public the impression that it alone stands for democracy.

117  People are not taken in by advertising hyperbole and imagery: people are not deceived by advertising exaggeration and descriptions of the candidates.  Develop a sense of what kind of person we are electing to the nation ’ s highest office: become aware of what kind of person we are choosing as our new president.

118 Structural Analysis  In recent years that publicity has been supplanted by heavy spot buying on electronic media.( para. 1)  The most talked-about medium in American politics is television. (para. 2)  Television assords us that opportunity in a way no other medium can. (para.12)

119 Rhetorical Features  Positive examples: Kennedy, Nixon, Carter, Reagan Kennedy, Nixon, Carter, Reagan the purpose is to show the effectiveness of television in getting more publicity for presidential candidates. the purpose is to show the effectiveness of television in getting more publicity for presidential candidates.  Negative examples: Adlai Stevenson, Hubert Humphrey, Richard Nixon Adlai Stevenson, Hubert Humphrey, Richard Nixon the purpose is to prove the importance of the candidates ’ public image on TV. the purpose is to prove the importance of the candidates ’ public image on TV.

120 Text II What Makes a Leader  Reference for questions 1. He must have bigger-than-life, commanding features for people to remember. He must appear on the scene at a moment when people are looking for leadership. He must be able to offer a solution everybody can understand and remember and able to do something other people can ’ t. H must know how to use power.

121 2. Enjoy strong health. Have a strong will in time of difficulties. Charisma. 3. Honest. Active. Creative. High scores in studies. Willing to work for his classmates. Know how to organize class activities. You can certainly add more. You can certainly add more.

122 Unit 8

123 Text I The Monster  Background information: 1. About the text: 1. About the text: This text first appeared as a radio talk, entitled A Monster. Later it was published with the title Of Men and Music in the United States in This text first appeared as a radio talk, entitled A Monster. Later it was published with the title Of Men and Music in the United States in about the author: 2. about the author: Deems Taylor, American musician and critic Deems Taylor, American musician and critic

124 3. Richard Wagner: German composer, born in Leipzig on 22 May 1813 and died in Venice on 13 February he did more than any other composer to change music, and indeed to change the art and thinking about it. His works are hated as much as they are worshipped, but no one denies their greatness.

125 AnalysisAnalysis  This text can be divided into three parts. 1.Part I describe a man who seems to have rolled all kinds of demerits into one, a real monster. 2.Part II clarifies who this monster really is, i.e. a famous musician by the name of Richard Wagner. 3.Part III justify all the peculiar behaviors of Richard Wagner. He, as “ one of the world ’ s greatest dramatists … a great thinker … one of the most stupendous musical geniuses ”, has every reason to be a monster

126 Part I paragraph 1-9  The following questions may be asked: 1. Does the man ’ s appearance, described in the first paragraph, give one any impression of “ grandeur ” ? 2. What are the further evidences of the monster ’ s conceit? 3. What kinds of grammatical devices are used to emphasize the extreme extent of his pecultiar conceit?

127 4. What kind of versatile man is he? 5. How does the writer describe him as an emotional person? 6. How was he financially supported? Did he earn himself a good living with his great talents? 7. What is his attitude toward love? 8. Why do you think Wagner made so many enemies?

128 Part II paragraph 10  The following questions could be asked : 1. Why do you think the writer postpones the presentation of the monster ’ s name till the 10 th paragraph? 2. Has your attitude towards this monster changed a little when you finally find out who this monster is?

129 Part III paragraph  questions to be asked: 1. How does the writer justify every piece of evidence of the monster, which he has presented previously? 2. What is the writer ’ s real intention of writing this article? 3. What is your final conclusion about Richard Wagner?

130 Language Work  And he had delusions of grandeur: and he had a false belief that he was a man of importance. delusion: a false belief or opinion. delusion: a false belief or opinion. That sick man is under the delusion that he is Napoleon. That sick man is under the delusion that he is Napoleon.  Volubility: the characteristic of always being ready to produce a continuous flow of words, or being talkative

131  Voluble: characterized by a ready and continuous flow of words; fluent; talkative Ted ’ s a voluble speaker at meetings; he doesn ’ t give much chance to others to say anything. Ted ’ s a voluble speaker at meetings; he doesn ’ t give much chance to others to say anything.  For the sake of 1) For the good or advantage of 2) For the purpose of

132  Rave: 1) Talk wildly as if mad 2) Put into the stated condition by talking wildly  Darkly: in a vaguely threatening or menacing manner He spoke darkly of trouble to come He spoke darkly of trouble to come hint darkly hidden dangers hint darkly hidden dangers

133  Testimony: a formal statement that sth. is true, as made by a witness in a court of law.  Between the lines: hidden meanings some kinds of poetry make you read between the lines. some kinds of poetry make you read between the lines.  And the curious thing about this record is that it doesn ’ t matter in the least: although the monster ’ s peculiar personality and behavior described previously are all facts on record, people just care nothing about them at all.

134  Downright: thoroughly It makes me downright angry to see food thrown away. It makes me downright angry to see food thrown away.  Is it any wonder he had no time to be a man? It is reasonable for him to act like a monster in other respects when he was wholly engaged in composing music.

135 Structural Analysis  In the first 10 paras, we can find the following words and expressions used by the author to describe Richard Wagner as a monster of conceit: delusions of grandeur/ monster of conceit/ believed himself to be one of the greatest dramatist/one of the greatest thinkers delusions of grandeur/ monster of conceit/ believed himself to be one of the greatest dramatist/one of the greatest thinkers

136  In the remaining paras, we can find the following words and expressions used to describe him as a great genius: right all the time/ one of the world ’ s greatest dramatists/ a great thinker/ one of the most stupendous musical geniuses right all the time/ one of the world ’ s greatest dramatists/ a great thinker/ one of the most stupendous musical geniuses

137 Rhetorical Features  The repetitious use of the third person pronoun he creates suspense in the reader ’ s mind. This is one of the effective ways to hold the reader ’ s attention and make him move on. To use the terminology of functional linguistics and discourse analysis, this use of he is cataphoric in nature. The anaphoric use of he can be found in sentences such as “ I have a friend and he is working in New York ”, in which he refers back to “ my friend ”.

138 Text II Simple Habits, Deep Thoughts  Reference for questions 1. He is simple in his habits. He does not pay much attention to his personal appearance. His clothes are baggy and he wears bedroom slippers when walking on the streets. 2. Basically the theory proposed, among other things, that the greatest speed possible is the speed of light; that the rate of a clock moving through space will decrease as its speed increases; and the energy and mass are equal and interchangeable.

139 3. To illustrate his profound idea, Einstein compares it to the ways one feels when he is sitting with a nice girl and when he is sitting on a hot stove. 4. Wagner was arrogant, aggressive, and self- centered whereas Einstein was modest, amiable and easy-going. Wagner was monster but Einstein was absolutely a gentleman.

140 Unit 9

141 Learning Objectives Learning Objectives After learning this unit, you are supposed to After learning this unit, you are supposed to grasp the author ’ s purpose of writing and get familiar with the structure of Text 1 by an intensive reading. grasp the author ’ s purpose of writing and get familiar with the structure of Text 1 by an intensive reading. paraphrase all the difficult sentences in Text 1. paraphrase all the difficult sentences in Text 1. master all the news words or sentence patterns and be able to use them freely in oral or written work. master all the news words or sentence patterns and be able to use them freely in oral or written work. be aware that the doctor-patient conflict is a common phenomenon in different cultures and try to investigate that in China and try to offer some suggestions on how to solve this problem. be aware that the doctor-patient conflict is a common phenomenon in different cultures and try to investigate that in China and try to offer some suggestions on how to solve this problem.

142 Text 1 The Discus Thrower What do you think this text is about after you know its title? How do you think a dying man will most probably behave? What attitude do you think that we should take towards financial or physical problems?

143 This passage can be divided into three parts. This passage can be divided into three parts. Part One (Paragraph 1): Spying on Patients — a Habit of Mine Part One (Paragraph 1): Spying on Patients — a Habit of Mine This part serves as an introduction to the background of the story. The narrator tells about one of his unique habits of “ spying on ” the patient and justifies himself for the sake of better medical treatment. This part serves as an introduction to the background of the story. The narrator tells about one of his unique habits of “ spying on ” the patient and justifies himself for the sake of better medical treatment.

144 Part Two (Paragraphs 2-13): Encounters with a Particular Patient Part Two (Paragraphs 2-13): Encounters with a Particular Patient This part talks about the narrator ’ s contact with the “ discuss thrower ”. The miserable condition of the patient is compared to a bonsai. The reason for his “ discuss throwing ” is that his plight throws him into despair and he hopes for nothing, only waiting for death. This part talks about the narrator ’ s contact with the “ discuss thrower ”. The miserable condition of the patient is compared to a bonsai. The reason for his “ discuss throwing ” is that his plight throws him into despair and he hopes for nothing, only waiting for death.

