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ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 1 19 th – 23 rd June 2006 Nairobi, Kenya.

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Presentation on theme: "ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 1 19 th – 23 rd June 2006 Nairobi, Kenya."— Presentation transcript:

1 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 1 19 th – 23 rd June 2006 Nairobi, Kenya

2 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 2 Module 11: Wind Mike Harries MA (Cambridge) Managing Director Kijito Windpumps - Thika

3 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 3 Training Module on Wind Developing Windpumping in Kenya – a personal experience An overview of small and large scale Wind Generation

4 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 4 Developing Windpumping in Kenya – a personal experience

5 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 5 The Building of the Railway 1896 – 1902 brought my family to Kenya in 1904

6 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 6 Where the family camped in 1904, near the current Chiromo Campus in Nairobi

7 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 7 Allen Charles Harries at left on Karamaini in 1911

8 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 8 The Harries family brought pineapples to Kenya in the 1920’s. Below my father in 1965 with a load on it’s way to the Canning Factory

9 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 9 Our family developed the cultivation of Macadamia Nuts in Kenya and by 1973 we had the second biggest acreage in the world behind Hawaii planted in Kenya with small holders.

10 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 10 My Family and I brought Windpumps to Kenya in 1979

11 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 11 The Family behind Kijito Windpumps Julian, Tracy, Pauline and Mike

12 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 12 It all started with “Oscar Golf” and flying for “Sight by Wings”, where much of our work was dealing with Trachoma, a disease encouraged by poor hygiene and a lack of water

13 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 13 And then we heard about the Intermediate Development Technolgy Group of the UK who had developed a simple Windpump prototype together with Reading University, and were looking for collaborators to take the design forward, and Pauline and I visited them in 1977

14 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 14 Then followed six years of very expensive development work mostly carried out on Ol Pejeta Ranch near Nanyuki

15 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 15 Where we just reinventing the wheel? NO! The first generation windpumps going back to the late 19 th century were made of very heavy and complicated castings and usually gears for the smaller machines. We did not see this as practical for small scale manufacture in Developing Countries

16 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 16 Prince Charles visited us in April He came to further his interest in Alternative Energy

17 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 17 Three bladed Horizontal axis Wind Generator These are only used for Electricity Generation, as the small diameter machines rotate too fast, and cannot initially generate enough torque to start a piston pump working. More about this later!

18 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 18 Darrieus Wind Turbine Not really suitable for Windpumping as they cannot self start, and are difficult to protect from storm damage – so never really caught on anywhere

19 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 19 Savonius Rotor These are very inefficient and turn very slowly. They are also difficult to protect against storms

20 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 20 Windpower - Some basic Facts The power available from a Windpump Rotor is proportional to:  the SQUARE of its Diameter  and the CUBE of the Windspeed passing through it Wind Generators require a mean average speed of more than 5 M/Sec to be viable Windpumps on the other hand can be viable as low as 3 M/Sec A Windpump can continue to pump in a lower Windspeed than it needs to start it, due to the”flywheel” effect. (See diagram)

21 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 21 The “flywheel” effect of the Windpump Rotor means it can continue pumping at a lower speed than it needs to start!

22 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 22 A Kijito Multi-bladed horizontal axis Windpump pumping water for livestock This type of multibladed Windpump is still the only practical, commercially available mechanical technology for lifting water with wind. This size of Kijito Windpump has a Rotor Diameter of 26 feet (7.9m) and can lift water from 150m

23 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 23 Urban Domestic Water Supply As we saw in the previous slide, Windpumps come into their own for watering Livestock, but can also be very effective for Rural/Urban Water supplies. This machine was only 1 kilometer from the National Grid!

24 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 24 We are even pumping water for Elephants! In recent years the Kenya Wildlife Service has been installing Kijitos in some of their Game Parks to increase the range for the Elephant population during the dry months of the year

25 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 25 But people and their kids are our top priority!

26 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 26 All our Kijitos come with hinged towers, so the whole Windpump can be assembled at ground level and then winched upright

27 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 27 Storage is always important! Ideally the storage tank should reflect at least three to four days total water usage

28 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 28

29 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 29 KIJITO SALES = 369 KENYA – 280 TANZANIA – 32 UGANDA – 16 SOMALIA – 15 SUDAN – 7 NIGERIA - 4 BRITAIN – 3 BOTSWANA – 2 COMOROS – 2 NIGER – 2 CAN/USA – 2 RWANDA – 1 JORDAN – 1 HOLLAND - 1

30 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 30 The Transmission is the Heart of the machine – ten years in the development and no castings or gears!

31 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 31 We have a brilliant team in our workshop facility headed up by Senior Foreman Julius Kariuki

32 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 32 More often than not the problems are underground! MUD!!

