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1 Four Worlds of History Materials developed by or through CALIS are made available online via a database that serves as a digital file cabinet of teaching.

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1 1 Four Worlds of History Materials developed by or through CALIS are made available online via a database that serves as a digital file cabinet of teaching resources. The Activities Database is a free and unrestricted collection. When teachers or other CALIS partners write, adapt, or collaborate on materials—they are cited. The source information includes their affiliated schools or organizations. As others download and further adapt these materials—all credit and source lines, for teachers as well of for CALIS–USC, should remain in tact as published. Teresa Hudock, Director, CALIS or usc.edu/calis First, thank you for opening this powerpoint and considering using it! Attention all recipients of this file: Whether the file was sent to you directly from Teresa or relayed by a colleague, CALIS and USC rely on your professionalism for proper credits and sourcing: First Edition: December 16, 2011 Revised Edition: Nov 27, 2012 Slide Count: 66 This file is provides an “inference exercise” using a 4W chart to outline information from a textbook. Slides that refer directly to items on the Activities Database have the item referenced. The “Four Worlds” framework is an analytical process. The development of ppt files is an attempt to more easily introduce the process – and the purpose – to interested teachers. Your collaboration is GREATLY appreciated.

2 2 Four Worlds of History Modern World History 10 th grade Imperialism

3 3 Four Worlds of History Table of Contents  Main Items & Issues Modern World History 10 th grade 4 – Social Science Factors – the Four Worlds analysis… and other factors 56 – Goals of the Social Sciences 7 – Inference Exercise – “Active Reading” of expository text  finding meaning 54 – Evaluation Question – The point of examining all the details, factors & dynamics 30 – Synthesis Question 1 – What was Western Europe’s imperial quest? 39 – Synthesis Question 2 – Who are the actors in new imperialism of the 1800s? 33 – Imperialism / Imperialism vs. Colonialism / Imperialism in Historical Context

4 4 Four Worlds of History Social Science Factors These constantly reoccurring are important to recognize regardless of how they are described basic factors of the human condition

5 5 Four Worlds of History Social Science Factors Identifying factors, relating factors, and is the science of the social sciences. determining the “most important" factors the science social sciences

6 6 Four Worlds of History Social Science Factors In addition to factors in Four Worlds, --political, economic, social, and cultural-- there are other sets of factors that affect all Four Worlds: …the natural world geography technology …the world of invention character …the personal world

7 7 Political World Economic World Social World Standards Check Cultural World What factors contributed to European imperialism in the 1800s? H-SS textbook: World History: The Modern World, Prentice Hall, 2007 – page 287

8 8 Political World Economic World Social World Standards Check Cultural World What factors contributed to European imperialism in the 1800s? H-SS textbook: World History: The Modern World, Prentice Hall, 2007 – page 287 “Like other key developments in world history, the new imperialism exploded out of a combination of causes.” page 286

9 9 Political World Economic World Social World Standards Check Cultural World See factors: reference sheets 1 and 2 What factors contributed to European imperialism in the 1800s? H-SS textbook: World History: The Modern World, Prentice Hall, 2007 – page 287 “Like other key developments in world history, the new imperialism exploded out of a combination of causes.” page 286 factorsimperialism new imperialism causes

10 10 Political World Economic World Social World Standards Check Cultural World What factors contributed to European imperialism in the 1800s? H-SS textbook: World History: The Modern World, Prentice Hall, 2007 – page 287 factorsimperialism Page 287 offers four paragraphs: ■ Economic Interests ■ Political & Military Motives ■ Humanitarian & Religious Goals ■ Applying Social Darwinism 10.4 Students analyze patterns of global change in the era of New Imperialism in at least two of the following regions or countries: Africa, Southeast Asia, China, India, Latin America, and the Philippines. 1. Describe the rise of industrial economies and their link to imperialism and colonialism (e.g., the role played by national security and strategic advantage; moral issues raised by the search for national hegemony, Social Darwinism, and the missionary impulse; material issues such as land, resources, and technology). CST blueprint: is an “A” standard

11 11 Political World Economic World Social World Standards Check Cultural World What factors contributed to European imperialism in the 1800s? H-SS textbook: World History: The Modern World, Prentice Hall, 2007 – page 287 factorsimperialism “Economic Interests”