145 Part Three (Paragraphs 14-15): The Death of the Patient Part Three (Paragraphs 14-15): The Death of the Patient This part tells about how the man is found dead and the doctor discovered the secret that the man starved himself to death as is suggested by the doctor ’ s attention to the repeatedly washed place where the scrambled eggs dropped to the floor. This part tells about how the man is found dead and the doctor discovered the secret that the man starved himself to death as is suggested by the doctor ’ s attention to the repeatedly washed place where the scrambled eggs dropped to the floor.

146 Language Work …he might the more fully assemble evidence? …he might gather evidence more fully than without spying? The structure “the more fully” is the elliptical form of “all the more fully”. In English the structure “all/ so much/ none + the + the comparative degree of adjectives or adverbs” is used without “than…”following it to express emphasis. Sometimes all can be omitted.

147 e.g. 1) She was waiting for the spring. She felt the younger for it. e.g. 1) She was waiting for the spring. She felt the younger for it. 2) I walked around for two hours yesterday, and the doctor said I was none the worse for it. 2) I walked around for two hours yesterday, and the doctor said I was none the worse for it. 3) I know there ’ s danger ahead, but I am all the more set on driving forward. 3) I know there ’ s danger ahead, but I am all the more set on driving forward.

148 furtive: attempting to avoid notice or attention; secretive furtive: attempting to avoid notice or attention; secretive e.g. 1) I saw him cast a furtive glance at the woman at the table to his right. e.g. 1) I saw him cast a furtive glance at the woman at the table to his right. 2) There was something furtive about his behavior and I immediately felt suspicious. 2) There was something furtive about his behavior and I immediately felt suspicious.

149 It is rusted, rather, in the last stage of containing the vile repose within. It is rusted, rather, in the last stage of containing the vile repose within. Rather, his skin gets dark brown because he was approaching the last stage of his life, that is, he was dying. Here “ vile repose ” is a metaphor, and it means “ death ”. Rather, his skin gets dark brown because he was approaching the last stage of his life, that is, he was dying. Here “ vile repose ” is a metaphor, and it means “ death ”.

150 And the blue eyes are frosted, looking inward like the windows of a snowbound cottage. And the blue eyes are frosted, looking inward like the windows of a snowbound cottage. And (under scrutiny) the blue eyes are not clear but covered with a gray frost-like layer, without looking outside at the external world like the windows of a snow-surrounded cottage. And (under scrutiny) the blue eyes are not clear but covered with a gray frost-like layer, without looking outside at the external world like the windows of a snow-surrounded cottage.

151 … he cups his right thigh in both hands. … he cups his right thigh in both hands. … he holds his right thigh with his hands curved like a dish. … he holds his right thigh with his hands curved like a dish. cup: support or hold something with the hands that are curved like a dish cup: support or hold something with the hands that are curved like a dish e.g. 1) He cupped his chin in the palm of his hand. e.g. 1) He cupped his chin in the palm of his hand. 2) David knelt, cupped his hands and splashed river water onto his face. 2) David knelt, cupped his hands and splashed river water onto his face.

152 swing: move something from one side to the other swing: move something from one side to the other e.g. 1) A large pendulum swung back and forth inside the big clock. e.g. 1) A large pendulum swung back and forth inside the big clock. 2) The truck driver swung himself up into the driver ’ s seat. 2) The truck driver swung himself up into the driver ’ s seat.

153 probe: physically explore or examine (something) with the hands or an instrument; investigate e.g. 1) They probed in/into the mud with a special drill, looking for a shipwreck. 2 2) Detectives questioned him for hours, probing for any inconsistencies in his story.

154 heft: lift or hold (something) in order to test its weight e.g. I hefted a suitcase. I see that we are to be accomplices. I see that I have to help the aide feed the patient. make one’s rounds: make one’s usual visits, esp. of inspection e.g. The production manage makes his rounds to check whether everything goes well.

155 dignified: having or showing a composed or serious manner that is worthy of respect dignified: having or showing a composed or serious manner that is worthy of respect e.g. 1)He has maintained a dignified silence about the rumours. e.g. 1)He has maintained a dignified silence about the rumours. 2) The defeated candidate in the election gave a dignified speech in which he congratulated his rival. 2) The defeated candidate in the election gave a dignified speech in which he congratulated his rival.

156 sweep: glide swiftly; speed along sweep: glide swiftly; speed along e.g. 1) A 1970s fashion revival is sweeping Europe. e.g. 1) A 1970s fashion revival is sweeping Europe. 2) Her gaze swept across the assembled crowd. 2) Her gaze swept across the assembled crowd. 3) The National Party swept into power with a majority of almost ) The National Party swept into power with a majority of almost 200.

157 Questions Questions Who is more responsible and considerate, the doctor or the medical aide? Find some clues in the text to support your opinion. Who is more responsible and considerate, the doctor or the medical aide? Find some clues in the text to support your opinion. Since doctor-patient conflict is unavoidable, can you give some suggestions to improve this situation? Since doctor-patient conflict is unavoidable, can you give some suggestions to improve this situation?

158 Main Ideas of Text 2 Main Ideas of Text 2 Sian Evens was caught in a fire and suffered third-degree burns. Her father spared no effort to help her regain consciousness during his visits in the hospital. As well as Sian ’ s great efforts, her father ’ s deep love and great patience contributed immensely to her physical and mental recovery. Sian Evens was caught in a fire and suffered third-degree burns. Her father spared no effort to help her regain consciousness during his visits in the hospital. As well as Sian ’ s great efforts, her father ’ s deep love and great patience contributed immensely to her physical and mental recovery.

159 Unit 10

160 Learning Objectives Learning Objectives By the end of this unit, you are required to By the end of this unit, you are required to grasp the author ’ s purpose of writing and make clear the structure of the whole passage by an intensive reading of Text 1. grasp the author ’ s purpose of writing and make clear the structure of the whole passage by an intensive reading of Text 1. understand all the difficult sentences in Text 1 and be able to paraphrase them. understand all the difficult sentences in Text 1 and be able to paraphrase them. get a list of new words and structures and try to use them freely in conversation and writing. get a list of new words and structures and try to use them freely in conversation and writing. get familiar with the style of Text 1: get familiar with the style of Text 1: autobiography. autobiography. try to get a general understanding of the famous literary figures mentioned in Text 1. try to get a general understanding of the famous literary figures mentioned in Text 1.

161 Text 1 How I Found My Voice Have you ever spoken to a large audience? How did you feel? Have you ever spoken to a large audience? How did you feel? Do you think voice is important to personal development? Do you think voice is important to personal development? Suppose a friend of yours, who has accidentally broken his leg, is going to have an operation in a few days and now he is feeling nervous. Say something to calm him down and give him some encouragement. Suppose a friend of yours, who has accidentally broken his leg, is going to have an operation in a few days and now he is feeling nervous. Say something to calm him down and give him some encouragement.

162 This autobiographical narration comprises three parts. This autobiographical narration comprises three parts. Part One (Paragraphs 1-2): The writer presents a striking contrast between his successful career as an actor and television announcer and his severe stutter in his early childhood. Part One (Paragraphs 1-2): The writer presents a striking contrast between his successful career as an actor and television announcer and his severe stutter in his early childhood.

163 Part Two (Paragraphs 3-22): This part mainly describes the author ’ s stuttering problem when he was a child and the process of how Prof. Crouch helped the boy tackle the problem by way of the forced public speaking. Part Two (Paragraphs 3-22): This part mainly describes the author ’ s stuttering problem when he was a child and the process of how Prof. Crouch helped the boy tackle the problem by way of the forced public speaking.

164 Part Three (Paragraphs 23-29) : The concluding part shows various honors and successes the writer has obtained, which further emphasizes the great effect the teacher has brought about on the writer’s career as well as his whole life.

165 Language Work Language Work the voice-over announcer: an announcer who makes a commentary or gives an explanation which is heard as part of a film or television program, but he himself is not actually seen. the voice-over announcer: an announcer who makes a commentary or gives an explanation which is heard as part of a film or television program, but he himself is not actually seen. the New Testament: the second part of the Bible, concerned with the teachings of Christ and his earliest followers the New Testament: the second part of the Bible, concerned with the teachings of Christ and his earliest followers the Old Testament: the first part of the Bible, telling the history of the Jews and their beliefs the Old Testament: the first part of the Bible, telling the history of the Jews and their beliefs

166 I always sat down, my face burning with shame. I always sat down, my face burning with shame. I always sat down, and blushed because I felt ashamed. I always sat down, and blushed because I felt ashamed. More examples of absolute structure: More examples of absolute structure: A number of officials followed the emperor, some to hold his robe, others to adjust his girdle, and so on. (infinitive clause) A number of officials followed the emperor, some to hold his robe, others to adjust his girdle, and so on. (infinitive clause) His voice drowned by the noise, the speaker stopped in the middle of his lecture.(-ed participle clause) His voice drowned by the noise, the speaker stopped in the middle of his lecture.(-ed participle clause) He went off, gun in hand. (prepositional phrase) He went off, gun in hand. (prepositional phrase) The floor wet and slippery, we stayed outside. (adjective phrase) The floor wet and slippery, we stayed outside. (adjective phrase)

167 It was traumatic moving from the warm, easy ways of catfish country to the harsh climate of the north, where people seemed so different. It was traumatic moving from the warm, easy ways of catfish country to the harsh climate of the north, where people seemed so different. We moved from the familiar and pleasant country to the north where I felt cold both in body and in heart. That was really an upsetting experience in my life. We moved from the familiar and pleasant country to the north where I felt cold both in body and in heart. That was really an upsetting experience in my life.

