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An era of Growth & Disunion

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1 An era of Growth & Disunion
Unit 3 An era of Growth & Disunion

2 Chapter 9: Expanding Markets & Moving West
Section 1: The Market Revolution Capitalism is the economic system in which private enterprises and individuals control the means of production and use them to earn profits. The idea of capitalism led to the market revolution in which people bought and sold goods rather than making them for their own use. As a result of the market revolution, farmers began to shift from self-sufficiency to specialization, raising one or two crops to be sold in the market place.

3 What helped the market revolution to prosper?
Vulcanized rubber—Charles Goodyear—became indispensable in the manufacturing of automobiles. Sewing Machine—Elias Howe—created many jobs for women. Telegraph—Samuel Morse—this improvement in communication allowed for businesses and transportation to take off. Steamboat—James Watt—trade increased as ships traveled faster. Erie Canal—created huge price cuts as trade travel became shorter. Railroads—while more expensive than canal travel, trains provided faster and seasonal transportation. Cotton Gin—Eli Whitney—increased the need for slaves. Steel Plow—John Deere—allowed farmers to till their land much faster and create more food for the economy. Mechanical Reaper—Cyrus McCormick—allowed one farmer to do the work of five hired hands.

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6 Section 2: Manifest Destiny
The idea that America felt it was their god-given right to expand to the Pacific Ocean and into the Mexican territory was called Manifest Destiny. New Mexico Traders of cloth, knives, and guns. They went seeking silver, gold, and furs. Traveled along the Santa Fe trail. They encountered many Indian attacks along the way, but banded together to help fight them off. Eventually, they found their way to Mexican provinces and conducted their trade.

7 Oregon Methodists Set up mission in order to educate native Americans about Christianity. Traveled along the Oregon Trail (Independence-Portland). In the upper Oregon Territory settlers came into conflict with the British concerning the boundary lines. The slogan began “Fifty Four Forty or Fight. However, President Polk worked out a compromise with the British to avoid bloodshed.

8 Utah Mormons (Joseph Smith)
Looking for isolated areas to practice their religion free from persecution. Traveled along the Oregon trail. In Utah, they found deserted land that they soon created communal settlements.

9 Manifest Destiny led to conflicts with the native Americans…
Black Hawk War Took place in Wisconsin & Illinois. Chief Black Hawk led a rebellion against the US government as they tried to forcibly remove Native Americans to west of the Mississippi. In the end the natives were defeated and forced to leave their homeland.

10 Fort Laramie treaty In Wyoming, settlers feared attacks from native Americans. US government created a compromise—the Native Americans were given control of the central plains, eastern Rocky Mountain region, and the Arkansas River to Canada. In return, they promised not to attack American settlements. However, as settler numbers grew, Americans and the government continued to violate the treaty leading to Native American mistrust of our government and further bloodshed.

11 Section 3: Expansion in Texas
1821—Mexico offers cheap land to Americans. 1830—Mexico outlaws slavery in Texas. 1835—Americans look to achieve Independence of Mexico and a battle ensues at the Alamo. 1836—Sam Houston defeats Santa Anna at San Jacinto. 1845—US Annexes Texas as the 28th state. 1846—America begins a war with Mexico over the borders of the Mexican territory.

12 Section 4: The War with Mexico
In 1846, Mexico and the US begin a war known as the Mexican-American War. The main disagreement came over the border of Texas, the Rio Grande. Zachary Taylor was sent by President Polk to defend the border. By 1848, the war was over and both sides signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. The Treaty included… Rio Grande became border. US paid 15 million for the territories of California, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and parts of Arizona, Colorado, and Wyoming. Mexicans living in these territories were given rights as American citizens. 6. In 1853, President Pierce paid 15 million to Mexico for the Gadsden Purchase, establishing the current borders of the lower 48 states. 7. In the territories acquired from Mexico, California became the most populated. This was mainly due to the Gold Rush of 1849.

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15 Chapter 10: Union in Peril

16 Section 1: The Divisive Politics of Slavery
1. The following events played key roles in dividing America: North wanted industry South wanted agriculture Tariff issue Wilmont Proviso—divided Congress (Webster/Hayne Debate) Compromise of 1850 Theory of Nullification 2. Compromise of 1850 California be a free state New fugitive slave law Future territories had right of popular sovereignty Texas was given 10 million to surrender New Mexico

17 Section 2: Protest, resistance, & Violence
Personal Liberty Laws—Passed in northern states to get around the fugitive slave act. This caused many southerners to feel that the Compromise of 1850 was a fraud and thoughts of secession became more prevalent. Underground Railroad—Harriet Tubman helped over 300 slaves escape to freedom. She was aided by many northern states. As a result southern slave owners became increasingly vocal about the federal government’s laziness in enforcing the fugitive slave act. Uncle Tom’s Cabin—written by Harriet Beecher Stowe. It was an account of the horrors of slavery, and it became wide read in the North. This caused the abolitionist movement to grow and motivated John Brown’s Raid on Harper’s Ferry. Kansas-Nebraska Act—The Kansas-Nebraska territory was divided into Kansas and Nebraska. These territories would now vote on being slave or free. Large protests emerged as both sides poured into the streets into a bloody conflict. This incident became known as “Bleeding Kansas.” Congressional Anger—Senator Charles Sumner attacked Senator Andrew Butler’s stance on pro-slavery. Butler’s nephew, Congressman Preston Brooks, beat Senator Sumner with a cane.