12 12 Political World Economic World Social World Standards Check Cultural World What factors contributed to European imperialism in the 1800s? H-SS textbook: World History: The Modern World, Prentice Hall, 2007 – page 287 Industrial Revolution factorsimperialism manufacturers needs & desires “Economic Interests”

13 13 Political World Economic World Social World Standards Check Cultural World What factors contributed to European imperialism in the 1800s? H-SS textbook: World History: The Modern World, Prentice Hall, 2007 – page 287 Industrial Revolution factorsimperialism manufacturers access to natural resources new markets of consumers bankers (investors)ventures needs & desires “Economic Interests” profits

14 14 Political World Economic World Social World Standards Check Cultural World What factors contributed to European imperialism in the 1800s? H-SS textbook: World History: The Modern World, Prentice Hall, 2007 – page 287 Industrial Revolution factorsimperialism manufacturers access to natural resources new markets of consumers bankers (investors)ventures needs & desires “Economic Interests” profits Europe’s growing population

15 15 Political World Economic World Social World Standards Check Cultural World What factors contributed to European imperialism in the 1800s? H-SS textbook: World History: The Modern World, Prentice Hall, 2007 – page 287 Industrial Revolution factorsimperialism manufacturers access to natural resources new markets of consumers bankers (investors)ventures needs & desires “Economic Interests” profits Europe’s growing population “valuable outlet”

16 16 Political World Economic World Social World Standards Check Cultural World See factors: reference sheets 1 and 2 What factors contributed to European imperialism in the 1800s? H-SS textbook: World History: The Modern World, Prentice Hall, 2007 – page 287 Industrial Revolution factorsimperialism access to natural resources new markets of consumers “valuable outlet” Europe’s growing population land natural resources consumers production Colonies provide… means of “Economic Interests” Colonies demographic pressures manufacturers bankers (investors)ventures profits prosperity

17 17 Political World Economic World Social World Standards Check Cultural World What factors contributed to European imperialism in the 1800s? H-SS textbook: World History: The Modern World, Prentice Hall, 2007 – page 287 factorsimperialism “Political & Military Motives”

18 18 Political World Economic World Social World Standards Check Cultural World What factors contributed to European imperialism in the 1800s? H-SS textbook: World History: The Modern World, Prentice Hall, 2007 – page 287 Industrial Revolution factorsimperialism merchant shipsbases for naval vessels prestige national security “Political & Military Motives” “Political and military issues were closely linked to economic motives.” and Western leaders coal supplies steam-powered seized islandsharbors

19 19 Political World Economic World Social World Standards Check Cultural World What factors contributed to European imperialism in the 1800s? H-SS textbook: World History: The Modern World, Prentice Hall, 2007 – page 287 Industrial Revolution factorsimperialism merchant shipsbases for naval vessels prestige national security “Political & Military Motives” “Political and military issues were closely linked to economic motives.” and Western leaders coal supplies steam-powered seized islandsharbors trade security prosperity resources power military Colonies provide… Colonies power/energy infrastructure

20 20 Political World Economic World Social World Standards Check Cultural World What factors contributed to European imperialism in the 1800s? H-SS textbook: World History: The Modern World, Prentice Hall, 2007 – page 287 Industrial Revolution factorsimperialism merchant shipsbases for naval vessels prestige national security “Political & Military Motives” “Political and military issues were closely linked to economic motives.” and Western leaders coal supplies steam-powered seized islandsharbors trade security prosperity resources power military Colonies provide… Colonies power/energy infrastructure nationalism See factors: reference sheets 1 and 2

21 21 Political World Economic World Social World Standards Check Cultural World What factors contributed to European imperialism in the 1800s? H-SS textbook: World History: The Modern World, Prentice Hall, 2007 – page 287 Industrial Revolution factorsimperialism merchant shipsbases for naval vessels prestige national security “Political & Military Motives” “Political and military issues were closely linked to economic motives.” and Western leaders coal supplies steam-powered trade security prosperity resources power military Colonies provide… Colonies power/energy See factors: reference sheets 1 and 2 nationalism loyalty identity pride

22 22 Political World Economic World Social World Standards Check Cultural World What factors contributed to European imperialism in the 1800s? H-SS textbook: World History: The Modern World, Prentice Hall, 2007 – page 287 factorsimperialism “Humanitarian & Religious Goals”