168 in a nondenominational fellowship: in a close relationship without caring about the different religions in a nondenominational fellowship: in a close relationship without caring about the different religions Granddad ’ s Irish heritage came out in his love for language; … Granddad ’ s Irish heritage came out in his love for language; … Granddad had a love for language, which might have been inherited from his Irish ancestors; … Granddad had a love for language, which might have been inherited from his Irish ancestors; …

169 come close to: become almost the same as e.g. The language learner tries to make his speech come close to perfection. round up: gather together animals or people, often when they do not want to be gathered together e.g. The teacher rounded up all the students and led them to the classroom.

170 That awful feeling of voice being trapped got worse as I grew older. That awful feeling of voice being trapped got worse as I grew older. As I grew older, I became more self-conscious of my stuttering. As I grew older, I became more self-conscious of my stuttering. savor: enjoy and appreciate something like food, or drink, or an experience, as much as one can savor: enjoy and appreciate something like food, or drink, or an experience, as much as one can e.g. 1) I savored every mouthful of breakfast, reluctant to let it end. e.g. 1) I savored every mouthful of breakfast, reluctant to let it end. 2) He savored the words as he said it. 2) He savored the words as he said it.

171 labor: work with difficulty, for example because one is not strong enough or clever enough labor: work with difficulty, for example because one is not strong enough or clever enough e.g. 1) He was laboring under the strain of a worsening political crisis. e.g. 1) He was laboring under the strain of a worsening political crisis. 2) His classmates were laboring with elementary algebra. 2) His classmates were laboring with elementary algebra. … I started, anger flooding me … … I started, anger flooding me … … I started, overwhelmed with anger … … I started, overwhelmed with anger …

172 … because the lyrics ’ rhythmic pattern flows by itself. … because the lyrics ’ rhythmic pattern flows by itself. … most stutterers can sing along with the rhythm pattern which just flows by itself. … most stutterers can sing along with the rhythm pattern which just flows by itself. He never pushed anything at me again; he just wanted all his students to wake up. He never pushed anything at me again; he just wanted all his students to wake up. From then on he never gave me pressure, and what he tried to do was to help students realize and tap their potential. From then on he never gave me pressure, and what he tried to do was to help students realize and tap their potential.

173 I … supported myself between roles by sweeping floors of off-Broadway stages. I … supported myself between roles by sweeping floors of off-Broadway stages. Before acting any new role, I … supported myself by sweeping the floors of off- Broadway stages. Before acting any new role, I … supported myself by sweeping the floors of off- Broadway stages. “ Can I fly you in from Michigan to see it? ” “ Can I fly you in from Michigan to see it? ” “ Can I offer you a flight to Michigan to see my acting? ” “ Can I offer you a flight to Michigan to see my acting? ”

174 …he was still living in a world vibrant with all of the beautiful treasures had stored. …he had stored many poems by memorizing them so he could enjoy his life with the rhythms of poetry even after he had lost his sight. resurrect: cause something to live again after it has disappeared e.g. A furious argument ensued in which both sides resurrected all their old differences.

175 Questions Questions What is the text mainly concerned with? What is the text mainly concerned with? What do you learn from the author of this text? What do you learn from the author of this text?

176 Main Ideas of Text 2 Jack Kibly ’ s marvelous achievements on inventing microchips and thus launching a technological revolution led him to winning the Nobel Prize in physics, although he is not a physicist and never had much formal physics training in his lifetime. He has never accumulated much money out of his invention, but this has not bothered him. He always tries to be a good problem-solver in his field. Jack Kibly ’ s marvelous achievements on inventing microchips and thus launching a technological revolution led him to winning the Nobel Prize in physics, although he is not a physicist and never had much formal physics training in his lifetime. He has never accumulated much money out of his invention, but this has not bothered him. He always tries to be a good problem-solver in his field.

177 Unit 11

178 Learning Objectives Learning Objectives By the end of this unit, students are supposed to By the end of this unit, students are supposed to make clear the structure of the whole passage and grasp the author ’ s purpose of writing through an intensive reading of Text 1. make clear the structure of the whole passage and grasp the author ’ s purpose of writing through an intensive reading of Text 1. master all the new words and sentence structures and employ them in conversation and writing. master all the new words and sentence structures and employ them in conversation and writing. be able to paraphrase all the topic sentences in Text 1. be able to paraphrase all the topic sentences in Text 1. know about the Boy Scout and its ranks. know about the Boy Scout and its ranks. learn from the passage some experience in face of a great danger in the wilds. learn from the passage some experience in face of a great danger in the wilds.

179 Text 1 Mountain Lion’s Attack Can you remember any situation in your life where you were terrified? What will you do if you run across a fierce wild animal in the woods?

180 This narrative article comprises three parts. This narrative article comprises three parts. Part One (Paragraph 1): In this part, the writer describes the motivation of his taking a job offer. Part One (Paragraph 1): In this part, the writer describes the motivation of his taking a job offer.

181 Part Two (Paragraphs 2-20): In this part, the writer talks about his personal experience as a camp counselor. One little camper was caught by a ferocious mountain lion. He fought hard to drive it away and finally succeeded in saving the boy. Part Two (Paragraphs 2-20): In this part, the writer talks about his personal experience as a camp counselor. One little camper was caught by a ferocious mountain lion. He fought hard to drive it away and finally succeeded in saving the boy.

182 Part Three (Paragraph 21): In this part, the writer concludes his narration with his motto: Be prepared to listen to divine directions.

183 Language Work Language Work Boy Scout: member of the Scout Association, an organization which aims to teach boys self-reliance, discipline and public service through outdoor activities. Boy Scout: member of the Scout Association, an organization which aims to teach boys self-reliance, discipline and public service through outdoor activities. Life Scout: one of the ranks of the Boy Scout. The ranks of the Boy Scout start out as a Scout, which is followed by Tenderfoot. After that is Second Class, which precedes First Class. The next rank is Star. After that one achieves Life, which leads up to the highest rank, Eagle. One has to earn 11 merit badges before he can be a Life Scout. Life Scout: one of the ranks of the Boy Scout. The ranks of the Boy Scout start out as a Scout, which is followed by Tenderfoot. After that is Second Class, which precedes First Class. The next rank is Star. After that one achieves Life, which leads up to the highest rank, Eagle. One has to earn 11 merit badges before he can be a Life Scout.

184 well on my way to making eagle: with much hope of becoming a senior scout well on my way to making eagle: with much hope of becoming a senior scout jumped at the chance: eagerly accepted or took advantage of the chance jumped at the chance: eagerly accepted or took advantage of the chance e.g.1) Susan jumped at the chance of going abroad. e.g.1) Susan jumped at the chance of going abroad. 2) The guests all jumped at the invitation because it is rare for the host to arrange such a party. 2) The guests all jumped at the invitation because it is rare for the host to arrange such a party.

185 glue: fasten or join with glue glue: fasten or join with glue e.g. 1) Her ear has been glued to the key-hole. e.g. 1) Her ear has been glued to the key-hole. 2) The approaching Session of Parliament will open millions of pairs of eyes, which have been glued up by false alarms for the last twenty-five years. 2) The approaching Session of Parliament will open millions of pairs of eyes, which have been glued up by false alarms for the last twenty-five years. roam: wander aimlessly or unsystematically roam: wander aimlessly or unsystematically e.g. 1) A mighty horde of savages roamed the continent in search of food. e.g. 1) A mighty horde of savages roamed the continent in search of food. 2) In the summer I often roam about the fields all day. 2) In the summer I often roam about the fields all day.

186 yell: utter a loud strident cry, especially from some strong and sudden emotion, as rage, horror, or agony yell: utter a loud strident cry, especially from some strong and sudden emotion, as rage, horror, or agony e.g. 1) Vicki leaped to her feet and started yelling at the audience about the death penalty. e.g. 1) Vicki leaped to her feet and started yelling at the audience about the death penalty. 2) With its driver yelling “ I can ’ t stop, I can ’ t stop ”, a car barreled onto an elementary school playground. 2) With its driver yelling “ I can ’ t stop, I can ’ t stop ”, a car barreled onto an elementary school playground. Could I stand my ground? Could I stand my ground? Could I stick to my principle? Could I stick to my principle? e.g. The government was strong enough to stand its ground on foreign affairs. e.g. The government was strong enough to stand its ground on foreign affairs.