18 Section 3: New Political Parties
Whig—opposed fugitive slave act and felt the Compromise of 1850 needed to be reworked. They were pro-slavery and pro-union. Know-Nothing—originally called the nativist party, then became the American party. They favored native born Americans over immigrants and were anti-catholic. Free-Soil—Looked to prevent the expansion of slave territories and sought for the abolition of slavery. Democrat—States’ rights, limited government, and divided on slavery. Republican—Combination of anti-slavery democrats and northern whigs. They wanted to resurrect the policies of the Missouri Compromise and prevent the extension of slavery into new states.

19 Section 4: Slavery & Secession
Dred Scott Decision—Dred Scott was a slave whose master moved into Illinois & Wisconsin (free states). Eventually, they moved back to Missouri. Scott’s master died and he began a lawsuit for his freedom. SC Justice Roger Taney ruled Scott was property and therefore had no rights of a citizen. He was to remain a slave. Also, the Missouri Compromise was ruled unconstitutional. Lecompton Constitution—The pro-slavery persons of Kansas sought to admit Kansas into the Union as a slave state. However, the free-soilers outnumbered them President Buchanan endorsed the Lecompton Constitution. This paved the way for Lincoln’s presidency because it divided Buchanan’s party in the election of 1860. Freeport Doctrine—Implied that popular sovereignty was empty because a territory could not vote on slavery until it became a state. This was the result of the Dred Scott decision voiding the Missouri Compromise. John Brown’s Raid—He looked to incite a slave rebellion in hopes of leading to its abolition. John Brown was recognized as a martyr in the North, and more and more people began to demand the abolition of slavery. Election of Lincoln—Abraham Lincoln won the election of Many southerners felt he would abolish slavery. As a result S.C. seceded from the Union and 10 other southern states followed.

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21 Chapter 11: The Civil War

22 COMPLETE VOCABULARY People, Terms, & Battles

23 The first shots of the Civil war were fired at Fort Sumpter. 
The first blood shed of the war occurred at Bull Run where the confederates, led by Stonewall Jackson defeated the Union battalion.  In February of 1862, General Grant defeated the confederates at Forts Henry & Donelson. This victory led to the firing of General McClellan as commander of the Union army and promoted Grant as the new commander. In April of 1862, Farragut seized the Confederate port of New Orleans and, in turn, captured all major cities along the lower Mississippi region. During the Spring of 1862, General Lee entered the war on the side of the confederacy and successfully defended Richmond from a Union siege.

24 6. In September of 1862, the bloodiest single day battle occurred in American history at Antietam.
7. In July of 1863, a major battle was fought at Gettysburg.  8. Due to the confederate’s defeat of the Union in Chancellorsville, VA, The South entered Gettysburg quite confident.  9. The confederacy’s attempt to invade the north stalled after a three day surge at Gettysburg. 28,000 confederate soldiers lost their lives while the Union suffered 23,000 casualties.  10. On the very next day, the Union captured Vicksburg, effectively cutting the confederate lines in two.  11. By March of 1864, and the Union seeking a surrender of the South, General Sherman began his march of destruction across the south. 12. One year later, the south surrendered at Appomattox Court House.

25 Chapter 12: Reconstruction and its effects

26 PLANS Wade/Davis—proposed Congress, not the President, be responsible for reconstruction. They would require a majority of the state’s population pledge an allegiance to Constitution. 10% Plan—Lincoln’s plan. He required 10% of the state’s population pledge an allegiance to Constitution. Lincoln would all pardoned all confederates (except high ranking officials accused of war crimes). 50%--Andrew Johnson’s plan. Same as Lincoln’s, but called for 50% allegiance to Constitution and ratification of the 13th Amendment. Radical—Run by the Republicans. Also called the Military Reconstruction Act. Congress set up military zones in the former confederacy. In these zones, the Civil Rights Amendments (13, 14, 15) were enforced. The Freedman’s Bureau was implemented and black codes were outlawed. Also, all remnants of the confederacy must be surrendered and all former members of the confederacy must take the iron-clad oath.


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