23 23 Political World Economic World Social World Standards Check Cultural World What factors contributed to European imperialism in the 1800s? H-SS textbook: World History: The Modern World, Prentice Hall, 2007 – page 287 factorsimperialism concern humanitarian blessings of Western civilization duty “little brothers” “Humanitarian & Religious Goals” religious & for

24 24 Political World Economic World Social World Standards Check Cultural World See factors: reference sheets 1 and 2 What factors contributed to European imperialism in the 1800s? H-SS textbook: World History: The Modern World, Prentice Hall, 2007 – page 287 factorsimperialism concern humanitarian blessings of Western civilization duty “little brothers” practices Colonies needed… “Humanitarian & Colonies values Religious Goals” religious & customs beliefs for

25 25 Political World Economic World Social World Standards Check Cultural World See factors: reference sheets 1 and 2 What factors contributed to European imperialism in the 1800s? H-SS textbook: World History: The Modern World, Prentice Hall, 2007 – page 287 factorsimperialism concern humanitarian blessings of Western civilization duty “little brothers” ethnocentric practices Colonies needed… “Humanitarian & Colonies values Religious Goals” religious hierarchical & customs beliefs for patriarchal paternal

26 26 Political World Economic World Social World Standards Check Cultural World What factors contributed to European imperialism in the 1800s? H-SS textbook: World History: The Modern World, Prentice Hall, 2007 – page 287 factorsimperialism “Applying Social Darwinism”

27 27 Political World Economic World Social World Standards Check Cultural World What factors contributed to European imperialism in the 1800s? H-SS textbook: World History: The Modern World, Prentice Hall, 2007 – page 287 factorsimperialism Social Darwinism racial superiority West’s civilizing mission improvement of the human species “Applying Social Darwinism” domination of weaker races

28 28 Political World Economic World Social World Standards Check Cultural World See factors: reference sheets 1 and 2 What factors contributed to European imperialism in the 1800s? H-SS textbook: World History: The Modern World, Prentice Hall, 2007 – page 287 factorsimperialism Social Darwinism racial superiority West’s civilizing mission improvement of the human species “Applying Social values Darwinism” domination of weaker races hierarchical beliefs racism

29 29 Political World Economic World Social World Standards Check Cultural World See factors: reference sheets 1 and 2 What factors contributed to European imperialism in the 1800s? H-SS textbook: World History: The Modern World, Prentice Hall, 2007 – page 287 factorsimperialism Social Darwinism racial superiority West’s civilizing mission improvement of the human species conformity Colonies needed… “Applying Social Colonies values Darwinism” domination of weaker races hierarchical assimilation beliefs racism homogeneity

30 30 Political World Economic World Social World Standards Check Cultural World What factors contributed to European imperialism in the 1800s? H-SS textbook: World History: The Modern World, Prentice Hall, 2007 – page 287 factorsimperialism Studying each context, is any one factor or world the primary cause of imperialism? The is the root cause of imperialism? What are secondary or contributing causes? cause and effect

31 31 Political World Economic World Social World Standards Check Cultural World What factors contributed to European imperialism in the 1800s? H-SS textbook: World History: The Modern World, Prentice Hall, 2007 – page 287 factorsimperialism Given the many factors involved, what is the best approach to end imperialism? problem-solving

32 32 Political World Economic World Social World Standards Check Cultural World See factors: reference sheet 3 What factors contributed to European imperialism in the 1800s? H-SS textbook: World History: The Modern World, Prentice Hall, 2007 – page 287 factorsimperialism What was Western Europe’s imperial quest? imperial

33 33 Political World Economic World Social World Standards Check Cultural World See factors: reference sheet 3 What factors contributed to European imperialism in the 1800s? H-SS textbook: World History: The Modern World, Prentice Hall, 2007 – page 287 factorsimperialism What was Western Europe’s imperial quest? securityprosperity meaningequity imperial

34 34 Political World Economic World Social World Standards Check Cultural World See factors: reference sheet 3 What factors contributed to European imperialism in the 1800s? H-SS textbook: World History: The Modern World, Prentice Hall, 2007 – page 287 factorsimperialism What was Western Europe’s imperial quest? conquest domination securityprosperity meaning exploitation for its own equity control for its own imperial without