187 plod up: make one ’ s way up laboriously plod up: make one ’ s way up laboriously e.g. We plodded along in profound silence in case that we would arouse the sleeping dwellers e.g. We plodded along in profound silence in case that we would arouse the sleeping dwellers. … something kept bugging me. … something kept bugging me. … I was continuously annoyed by something. … I was continuously annoyed by something. shrug off: dismiss or reject in an offhand manner; be unaffected by shrug off: dismiss or reject in an offhand manner; be unaffected by e.g. 1) The stock market has shrugged off the e.g. 1) The stock market has shrugged off the collapse of Roc Company. collapse of Roc Company. 2) You can ’ t just shrug off things like this! 2) You can ’ t just shrug off things like this!

188 insistent: persistent with urgency e.g. The natives were very insistent that I should try and shoot an animal otherwise I would not be a real hunter. At the real, I found myself with the least ones. I joined the smallest or youngest campers at the end of the group. We clambered on… We climbed on along the mountain trail with difficulty…

189 an Indian trail sign: a sign marking the direction of paths in a forest by and for Indian tribesmen an Indian trail sign: a sign marking the direction of paths in a forest by and for Indian tribesmen … the counselors froze. … the counselors froze. … the counselors became motionless. … the counselors became motionless. yelling at the top of my lungs: shouting at the utmost power of my voice yelling at the top of my lungs: shouting at the utmost power of my voice e.g. The desperate shepherd was yelling at the top of his lungs for help, but unfortunately no one came. e.g. The desperate shepherd was yelling at the top of his lungs for help, but unfortunately no one came.

190 Fear for the boy wiped out my own terror … Fear for the boy wiped out my own terror … My own terror was driven away completely by the fear for the boy ’ s safety … My own terror was driven away completely by the fear for the boy ’ s safety … e.g. They accused Nazi Regime of an effort to wipe out the identities of Jews by destroying their public enemies. e.g. They accused Nazi Regime of an effort to wipe out the identities of Jews by destroying their public enemies. in a fit of rage: very angry in a fit of rage: very angry e.g. He tore the book into pieces in a fit of rage, because he was not interested in it at all. e.g. He tore the book into pieces in a fit of rage, because he was not interested in it at all.

191 gave me credit for: praised me for gave me credit for: praised me for e.g. He was given credit for his extraordinary devotion only after he died. e.g. He was given credit for his extraordinary devotion only after he died. carrying the right gear: equipping oneself with the right instruments carrying the right gear: equipping oneself with the right instruments

192 Q Questions What do you learn from the author? Do you think that there is really someone who can warn the writer of the danger ahead?

193 Main Ideas of Text 2 Derek has many close calls during his 19 years of life. One night in August when he camped in Glorieta, he and his girlfriend Kendra were attacked by a ferocious bear. At first they tried to avoid the danger by playing dead, but this did not stop the bear from attacking them. When they were attacked for a second time, brave Derek did everything he could to fight the animal and protect his girlfriend. Finally the bear backed off, and they survived. Derek has many close calls during his 19 years of life. One night in August when he camped in Glorieta, he and his girlfriend Kendra were attacked by a ferocious bear. At first they tried to avoid the danger by playing dead, but this did not stop the bear from attacking them. When they were attacked for a second time, brave Derek did everything he could to fight the animal and protect his girlfriend. Finally the bear backed off, and they survived.

194 Unit 12

195 Learning Objectives Learning Objectives After learning this unit, you are required to After learning this unit, you are required to have a good understanding of the author ’ s purpose of writing and appreciate the whole passage through an intensive reading of Text 1. have a good understanding of the author ’ s purpose of writing and appreciate the whole passage through an intensive reading of Text 1. comprehend the difficult sentences in Text 1 and be able to paraphrase them. comprehend the difficult sentences in Text 1 and be able to paraphrase them. master the new words and structures and try to employ them freely. master the new words and structures and try to employ them freely. be aware of how Christmas celebrated by westerners. be aware of how Christmas celebrated by westerners. learn a new rhetorical device — oxymoron and be able to identify it in different texts. learn a new rhetorical device — oxymoron and be able to identify it in different texts.

196 Text 1 Christmas Lost and Found What is the most important festival in China? What is the most important festival in China? What does the title of this text suggest to you? What does the title of this text suggest to you?

197 The text can be divided into three parts. Part One (Paragraphs 1-5): This part introduces the writer’s dream of having a big family vibrating with energy, life and love, especially at Christmas. And her dream came true with the arrival of an adopted son, Christmas Boy, as well as two biological children.

198 Part Two (Paragraphs 6-8): This part tells readers that Christmas Boy was killed in a car accident on his 26th Christmas after he decorated his parents ’ tree as usual, which gave a heavy blow to his parents. Then they submerged in the sorrow of losing their son as well as Christmas for 17 years. Part Two (Paragraphs 6-8): This part tells readers that Christmas Boy was killed in a car accident on his 26th Christmas after he decorated his parents ’ tree as usual, which gave a heavy blow to his parents. Then they submerged in the sorrow of losing their son as well as Christmas for 17 years.

199 Part Three (Paragraphs 9-24): This part tells us that 17 years later, the parents gradually realized that they had found the joy of a noisy Christmas of a big family again and that the love harbored in everyone ’ s heart will unite people, biologically connected or not, into a family and Christmas is just a chance for people to share love with each other. Part Three (Paragraphs 9-24): This part tells us that 17 years later, the parents gradually realized that they had found the joy of a noisy Christmas of a big family again and that the love harbored in everyone ’ s heart will unite people, biologically connected or not, into a family and Christmas is just a chance for people to share love with each other.

200 Language Work Language Work reckon on: expect; dependent on reckon on: expect; dependent on e.g. 1) We are reckoning on a large profit. e.g. 1) We are reckoning on a large profit. 2) Can I reckon on you to help? 2) Can I reckon on you to help? Undaunted, we applied for adoption and, within a year, he arrived. Undaunted, we applied for adoption and, within a year, he arrived. Not discouraged by our infertility, we requested to adopt a child. Within a year, we succeeded in adopting one. Not discouraged by our infertility, we requested to adopt a child. Within a year, we succeeded in adopting one. in rapid succession: quickly and continuously in rapid succession: quickly and continuously e.g. His words came out in rapid succession. e.g. His words came out in rapid succession.

201 … compared with my quiet childhood, that made an entirely satisfactory crowd. … compared with my quiet childhood, that made an entirely satisfactory crowd. … with three children, my family was filled with a big crowd, which, quite different from my quiet childhood, completely satisfied my dream of having a big family. … with three children, my family was filled with a big crowd, which, quite different from my quiet childhood, completely satisfied my dream of having a big family. satisfactory: good enough to be pleasing, or for a purpose, rule, standard satisfactory: good enough to be pleasing, or for a purpose, rule, standard e.g. a satisfactory excuse for his absence e.g. a satisfactory excuse for his absence cf. satisfaction: contentment ; pleasure; fulfillment of a need, desire, etc. cf. satisfaction: contentment ; pleasure; fulfillment of a need, desire, etc. e.g. He took great satisfaction from playing the piano well. e.g. He took great satisfaction from playing the piano well.

202 rush the season: make people prepare for Christmas hastily long before Christmas really comes rush the season: make people prepare for Christmas hastily long before Christmas really comes He pressed us into singing carols, our froglike voices contrasting with his musical gift of perfect pitch. He pressed us into singing carols, our froglike voices contrasting with his musical gift of perfect pitch. He forced all of us to sing carols, even though our voices, compared with his perfect voice with musical gift, were too harsh and husky to sing. He forced all of us to sing carols, even though our voices, compared with his perfect voice with musical gift, were too harsh and husky to sing.

203 Each holiday he stirred us up, leading us through a round of merry chaos. Each holiday he stirred us up, leading us through a round of merry chaos. Each holiday, he tried to excite us and turned the whole family into a cheerful disorder. Each holiday, he tried to excite us and turned the whole family into a cheerful disorder. stir up: cause to move or excite stir up: cause to move or excite merry chaos: This is an expression of oxymoron. “ Chaos ” refers to a state of complete and thorough disorder or confusion, which is, however, modified by an adjective incompatible to or contradictory with its original meaning. merry chaos: This is an expression of oxymoron. “ Chaos ” refers to a state of complete and thorough disorder or confusion, which is, however, modified by an adjective incompatible to or contradictory with its original meaning.

204 Our friends were right about adopted children not being the same. Our friends were right about adopted children not being the same. Our friends were right in saying that adopted children would usually be different from biological children. Our friends were right in saying that adopted children would usually be different from biological children. Through his own unique heredity, his irrepressible good cheer, his bossy wit, our Christmas Boy made our life colorful. Through his own unique heredity, his irrepressible good cheer, his bossy wit, our Christmas Boy made our life colorful. With his unique ability inherited from his own parents, his cheerful personality, as well as his wit of ordering others to cooperate with him, he changed our life into a colorful one. With his unique ability inherited from his own parents, his cheerful personality, as well as his wit of ordering others to cooperate with him, he changed our life into a colorful one.