33 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 33 Careful planning is required before installation, to maximise water output It is very important that the Customer supplies the exact details of the installation. This will enable the correct size of Rotor, Pump and Stroke to be calculated

34 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 34 What about Windspeeds? This is Wilson Airport near Nairobi

35 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 35 This is Eldoret, west of the Great Rift Valley

36 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 36 This is Wajir in Kenya’s NE

37 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 37 This is Kenya’s best Wind Regime at Marsabit

38 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 38 Problems? - What Problems? Trying to resurrect a “discarded” technology Lack of knowledge as to the potential for Windpumping Not wanting to go outside the accepted “norms” Lack of reliable Wind Data Corruption Lack of informed investors and financiers Lack of a “maintenance mentality” Unrealistic expectations, sometimes due to false claims from suppliers

39 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 39 Photo Credit: Nordex AG © Minister of Natural Resources Canada 2001 – Clean Energy Project Analysis Course Wind Energy Project Analysis Retscreen International

40 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 40 Objectives Review basics of Wind Energy systems Illustrate key considerations for Wind Energy project analysis Introduce RETScreen ® Wind Energy Project Model

41 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 41 Electricity for  Central-grids  Isolated-grids  Remote power supplies  Water pumping … What do wind energy systems provide? Photo Credit: Warren Gretz/ NREL Pix Palm Springs, California

42 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 42 Wind Turbine Description Components  Rotor  Gearbox  Tower  Foundation  Controls  Generator

43 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 43 Utilisation of Wind Energy Off-Grid  Small turbines (50 W to 10 kW)  Battery charging  Water pumping Isolated-Grid  Turbines typically 10 to 200 kW  Reduce generation costs in remote areas: wind-diesel hybrid system  High or low penetration Central-Grid  Turbines typically 200 kW to 2 MW  Windfarms of multiple turbines Photo Credit: Charles Newcomber/ NREL Pix 10 kW Off grid - Mexico

44 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 44 Elements of Wind Energy Projects Wind resource assessment Environmental assessment Regulatory approval Design Construction  Roads  Transmission line  Substations Photo Credit: Warren Gretz/NREL Pix Photo Credit: GPCo Inc. Met Tower Quebec Sub Station California

45 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 45 High average wind speeds are essential  4 m/s annual average is minimum  People tend to overestimate the wind  Wind speed tends to increase with height Good resource  Coastal areas  Crests of long slopes  Passes  Open terrain  Valleys that channel winds Typically windier in  Winter than summer  Day than night Wind Resource

46 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 46 Wind Energy System Costs Windfarms  $1,500/kW installed  O&M: $0.01/kWh  Selling price: $0.04-$0.10/kWh Single turbines & isolated-grid  Higher costs (more project specific)  Feasibility study, development & engineering represent a higher portion of costs Expect one major component replacement of 20 to 25% of initial costs  Rotor blades or gearbox

47 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 47 Wind Energy Project Considerations Constraints and criteria Constraints and criteria  Environmental acceptability  Acceptance of local population  Grid interconnection and transmission capacity Financing, interest rates, currency exchange rates Financing, interest rates, currency exchange rates Good wind resource dramatically reduces cost of production  Good resource assessment is a worthwhile investment Additional sources of revenue  Government/utility production credits or Greenpower rates  Sales of emissions reduction credits (ERC’s) Turbine of the Le Nordais Windfarm, Quebec, Canada Le Nordais Windfarm – Quebec 1 of 133!

48 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 48 Examples: Europe and USA Central-Grid Wind Energy Systems Intermittent generation not a problem: 17% of Denmark’s electricity is from wind with no additional reserve generation Quick projects (2 to 4 years) that can grow to meet demand Photo Credit: Warren Gretz/ NREL Pix Land can be used for other purposes, such as agriculture Land can be used for other purposes, such as agriculture Individuals, businesses, and co- operatives sometimes own and operate single turbines Individuals, businesses, and co- operatives sometimes own and operate single turbines Photo Credit: Danmarks Tekniske Universitet 9.6 MW Windfarm Lolland, Denmark Palm Springs, California

49 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 49 Examples: India and Canada Isolated-Grid Wind Energy Systems Electricity generation is expensive due to cost of transporting diesel fuel to remote areas  Wind turbines reduce consumption of diesel fuel Reliability & maintenance are important Photo Credit: Paul Pynn/ Atlantic Orient Canada Photo Credit: Phil Owens/ Nunavut Power Corp. 50 kW in West Bengal India - Hybrid System The same machine in N Canada

50 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 50 Examples: USA, Brazil and Chile Off-Grid Wind Energy Systems Electricity for small loads in windy off-grid areas Batteries in stand-alone systems provide electricity during calm periods Water pumping: water reservoir is storage Can be used in combination with fossil fuel gensets and/or photovoltaic arrays in a “hybrid” system Photo Credit: Arturo Kunstmann/ NREL PixPhoto Credit: Roger Taylor/ NREL Pix Photo Credit: Southwest Windpower/ NREL Pix 400w for telcom – Arizona Hybrid with PV & Battery bank Brazil Chile 2 x 1kW plus batteries

51 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 51 RETScreen ® Wind Energy Project Model World-wide analysis of energy production, life-cycle costs and greenhouse gas emissions reductions  Central-grid, isolated-grid and off- grid  Single turbines or windfarms  Rayleigh, Weibull, or user-defined wind distributions Only 1 point of data for RETScreen ® vs. 8,760 for hourly simulation models Currently not covered:  Stand-alone systems requiring storage

52 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 52 Conclusions Wind turbines provide electricity on and off grid world- wide A good wind resource is an important factor for successful projects Availability of production credits or Greenpower rates are important for on-grid projects RETScreen ® calculates energy production using annual data with an accuracy comparable to hourly simulations RETScreen ® can provide significant preliminary feasibility study cost savings

53 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 53 Questions? Wind Energy Project Analysis Module RETScreen ® International Clean Energy Project Analysis Course For further information please visit the RETScreen Website at

54 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 54 Thank you for your attention


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