35 Dec 21, 2011 “Imperialism, as defined by Dictionary of Human Geography, is "the creation and/or maintenance of an unequal economic, cultural, and territorial relationship, usually between states and often in the form of an empire, based on domination and subordination." "Imagine the output of the whole vast State!" Imperialism The imperialism of the last 500 years, as described by the above work is primarily a western undertaking that employs "expansionist – mercantilism and latterly communist – systems." Geographical domains have included the German Empire, the Mongolian Empire, the Roman Empire, the Ottoman Empire, the Holy Roman Empire, the Portuguese Empire, the Spanish Empire, the Dutch Empire, the Persian Empire, the French Empire, the American Empire, the Russian Empire, the Soviet Empire, the Chinese Empire and the British Empire, but the term can equally be applied to domains of knowledge, beliefs, values and expertise, such as the empires of Christianity (see Christendom) or Islam (see Caliphate). Imperialism is usually autocratic, and also sometimes monolithic (i.e. having a massive, unchanging structure that does not allow individual variation) in character. It can be relatively benign as in Canada, or murderously brutal as in the Congo Free State.

36 Dec 21, 2011 “Imperialism, as defined by Dictionary of Human Geography, is "the creation and/or maintenance of an unequal economic, cultural, and territorial relationship, usually between states and often in the form of an empire, based on domination and subordination." "Imagine the output of the whole vast State!" Imperialism The imperialism of the last 500 years, as described by the above work is primarily a western undertaking that employs "expansionist – mercantilism and latterly communist – systems." Geographical domains have included the German Empire, the Mongolian Empire, the Roman Empire, the Ottoman Empire, the Holy Roman Empire, the Portuguese Empire, the Spanish Empire, the Dutch Empire, the Persian Empire, the French Empire, the American Empire, the Russian Empire, the Soviet Empire, the Chinese Empire and the British Empire, but the term can equally be applied to domains of knowledge, beliefs, values and expertise, such as the empires of Christianity (see Christendom) or Islam (see Caliphate). Imperialism is usually autocratic, and also sometimes monolithic (i.e. having a massive, unchanging structure that does not allow individual variation) in character. It can be relatively benign as in Canada, or murderously brutal as in the Congo Free State. autocratic monolithic mercantilism dominationsubordination term can be equally applied to economic, cultural, and territorial relationshipunequal knowledge beliefsvaluesexpertise relatively benignmurderously brutalor

37 Dec 21, 2011 Imperialism vs. Colonialism Edward Said suggested that imperialism involved “the practice, the theory and the attitudes of a dominating metropolitan centre ruling a distant territory’”. He goes on to say colonialism refers to the “implanting of settlements on a distant territory”. The term 'imperialism' should not be confused with ‘colonialism’ as it often is. Robert Young supports this thinking as he puts forward that imperialism operates from the center, it is a state policy, and is developed for ideological as well as financial reasons whereas colonialism is nothing more than development for settlement or commercial intentions.

38 Dec 21, 2011 Imperialism vs. Colonialism Edward Said suggested that imperialism involved “the practice, the theory and the attitudes of a dominating metropolitan centre ruling a distant territory’”. He goes on to say colonialism refers to the “implanting of settlements on a distant territory”. The term 'imperialism' should not be confused with ‘colonialism’ as it often is. Robert Young supports this thinking as he puts forward that imperialism operates from the center, it is a state policy, and is developed for ideological as well as financial reasons whereas colonialism is nothing more than development for settlement or commercial intentions. settlement colonialism commercial intentions imperialism dominating ruling

39 39 Imperialism in Historical Context early colonialism e.g. Ancient GreeceMediterranean settlements early imperialism 15 th to 17 th centuryAge of Exploration New Imperialism 19 th & early 20 th centuries American Imperialism late 19 th & early 20 th centuries Neo-Imperialism ongoing colonialism North-South relations —the colonial legacy