205 stop by: make a short visit to (someone’s home) …where memories clung to every room. …where every room would make us recall the past. cling to: hold tight to; stick firmly to e.g. She clung tightly to her few remaining possessions.

206 We slide into the city on the tail of a blizzard, through streets ablaze with lights. We slide into the city on the tail of a blizzard, through streets ablaze with lights. We drove into the city at night just after a heavy snowstorm, in order not to be noticed by any acquaintance. We drove into the city at night just after a heavy snowstorm, in order not to be noticed by any acquaintance. slide: go slowly and unnoticed; pass smoothly or continuously; slip slide: go slowly and unnoticed; pass smoothly or continuously; slip e.g. 1) She slid out of the room when no one was looking. e.g. 1) She slid out of the room when no one was looking. 2) She slid over the question without answering it. 2) She slid over the question without answering it. on the tail of: following closely behind on the tail of: following closely behind

207 We settled into a small, boxy house, so different from the family home where we had orchestrated our lives. It was quiet, like the house of my childhood. We settled into a small, boxy house, so different from the family home where we had orchestrated our lives. It was quiet, like the house of my childhood. We settled down in a small house, which was so different from our previous home where, with our Christmas Boy, we had changed our quiet life into a cheerful one. Now the small house reminded me of the quiet house of childhood, which I had disliked so much. We settled down in a small house, which was so different from our previous home where, with our Christmas Boy, we had changed our quiet life into a cheerful one. Now the small house reminded me of the quiet house of childhood, which I had disliked so much. snowcapped mountain: mountains covered with snow snowcapped mountain: mountains covered with snow

208 pull up: come to a stop pull up: come to a stop e.g. The car pulled up outside the station. e.g. The car pulled up outside the station. There stood our granddaughter, and in her gray- green eyes and impudent grin I saw the reflection of our Christmas Boy. There stood our granddaughter, and in her gray- green eyes and impudent grin I saw the reflection of our Christmas Boy. Our granddaughter was standing there, her gray-green eyes as well as her rude smile reminded us of her father, our Christmas Boy. Our granddaughter was standing there, her gray-green eyes as well as her rude smile reminded us of her father, our Christmas Boy. shape up: begin to do right shape up: begin to do right e.g. You ’ d better shape up, young man, or you will be punished. e.g. You ’ d better shape up, young man, or you will be punished.

209 in a whirl: in a confusing rush in a whirl: in a confusing rush You sure as heck can. You sure as heck can. You certainly can. You certainly can. We had long ago given up the poignant Christmas services, but now under pressure, we sat rigid in the front pew, fighting back tears. We had long ago given up the poignant Christmas services, but now under pressure, we sat rigid in the front pew, fighting back tears. After the death of our Christmas Boy, we had not expected to have any Christmas services any more. Now, at the demand of our granddaughter ’ s family, we sat in the front seat, but the sad memories stiffened our body and filled our eyes and heart with tears. After the death of our Christmas Boy, we had not expected to have any Christmas services any more. Now, at the demand of our granddaughter ’ s family, we sat in the front seat, but the sad memories stiffened our body and filled our eyes and heart with tears.

210 In a rare emotional response, the congregation applauded in delight. In a rare emotional response, the congregation applauded in delight. Greatly touched by her singing, the audience gave a big applause to her delightedly. Greatly touched by her singing, the audience gave a big applause to her delightedly. We had been alerted that there would be a whole mess of people for dinner — but 35! We had been alerted that there would be a whole mess of people for dinner — but 35! We had been warned that there would be a large number of people attending dinner, but we had never expected that there would be 35 of them. We had been warned that there would be a large number of people attending dinner, but we had never expected that there would be 35 of them. assorted relatives: various types of relatives assorted relatives: various types of relatives

211 sort out: separate from a mass or a group sort out: separate from a mass or a group e.g. Sort out the papers to be thrown away, and put the rest back. e.g. Sort out the papers to be thrown away, and put the rest back. They took us in, enfolded us in joyous camaraderie. They took us in, enfolded us in joyous camaraderie. e.g. They received us and treated us like old friends. e.g. They received us and treated us like old friends. take in: receive and provide lodgings for take in: receive and provide lodgings for e.g. The kind old lady offered to take in the poor homeless stranger. e.g. The kind old lady offered to take in the poor homeless stranger. enfold: surround; envelop enfold: surround; envelop

212 We sang carols in loud, off-key voices, saved only by that amazing soprano. We sang carols in loud, off-key voices, saved only by that amazing soprano. We sang carols loudly, often in the wrong key, but every time we were led to the right key by our granddaughter ’ s perfect singing. We sang carols loudly, often in the wrong key, but every time we were led to the right key by our granddaughter ’ s perfect singing. … it occurred to me that a true family is not always one ’ s own flesh and blood. It is a climate of the heart. … it occurred to me that a true family is not always one ’ s own flesh and blood. It is a climate of the heart. … I suddenly realized that a family is not always made up by kinship and the hearts filled with love for others would surely make up a true family. … I suddenly realized that a family is not always made up by kinship and the hearts filled with love for others would surely make up a true family.

213 Had it not been for our adopted son, we would not now be surrounded by caring strangers who would help us hear the music again. Had it not been for our adopted son, we would not now be surrounded by caring strangers who would help us hear the music again. I felt grateful to my adopted son, without whom we would not have a chance to spend Christmas with these caring people and hear the Christmas carols again, which we had not had for so many years. I felt grateful to my adopted son, without whom we would not have a chance to spend Christmas with these caring people and hear the Christmas carols again, which we had not had for so many years. zoom: move or travel quickly zoom: move or travel quickly e.g. Jack went zooming past in his new car. e.g. Jack went zooming past in his new car.

214 The real meaning of Christmas had been restored to us. The real meaning of Christmas had been restored to us. I found the real meaning of Christmas again, that is, hearts with love, which I had had when my family was filled with energy and love with all my three children around me, but later I had mistakenly lost after my adopted son ’ s death. I found the real meaning of Christmas again, that is, hearts with love, which I had had when my family was filled with energy and love with all my three children around me, but later I had mistakenly lost after my adopted son ’ s death.

215 Questions Questions A proverb goes like this: “ Blood is thicker than water. ” Do you think that there is any contradiction between this proverb and the way the author of the text looks at human relationship? A proverb goes like this: “ Blood is thicker than water. ” Do you think that there is any contradiction between this proverb and the way the author of the text looks at human relationship? Nowadays Christmas is celebrated in China. Does it mean that Christianity is getting popular in China? Nowadays Christmas is celebrated in China. Does it mean that Christianity is getting popular in China?

216 Main Ideas of Text 2 Main Ideas of Text 2 The author, whose father was a groundskeeper for cemeteries, believed he needed an escape from the life in his quiet and sheltered town and a new way of life. On a particular visit home, his father asked him to lay some of the stones on several of the markers. This stone-leaving experience changed his attitude towards the life there. The author, whose father was a groundskeeper for cemeteries, believed he needed an escape from the life in his quiet and sheltered town and a new way of life. On a particular visit home, his father asked him to lay some of the stones on several of the markers. This stone-leaving experience changed his attitude towards the life there.

217 Unit 13

218 Learning Objectives Learning Objectives After learning this unit, you are required to After learning this unit, you are required to grasp the author ’ s purpose of writing and the structure of Text 1. grasp the author ’ s purpose of writing and the structure of Text 1. understand the difficult sentences in Text 1 and be able to paraphrase them. understand the difficult sentences in Text 1 and be able to paraphrase them. master all the new words, expressions and sentence patterns, and use them freely in conversation and writing. master all the new words, expressions and sentence patterns, and use them freely in conversation and writing. know the importance of harmonious relationship between man and nature, and try to suggest some effective ways to improve present situation. know the importance of harmonious relationship between man and nature, and try to suggest some effective ways to improve present situation.

219 Text 1 Promise of Bluebirds What ’ s your favorite bird? What ’ s your favorite bird? Why do most Chinese dislike crows? Why do most Chinese dislike crows?

220 The passage can be divided into three parts. The passage can be divided into three parts. Part One (Paragraphs 1-7): These seven paragraphs function as a preclude to the story, where the author sets the wintry landscape as the background. She asked herself the question “… will he ever see one again? ” to reveal the critical situation of her father who treated bluebirds as angels of spring and life. Part One (Paragraphs 1-7): These seven paragraphs function as a preclude to the story, where the author sets the wintry landscape as the background. She asked herself the question “… will he ever see one again? ” to reveal the critical situation of her father who treated bluebirds as angels of spring and life.

221 Part Two (Paragraphs 8-19): The author recalls the life of her father, his philosophy of life and his sacrifice for the family and children. Just after he retired, he became interested in, and even hooked by, bluebirds, a kind of brilliant creature. Part Two (Paragraphs 8-19): The author recalls the life of her father, his philosophy of life and his sacrifice for the family and children. Just after he retired, he became interested in, and even hooked by, bluebirds, a kind of brilliant creature.

222 Part Three (Paragraphs 20-30): In this part, the author concentrates on the friendly relation between her father and bluebirds, which implies the harmonious relation between man and nature, and illustrates the theme of this story — the promise of bluebirds. Part Three (Paragraphs 20-30): In this part, the author concentrates on the friendly relation between her father and bluebirds, which implies the harmonious relation between man and nature, and illustrates the theme of this story — the promise of bluebirds.

223 Language Work Language Work await: wait for (formal use) await: wait for (formal use) e.g. Very little was said as they awaited the arrival of the distinguished guests. e.g. Very little was said as they awaited the arrival of the distinguished guests. hover: (of a person) wait or linger close at hand in an uncertain manner hover: (of a person) wait or linger close at hand in an uncertain manner e.g. With no idea of what to do for his next move, Ham ’ s hand hovered over the board. e.g. With no idea of what to do for his next move, Ham ’ s hand hovered over the board. … he drifted in and out of consciousness. … he drifted in and out of consciousness. … he lost and regained consciousness every now and then. … he lost and regained consciousness every now and then.

224 let go: give up e.g. She held the photos with the determined grip of a small child and wouldn’t let go. hold on to: keep one’s hand on or around e.g. 1) His right arm was extended up beside his head, still holding on to a coffee cup. 2 2) Nelson Mandela was imprisoned for many years yet held on to his belief for the equality of his people.

225 make sacrifices for: give up something valuable or important in order to obtain something else for other people make sacrifices for: give up something valuable or important in order to obtain something else for other people e.g. He was willing to make any sacrifice for the development of his motherland. e.g. He was willing to make any sacrifice for the development of his motherland. showing a fine pall of coal dust: covered with a layer of thin coal dust showing a fine pall of coal dust: covered with a layer of thin coal dust sparkled with devilment: betrayed or reflected his playful spirit sparkled with devilment: betrayed or reflected his playful spirit

226 fashion a fishing-line threader out of an old ballpoint pen: turn an old ballpoint pen into a fishing-line threader fashion a fishing-line threader out of an old ballpoint pen: turn an old ballpoint pen into a fishing-line threader e.g. Through years of hard work, he fashioned a beautiful horse out of an oak root. e.g. Through years of hard work, he fashioned a beautiful horse out of an oak root. Each job had its claim on your best efforts. Each job had its claim on your best efforts. Each job demanded your best efforts. Each job demanded your best efforts. His playful spirit would set us to giggling. His playful spirit would set us to giggling. His humorous temperament would cause us to laugh. His humorous temperament would cause us to laugh.

227 … we ’ d been had. … we ’ d been had. … we had been tricked or deceived. … we had been tricked or deceived. cleared forests for farmland: remove the forests to cultivate land for farming cleared forests for farmland: remove the forests to cultivate land for farming He was hooked. He was hooked. He was fascinated as if fastened by a hook. He was fascinated as if fastened by a hook.

228 …Dad was confined to the downstairs. …Dad could not climb upstairs …the rascals showed… …the lovely bluebirds came… Sporting a resplendent blue head, back, and wings and tail… With his head, back, and wings and tail growing attractive rich blue feathers…

229 She remained aloof on a distant perch. She stood on a distant perch, seemingly uninterested in the new nest. Then she fought an even more vehement battle with another female. Then she fought an even more violent battle with another female in response to Caruso’s love. …the sky mirrored Caruso’s courting raiment… …the sky was as blue as the color of Caruso’s courting clothing… herculean efforts: extremely great efforts

230 Questions Questions What is the theme of this text? What is the theme of this text? Would you offer some suggestions to harmonize the present relationship between man and nature? Would you offer some suggestions to harmonize the present relationship between man and nature?

231 Main Ideas of Text 2 Main Ideas of Text 2 Kobus, the author ’ s husband, found a tiny lion cub and brought it home. They tried their best to look after it as if it were their son. When it was too big to be managed, they sent it back to live with wild animals in a park. It gradually accustomed itself to the life there, and finally became a real lion. Kobus, the author ’ s husband, found a tiny lion cub and brought it home. They tried their best to look after it as if it were their son. When it was too big to be managed, they sent it back to live with wild animals in a park. It gradually accustomed itself to the life there, and finally became a real lion. This passage tells us that man should treat animals in a friendly way and help them and protect them when they are in such a need. It is necessary for man to seek a harmonious relationship with animals. This passage tells us that man should treat animals in a friendly way and help them and protect them when they are in such a need. It is necessary for man to seek a harmonious relationship with animals.

232 Unit 14

233 Learning Objectives Learning Objectives After learning this unit, you are required to After learning this unit, you are required to master all the new words and employ them in conversation and writing. master all the new words and employ them in conversation and writing. be able to paraphrase all the topic sentences in Text 1. be able to paraphrase all the topic sentences in Text 1. be aware of the author ’ s purpose of writing and grasp the main structure through an intensive reading of Text 1. be aware of the author ’ s purpose of writing and grasp the main structure through an intensive reading of Text 1. have a good understanding of the style of the text — argumentation, most of which consists of three parts: the thesis of the author, the evidences to support the thesis, and the summary or conclusion of the argument. have a good understanding of the style of the text — argumentation, most of which consists of three parts: the thesis of the author, the evidences to support the thesis, and the summary or conclusion of the argument.

234 Text 1 The Idiocy of Urban Life What are the major differences between city life and country life? What are the major differences between city life and country life? Where do you prefer to live, in the city or in the country? Please give evidences to support your choice. Where do you prefer to live, in the city or in the country? Please give evidences to support your choice.

235 This text can be divided into three parts. This text can be divided into three parts. Part One (Paragraphs 1-2): In this part, the author presents the thesis of his argument: aggressively individualistic and atomized urban life today goes against both the purpose of the city and the human nature, and thus is foolish. Part One (Paragraphs 1-2): In this part, the author presents the thesis of his argument: aggressively individualistic and atomized urban life today goes against both the purpose of the city and the human nature, and thus is foolish.

236 Part Two (Paragraphs 3-9): In this part, the author provides evidences for the idiocy of urban life. Part Two (Paragraphs 3-9): In this part, the author provides evidences for the idiocy of urban life. Para. 3-4: discussing the pretense of city dwellers when they try to live outside the city boundaries Para. 3-4: discussing the pretense of city dwellers when they try to live outside the city boundaries Para. 5-6: putting forward the point that city work is an unreal environment Para. 5-6: putting forward the point that city work is an unreal environment Para. 7: proving that the city dwellers live and work in an unreal environment Para. 7: proving that the city dwellers live and work in an unreal environment Para. 8-9: showing the damage done by the office work to the physical conditions of the workers Para. 8-9: showing the damage done by the office work to the physical conditions of the workers

237 Part 3 (Paragraph 10): In this part, the writer summarizes the idiocy of urban life and the ultimate reasons for this phenomenon. On the one hand, city dwellers try to simulate rural life, and on the other hand, they disdain and mock this life.

238 Language Work civil: polite and formal e.g. His manner was civil, though not particularly friendly. cruises easily through blinking traffic lights: moves easily through traffic lights and turn red and green alternately cruise: (of a vehicle or its driver) travel (at an efficient speed) e.g.1) The plane is cruising at an altitude of 35,000 feet. 2 2) We are planning to spend our retirement cruising on luxury liners around the world.

239 during an insomniac night: during a sleepless night during an insomniac night: during a sleepless night The word “ insomniac ” here is used as a transferred epithet to modify something inanimate. The word “ insomniac ” here is used as a transferred epithet to modify something inanimate. More examples of transferred epithet: More examples of transferred epithet: Even so, the risk of discovery was beginning to cause Pettit sleepless nights. Even so, the risk of discovery was beginning to cause Pettit sleepless nights. He threw a reassuring arm around my shoulder. He threw a reassuring arm around my shoulder. rat race: fierce competition rat race: fierce competition rubs to some: rubs as called by some people rubs to some: rubs as called by some people

240 disdain: think oneself superior to; reject e.g.1) The older musicians disdain the new, rock- influenced music. 2 2) Our new neighbors seem to be disdaining to speak to us. simulation: imitation of the conditions of (a situation etc.); resemblance e.g. I was quite deceived by her simulation of sorrow. simulate: imitate; give the appearance of e.g. In cheap furniture, plastic is often used to simulate wood.

241 in the richer ones further out: in the richer suburbs farther away from the city boundary in the richer ones further out: in the richer suburbs farther away from the city boundary prim new trees: neatly pruned new trees prim new trees: neatly pruned new trees prim: 1) neat e.g. a prim garden prim: 1) neat e.g. a prim garden 2) very formal and correct in behavior and easily 2) very formal and correct in behavior and easily shocked by anything rude shocked by anything rude e.g. She is much too prim and proper to go into a pub. e.g. She is much too prim and proper to go into a pub. frenzy: uncontrolled and excited behavior or emotion, which is sometimes violent frenzy: uncontrolled and excited behavior or emotion, which is sometimes violent e.g. 1) A gunman killed ten people in a murderous frenzy today in that city. e.g. 1) A gunman killed ten people in a murderous frenzy today in that city. 2) The audience worked themselves up into a frenzy as they waited for the singer to come on stage. 2) The audience worked themselves up into a frenzy as they waited for the singer to come on stage.