40 40 Imperialism in Historical Context 1945 – to the present? Neo-Imperialism Lack of development and mal-development of colonies meant that they were “behind” once they won their independence. The period of decolonization after WWII gave birth to over 100 new nations (the South) that had not industrialized like imperial powers of Europe and the United States (the North). Former colonies were desperately behind in both political and economic development. The North was able to continue its dominance and exploitation of the South through unequal diplomatic and trade relations. North-South relations —the colonial legacy 1945 – to the present? The period of decolonization was also the beginning of the Cold War—the superpower struggle between the United States and its allies (the West) and the Soviet Union (USSR) and its allies (the East). Both the US and USSR went “fishing in troubled waters” of the new nations that were not yet politically stable. The Americans and Soviets would take opposite sides whether it meant giving arms to dictators or violent rebel groups. Fueling constant war or staunch oppression would slow or stop political and economic development. East-West relations —the cold war legacy

41 41 Political World Economic World Social World Standards Check Cultural World What factors contributed to European imperialism in the 1800s? H-SS textbook: World History: The Modern World, Prentice Hall, 2007 – page 287 factorsimperialism class status privilege Who are the actors in imperialism of the 1800s? actors

42 42 Political World Economic World Social World Standards Check Cultural World What factors contributed to European imperialism in the 1800s? H-SS textbook: World History: The Modern World, Prentice Hall, 2007 – page 287 factorsimperialism Western leaders colonial officials bankers class status privilege stated consumers missionaries manufacturers Westerners millions of non-Westerners “little brothers” rival nations Christian humanitarians actors

43 43 Political World Economic World Social World Standards Check Cultural World What factors contributed to European imperialism in the 1800s? H-SS textbook: World History: The Modern World, Prentice Hall, 2007 – page 287 factorsimperialism Western leaders colonial officials bankers class actors status privilege statedimplied investors merchants consumers missionaries manufacturers Westerners millions of non-Westerners “little brothers” rival nations Christian racists humanitarians

44 44 Political World Economic World Social World Standards Check Cultural World What factors contributed to European imperialism in the 1800s? H-SS textbook: World History: The Modern World, Prentice Hall, 2007 – page 287 factorsimperialism Western leaders colonial officials bankers class wealthy elite status privilege statedimplied investors merchants consumers missionaries manufacturers Westerners millions of non-Westerners “little brothers” rival nations inferred workers Christian racists slave labor slaves slave traders humanitarians tyrants actors

45 45 Political World Economic World Social World Standards Check Cultural World What factors contributed to European imperialism in the 1800s? H-SS textbook: World History: The Modern World, Prentice Hall, 2007 – page 287 factorsimperialism Western leaders colonial officials bankers class wealthy elite status privilege statedimplied investors merchants consumers missionaries manufacturers Westerners millions of non-Westerners “little brothers” rival nations inferred workers Christian racists slave labor slaves slave traders What can happen if a combination of actors is the same person? * humanitarians tyrants actors add other actors/roles as they arise

46 46 Political World Economic World Social World Standards Check Cultural World What factors contributed to European imperialism in the 1800s? H-SS textbook: World History: The Modern World, Prentice Hall, 2007 – page 287 factorsimperialism Which roles describe this actor? King Leopold II

47 47 King Leopold's Soliloquy: A Defense of His Congo Rule By Mark Twain Boston: The P. R. Warren Co., “And Yes, they go on telling everything, these chatterers! They tell how I levy incredibly burdensome taxes upon the natives – taxes which are a pure theft; taxes which they must satisfy by gathering rubber under hard and constantly harder conditions, and by raising and furnishing food supplies gratis – and it all comes out that, when they fall short of their tasks through hunger, sickness, despair, and ceaseless and exhausting labor without rest, and forsake their homes and flee to the woods to escape punishment, my black soldiers, drawn from unfriendly tribes, and instigated and directed by my Belgians, hunt them down and butcher them and burn their villages – reserving some of the girls. "They only tell what is against me." They tell it all: how I am wiping a nation of friendless creatures out of existence by every form of murder, for my private pocket’s sake, and how every shilling I get costs a rape, a mutilation or a life. But they never say, although they know it, that I have labored in the cause of religion at the same time and all the time, and have sent missionaries there (of a “convenient stripe,” as they phrase it), to teach them the error of their ways and bring them to Him who is all mercy and love, and who is the sleepless guardian and friend of all who suffer. They tell only what is against me, they will not tell what is in my favor.