242 … to the rush-hour traffic into the city there is now added a rush-hour traffic out to the suburbs in the morning … … to the rush-hour traffic into the city there is now added a rush-hour traffic out to the suburbs in the morning … This is a partly inverted sentence, whose normal order is: there is now a rush-hour traffic out to the suburbs in the morning added to the rush-hour traffic into the city. This is a partly inverted sentence, whose normal order is: there is now a rush-hour traffic out to the suburbs in the morning added to the rush-hour traffic into the city. scandal: 1) something that causes a public feeling of outrage or indignation scandal: 1) something that causes a public feeling of outrage or indignation e.g. The minister was forced to resign after a scandal involving him and another minister ’ s wife. e.g. The minister was forced to resign after a scandal involving him and another minister ’ s wife. 2) malicious gossip 2) malicious gossip e.g. Someone must have been spreading scandal. e.g. Someone must have been spreading scandal.

243 reel: move from side to side unsteadily reel: move from side to side unsteadily e.g.1) At closing time he reeled out of the pub and e.g.1) At closing time he reeled out of the pub and across the road. across the road. 2) She hit him so hard that he reeled across the 2) She hit him so hard that he reeled across the room. room. the rural life that has been surrendered for the city lights: the rural life that has given way to the city lights the rural life that has been surrendered for the city lights: the rural life that has given way to the city lights slumping along their streets: walking with stooping head and shoulders along their streets slumping along their streets: walking with stooping head and shoulders along their streets

244 scurry: run or move hurriedly, especially with short quick steps scurry: run or move hurriedly, especially with short quick steps e.g. We all scurried for shelter when the storm began. e.g. We all scurried for shelter when the storm began. far less the sky: looking at the sky far less than they did their buildings. far less the sky: looking at the sky far less than they did their buildings.

245 Questions What is this text mainly about? D Do you agree with the author’s thesis?

246 Main Ideas of Text 2 In the mainstream of American thinking, there has been a strong anti-urban attitude. This thinking can be traced back to Thomas Jefferson, who was the first major thinker to express a clear antipathy to city life. All this is relevant not only to past attitudes and legislative history, but also to the modern history. In the mainstream of American thinking, there has been a strong anti-urban attitude. This thinking can be traced back to Thomas Jefferson, who was the first major thinker to express a clear antipathy to city life. All this is relevant not only to past attitudes and legislative history, but also to the modern history. Throughout the text, the author expressed his dissatisfaction with the current condition of the urban life in America and unhappy with the strong anti-urban attitude. Throughout the text, the author expressed his dissatisfaction with the current condition of the urban life in America and unhappy with the strong anti-urban attitude.

247 Unit 15

248 LEARNING OBJECTIVES By the end of this unit, you are supposed to Grasp the author ’ s purpose of writing and make clear the structure of the whole passage through an intensive reading of Text 1 Dolly ’ s False Legacy Grasp the author ’ s purpose of writing and make clear the structure of the whole passage through an intensive reading of Text 1 Dolly ’ s False Legacy comprehend Text 1 thoroughly comprehend Text 1 thoroughly get a list of new words and structures and use them freely in conversation and writing. get a list of new words and structures and use them freely in conversation and writing. Compare Text I and Text II Compare Text I and Text II

249 Text 1 Dolly ’ s False Legacy Topics for discussion Topics for discussion Do you know anything about Dolly, the first sheep ever cloned in history? Do you know anything about Dolly, the first sheep ever cloned in history? What do you know about cloning technique? What do you know about cloning technique? What would happen if sometime, somewhere, someone generated a cloned human being? What would happen if sometime, somewhere, someone generated a cloned human being?

250 Background Information Photographs of a rather ordinary-looking lamb named Dolly made front pages around the world because of her starling pedigree: Dolly, unlike any other mammal that has ever lived, is an identical copy of another adult and has no father.? She is a clone, the creation of a group of veterinary researchers. Photographs of a rather ordinary-looking lamb named Dolly made front pages around the world because of her starling pedigree: Dolly, unlike any other mammal that has ever lived, is an identical copy of another adult and has no father.? She is a clone, the creation of a group of veterinary researchers.

251 That work, performed by Ian Wilmut and his colleagues at the Roslin Institute in Edinburgh, Scotland, has provided an important new research tool and has shattered a belief widespread among biologists that cells from adult mammals cannot be persuaded to regenerate a whole animal. That work, performed by Ian Wilmut and his colleagues at the Roslin Institute in Edinburgh, Scotland, has provided an important new research tool and has shattered a belief widespread among biologists that cells from adult mammals cannot be persuaded to regenerate a whole animal.

252 Although the Scottish researchers have made clear that they would consider it unethical to adapt their technique to clone humans, the demonstration has raised the uncomfortable prospect that others might not be so scrupulous.? Cloning humans would mean that women could in principle reproduce without any help from men. Although the Scottish researchers have made clear that they would consider it unethical to adapt their technique to clone humans, the demonstration has raised the uncomfortable prospect that others might not be so scrupulous.? Cloning humans would mean that women could in principle reproduce without any help from men.

253 Structural analysis of Text 1 Dolly ’ s False Legacy Structural analysis of Text 1 Dolly ’ s False Legacy The passage can be divided into three parts. The passage can be divided into three parts. Part One: (Paragraph 1) serves as the introduction of the topic of cloning and the thesis of the essay. That is to say it is impossible to apply cloning to humans, today at least. The following questions can be asked: Part One: (Paragraph 1) serves as the introduction of the topic of cloning and the thesis of the essay. That is to say it is impossible to apply cloning to humans, today at least. The following questions can be asked: 1) What does the author think of cloning from the technical point of view? What evidence does he give to support it ? 1) What does the author think of cloning from the technical point of view? What evidence does he give to support it ? 2) What is the main point of the essay? 2) What is the main point of the essay?

254 Part Two: (Paragraphs 2-12) This part is the body of the essay, where the author argues against the currently discussed practicality of applying the cloning technique to humans from technical, ethical and legal perspectives. Part Two: (Paragraphs 2-12) This part is the body of the essay, where the author argues against the currently discussed practicality of applying the cloning technique to humans from technical, ethical and legal perspectives.

255 Para. 2-9: refute the reasons for wanting cloned children from ethical or humane viewpoint. Para : argues from the technical angle that cloning is not applicable to humans at present. Para. 12: presents the difficulty in and necessity for legal controlling of the use of the technique.

256 Questions to be considered: 1) What would be the similarities and differences between a cloned child and its natural twin? 2) Is it acceptable, according to the author, for sterile couples to have a cloned child? Why or why not ? 3) Why is the introduction of cloned children into hypothetical families unacceptable?

257 4) What is wrong with the suggestion of cloning a child as a substitute for the one tragically killed? 5) What is the technical hindrance of using the technique to clone humans? 6) What is the author ’ s point with regard to the legal control of the development and use cloning?

258 Part Three: (Paragraph 3): This paragraph concludes the essay by restating the thesis that cloning technique must be used cautiously. Questions to be considered: 1) At what development stage is the cloning technique today? 2) What is the author ’ s attitude towards cloning?

259 Language points Language points Overlooked in the arguments about the morality of artificially reproducing life is the fact that, at present, cloning is a very inefficient procedure. This is an inverted sentence, and its normal order is: “ The fact that at present, cloning is a very inefficient procedure is overlooked in the argument. ”.

260 Overlooked :. fail to notice; ignore or disregard forgive; tolerate E.g. We will overlook your bad behavior this time, but don ’ t do it again. provide a view from above E.g. Our hotel room overlooked the harbor.

261 Distressing : upsetting The television reports about the famine were particularly distressing. render (a formal word)? vt. 1) V+ O +C(adj.):? to cause sb./ sth. to become … It must have rendered him unconscious for a considerable period. E.g. His rudeness rendered me speechless. He has been influential in shaping economic policy. 2) translate She is rendering the book into English from French.

262 Perfect : Make something completely free from faults or defects, or as close to such a condition as possible He is keen to perfect his golfing technique. intrusion : the action of intruding intrude : introduce into a situation with disruptive or adverse effect E.g. Inefficiency has introduced into every area of the company ’ s activities.

263 Impose: 1)lay on The council has imposed a ban on alcohol in the city parks. 2) enforce compliance with We need to impose some kind of order on the way we do things in the office. fondly with a great liking She smiled fondly at the children.

264 Frame create or formulate (a concept, plan, or system ) in the event of if something should happen In the event of a strike, the army will take over responsibility for firefighting. reverse firefighting. turn something the other way round or inside out I was almost knocked off my bike by a car reversing out of a garage..

265 Champion: defend; support He has championed constitutional reform for many years. enforcement: the action of compelling observance of or compliance with (a law, rule, or obligation) She ’ s looking for a career in law enforcement enforce compel obedience to It isn ’ t always easy for the police to enforce speed limits.

266 Main ideas of Text 2 Quietly, Animal Cloning Speeds Onward Compare Text A and Text B in this unit to see where the two authors differ from each other in their attitude towards cloning. Compare Text A and Text B in this unit to see where the two authors differ from each other in their attitude towards cloning.

267 In text I, the author is obviously dubious about cloning. This can be proved by his use of the words and expressions that carry negative meanings, e.g.: false legacy in the title, very inefficient procedure, … incidence of death.. higher, distressing enough, and unthinkable in the text. His strong objection to whole-being cloning can be seen in many statements such as Even if the technique were perfect... in Paragraph 2, Every child should be wanted for itself … in Paragraph 9, and … we must use it cautiously in Paragraph 13 In text I, the author is obviously dubious about cloning. This can be proved by his use of the words and expressions that carry negative meanings, e.g.: false legacy in the title, very inefficient procedure, … incidence of death.. higher, distressing enough, and unthinkable in the text. His strong objection to whole-being cloning can be seen in many statements such as Even if the technique were perfect... in Paragraph 2, Every child should be wanted for itself … in Paragraph 9, and … we must use it cautiously in Paragraph 13

268 Unit 16

269 LEARNING OBJECTIVES By the end of this unit, you are supposed to By the end of this unit, you are supposed to grasp the author ’ s purpose of writing and make clear the structure of the whole passage through an intensive reading of Text 1 The Story of an Eyewitness grasp the author ’ s purpose of writing and make clear the structure of the whole passage through an intensive reading of Text 1 The Story of an Eyewitness comprehend Text 1 thoroughly comprehend Text 1 thoroughly

270 Text 1. The Story of an Eyewitness Topics for discussion Topics for discussion What do you think is the most destructive natural disaster? What do you think is the most destructive natural disaster? What is the biggest natural disaster you have experienced? What is the biggest natural disaster you have experienced?

271 Background Information The California earthquake of April 18, 1906 ranks as one of the most significant earthquakes of all time. Rupturing the northernmost 430 kilometers of the San Andreas fault from northwest of San Juan Bautista to the triple junction at Cape Mendocino, the earthquake confounded contemporary geologists with its large, horizontal displacements and great rupture length. The California earthquake of April 18, 1906 ranks as one of the most significant earthquakes of all time. Rupturing the northernmost 430 kilometers of the San Andreas fault from northwest of San Juan Bautista to the triple junction at Cape Mendocino, the earthquake confounded contemporary geologists with its large, horizontal displacements and great rupture length.

272 Violent shocks punctuated the strong shaking Violent shocks punctuated the strong shaking which lasted some 45 to 60 seconds. The earthquake was felt from southern Oregon to south of Los Angeles and inland as far as central Nevada. which lasted some 45 to 60 seconds. The earthquake was felt from southern Oregon to south of Los Angeles and inland as far as central Nevada. Casualties and damage after the earthquake Casualties and damage after the earthquake 1). Dead - More than 3,000 1). Dead - More than 3,000 2). Homeless - 225,000 2). Homeless - 225,000 3).Buildings Destroyed - 28,000 3).Buildings Destroyed - 28,000 4). Monetary Loss - More than $400 million 4). Monetary Loss - More than $400 million

273 An integrated Analysis of Text 1 The Story of an Eyewitness The passage can be divided into three parts. The passage can be divided into three parts. Part One: (Paragraphs 1-3) gives a brief introduction to what happened in San Francisco in Part One: (Paragraphs 1-3) gives a brief introduction to what happened in San Francisco in The following questions may be asked: The following questions may be asked: Why does the San Francisco earthquake of April 18, 1906 rank among the most destructive earthquake of all time? Why does the San Francisco earthquake of April 18, 1906 rank among the most destructive earthquake of all time? What rhetorical devices did the author use to describe the damage to all sections of San Francisco in Paragraph 2 ? What rhetorical devices did the author use to describe the damage to all sections of San Francisco in Paragraph 2 ? Which brought more destructive damage to the city, the earthquake or the following conflagration? Which brought more destructive damage to the city, the earthquake or the following conflagration?

274 Part Two: (Paragraphs 4-13) This part tells the reader in more detail what the author witnessed on Wednesday morning, afternoon and night. Part Two: (Paragraphs 4-13) This part tells the reader in more detail what the author witnessed on Wednesday morning, afternoon and night.

275 Questions to be considered: How did the author describe the day of the earthquake? Morning – 5:15 came the earthquake, flames were leaping upward, fires started, streets were humped into ridges and depressions, steel rails were twisted, telephone and telegraph systems were disrupted. Afternoon — half the heart of the city was gone, it was dead calm, strong winds were blowing upon the doomed city, heated air rising made an enormous suck. Night – the very heart of the city was destroyed, dynamite was used, structures were crumbled by man himself into ruins, firefighters fought the flames. Wednesday night was a quiet night, no crowds, no hysteria, no disorder.

276 Why do you think there was “ no opposing the flames ”, “ no organization, no communication ”, “ no withstanding the onrush of the flames ” after the earthquake and the fire occurred? Why do you think there was “ no opposing the flames ”, “ no organization, no communication ”, “ no withstanding the onrush of the flames ” after the earthquake and the fire occurred? What is “ the cunning adjustments of a 20th century city ” and what are “ the shrewd contrivances and safeguards of man ” ? What is “ the cunning adjustments of a 20th century city ” and what are “ the shrewd contrivances and safeguards of man ” ? What is the main idea of Paragraph 7? What is the main idea of Paragraph 7? How did the people of San Francisco behave? Why was this so remarkable? How did the people of San Francisco behave? Why was this so remarkable? According to the author, why did those trunks break many men ’ s heart? According to the author, why did those trunks break many men ’ s heart? What did the picket lines do ? What did the picket lines do ?

277 Part Three: (Para ): This part describes what happened the next day, that is to say how the very heart of the doomed city was being completely destroyed by the spreading fire and why the surrender was complete.

278 Questions to be considered: What are the differences between the scene of the very heart of the city at 9:00? Did people try to fight against the fire? Why does the author say “ surrender was complete ” ?

279 Language points shake down shake down cause to descend by shaking; bring down cause to descend by shaking; bring down conflagration conflagration an extensive fire which destroys a great deal of land or property an extensive fire which destroys a great deal of land or property

280 this lurid tower swayed in the sky, reddening the sun, darkening the day, and filling land with smoke … … the fire, moving back and forth slowly, make the sun redder and sky darker and covered the land with smoke. There was no opposing the flames. There was o organization, no communication.: It was impossible to oppose the flames, and it was impossible to organize any battles against the fire or communicate with other people

281 All the cunning adjustments of a 20th city had been smashed by the earthquake. Human ingenuity enabled people t make all kinds of adjustments ot nature. However, the achievements of their efforts had been completely destroyed by the earthquake The streets were humped into ridges and depressions.. The streets were no long smooth after the earthquake …

282 perpendicular: at an angle of 90o to a given line, plane, or surface horizontal: parallel t the plane of the horizon; at right angles to the vertical The heated air rising made an enormous suck. It is commonly known that the hot air will rise up while the cold air goes down, which forms the air current.

283 Thus did the fire of itself build its own colossal chimney through the atmosphere. The fire automatically followed the heated air rising to the atmosphere, in the same way as the smoke and fire go up through the chimney. Panic-striken Overcome with, characterized by, or resulting from fear or panic a panic-striking mother looking for her child

284 Lighten up Lessen the road Before the march of the flames were flung picket lines of soldiers. The soldiers were sent to keep the crowds of people moving before the march of the flames. a heart-breaking hill a steep hill that breaks man ’ s heart

285 compel compel force, or drive, especially to a course of action force, or drive, especially to a course of action His horse was played out when a day ’ s hunting was over. His horse was played out when a day ’ s hunting was over. soft members of the middle class soft members of the middle class those people in the middle class who were weak both in body and spirit because of lack of effort or challenge those people in the middle class who were weak both in body and spirit because of lack of effort or challenge at a disadvantage at a disadvantage in an unfavorable circumstance or condition in an unfavorable circumstance or condition

286 TEXT II Memories of the San Francisco Earthquake and Fire Compare Text II with Text I in this unit, the author of Text I looks at the destruction caused by the earthquake from the perspective of an adult whereas the author of Text II does it from the perspective of a child. Try to find their differences in attitude towards what they witness. Compare Text II with Text I in this unit, the author of Text I looks at the destruction caused by the earthquake from the perspective of an adult whereas the author of Text II does it from the perspective of a child. Try to find their differences in attitude towards what they witness.

287 In Text II, you can find a change of attitude on the part of an eight-year-old child in the following expressions and clauses: excited (Paragraph 4), was curious to see the nearest fire (Paragraph 6), saw many things that entertained (Paragraph 9), the gravity of the situation (Paragraph 14), sorry that others did not have the same transportation (Paragraph 17), realize as never before the importance of food, shelter and protection. (Paragraph 18). In Text I, however, there is no such change of attitude on the part of the author because Jack London was old enough to know the gravity of the situation as soon as the earthquake began.


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