48 48 King Leopold's Soliloquy - continued “And were the fault-finders frank with my private character? They could not be more so if I were a plebeian, a peasant, a medianic. They remind the world that from the earliest days my house has been chapel and brothel combined, and both industries working full time; that I practiced cruelties upon my queen and my daughters, and supplemented them with daily shame and humiliations… Congo State by King Leopold were put in buckets and the buckets placed side by side, the line would stretch 2,000 miles; if the skeletons of his ten millions of starved and butchered dead could rise up and march in single file, it would take them seven months and four days to pass a given point; if compacted together in a body, they would occupy more ground than St. Louis covers, World’s Fair and all; if they should all clap their bony hands at once, the grisly crash would be heard at a distance of –” Damnation, it makes me tired! “It is as I have said: they are unfair, unjust; they will resurrect and give new currency to such things as those, or to any other things that count against me, but they will not mention any act of mine that is in my favor. I have spent more money on art than any other monarch of my time, and they know it. Do they speak of it, do they tell about it? No, they do not. They prefer to work up what they call “ghastly statistics” into offensive kindergarten object lessons, whose purpose is to make sentimental people shudder, and prejudice them against me. They remark that “if the innocent blood shed in the

49 49 Political World Economic World Social World Standards Check Cultural World What factors contributed to European imperialism in the 1800s? H-SS textbook: World History: The Modern World, Prentice Hall, 2007 – page 287 factorsimperialism What can happen if a combination of actors is the same person? * King Leopold II

50 50 Political World Economic World Social World Standards Check Cultural World What factors contributed to European imperialism in the 1800s? H-SS textbook: World History: The Modern World, Prentice Hall, 2007 – page 287 factorsimperialism Which roles describe this actor? Cecil Rhodes

51 51 - Dec 21, 2011 Cecil John Rhodes (1853–1902) was an English-born South African businessman, mining magnate, and politician. He was the founder of the diamond company De Beers, which today markets 40% of the world's rough diamonds and at one time marketed 90%. An ardent believer in British colonial imperialism, he was the founder of the state of Rhodesia, which was named after him. In 1964, Northern Rhodesia became the independent state of Zambia and Southern Rhodesia was thereafter known as simply as Rhodesia. In 1980, Rhodesia, which had been de-facto independent since 1965, was granted independence by Britain and was renamed Zimbabwe. South Africa's Rhodes University is also named after Rhodes. He set up the provisions of the Rhodes Scholarship, which is funded by his estate. Historian Richard A. McFarlane views Rhodes "as integral a participant in southern African and British imperial history as George Washington or Abraham Lincoln are in their respective eras in United States history... most histories of South Africa covering the last decades of the nineteenth century are contributions to the historiography of Cecil Rhodes. "The Rhodes Colossus" - cartoon by Edward Linley Sambourne, published in Punch after Rhodes announced plans for a telegraph line from Cape Town to Cairo.

52 52 - Dec 21, 2011 Rhodes' policies were instrumental in the development of British imperial policies in South Africa, such as the Hut tax. He did not, however, have direct political power over the Boer Republic of the Transvaal. He often disagreed with the Transvaal government's policies. He believed he could use his money and his power to overthrow the Boer government and install a British colonial government supporting mine-owners' interests in its place. In 1895, Rhodes supported an attack on the Transvaal, the infamous Jameson Raid, which proceeded with the tacit approval of Secretary of State for the Colonies Joseph Chamberlain. The raid was a catastrophic failure. It forced Cecil Rhodes to resign as Prime Minister of the Cape Colony, sent his oldest brother Col. Frank Rhodes to jail in Transvaal convicted of high treason and nearly sentenced to death, and led to the outbreak of both the Second Matabele War and the Second Boer War. Rhodes -- Politics in South Africa

53 53 - Dec 21, 2011 Rhodes and the imperial factor Rhodes used his wealth and that of his business partner Alfred Beit and other investors to pursue his dream of creating a British Empire in new territories to the north by obtaining mineral concessions from the most powerful indigenous chiefs. Rhodes' competitive advantage over other mineral prospecting companies was his combination of wealth and astute political instincts, also called the 'imperial factor', as he used the British Government. He befriended its local representatives, the British Commissioners, and through them organised British protectorates over the mineral concession areas via separate but related treaties. In this way he obtained both legality and security for mining operations. He could then win over more investors. Imperial expansion and capital investment went hand in hand. The imperial factor was a double-edged sword: Rhodes did not want the bureaucrats of the Colonial Office in London to interfere in the Empire in Africa. He wanted British settlers and local politicians and governors to run it. This put him on a collision course with many in Britain, as well as with British missionaries, who favoured what they saw as the more ethical direct rule from London. Rhodes won because he would pay to administer the territories north of South Africa against future mining profits. The Colonial Office did not have the funds to do it. Rhodes promoted his business interests as in the strategic interest of Britain: preventing the Portuguese, the Germans or the Boers from moving in to south-central Africa. Rhodes' companies and agents cemented these advantages by obtaining many mining concessions, as exemplified by the Rudd and Lochner Concessions.

54 54 - Dec 21, 2011 Rhodes – Political Views Rhodes wanted to expand the British Empire because he believed that the Anglo-Saxon race was destined to greatness. In his last will and testament, Rhodes said of the British, "I contend that we are the first race in the world and that the more of the world we inhabit the better it is for the human race." He wanted to make the British Empire a superpower in which all of the British-dominated countries in the empire, including Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and Cape Colony, would be represented in the British Parliament. Rhodes included American students as eligible for the Rhodes scholarships. He said that he wanted to breed an American elite of philosopher-kings who would have the United States rejoin the British Empire. As Rhodes also respected the Germans and admired the Kaiser, he allowed German students to be included in the Rhodes scholarships. He believed that eventually the United Kingdom (including Ireland), the USA and Germany together would dominate the world and ensure peace. Confusingly for the modern reader, self-government of the type Rhodes supported was known as "colonialism". The opposed policy, direct control of a colony from London, was known as "imperialism". This should be kept in mind when reading documents from this time.

55 55 Political World Economic World Social World Standards Check Cultural World What factors contributed to European imperialism in the 1800s? H-SS textbook: World History: The Modern World, Prentice Hall, 2007 – page 287 factorsimperialism Which roles describe this actor? Cecil Rhodes

56 56 Political World Economic World Social World Standards Check Cultural World What factors contributed to European imperialism in the 1800s? H-SS textbook: World History: The Modern World, Prentice Hall, 2007 – page 287 factorsimperialism Evaluation Question Is any one factor or one world of factors the primary cause of imperialism? The point of examining all the details, factors & dynamics primary cause

57 57 Political World Economic World Social World Standards Check Cultural World What factors contributed to European imperialism in the 1800s? H-SS textbook: World History: The Modern World, Prentice Hall, 2007 – page 287 factorsimperialism Evaluation Question Is any one factor or one world of factors the primary cause of imperialism? The point of examining all the details, factors & dynamics primary cause Essential Questions How can a nation limit the drive to exploit, control, dominate, oppress, or hurt others for its own benefit or hubris? What types of policies exemplify good governance where no one is unfairly advantaged or unfairly disadvantaged?

58 58 What is the objective of the social sciences?

59 59 to better understand What is the objective of the social sciences? the human condition

60 60 to better understand What is the objective of the social sciences? the human condition in order to make the human condition better

61 61 What are the objectives of the 4W model? an analytical exercise to make connections, trace dynamics identify action/reaction across worlds infer concepts build detail & complexity evaluate factors, causes, responses engage in the science of the social sciences

62 62 OTHER objectives of the 4W model? an analytical exercise to practice active reading purposeful, directed reading reading as research meaningful reading to respond to a relevant question/problem

63 63 OTHER objectives of the 4W model? an analytical exercise to practice academic literacy, rigor, relevance active reading purposeful, directed reading reading as research meaningful reading to respond to an historical question/problem

64 64 We do not claim that the portrait we present here is a true one, only that it comes close. Victor Hugo Les Miserables

65 65 Four Worlds of History a project of the Center for Active Learning in International Studies UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA Four Worlds analytical framework developed by Steven Lamy, Professor of International Relations Four Worlds of History adapted by Teresa Hudock, Director, and Sandy Line, Associate CALIS, USC

66 66 Four Worlds of History Center for Active Learning in International Studies UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA For more information, contact: Teresa Hudock Classroom materials are available free online atusc.edu/calis


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