3Appeasement Japanese Invasion of Manchuria Japanese occupied Chinese town of Mukden and waged war against ChinaCondemned by League of Nations who ordered the withdrawal of Japanese Troops.However – Sympathy in GB for JapaneseSir John Simon put forward both sides of case – Japan had been involved in province since 1890’s & gained privileged position following Russo Japanese war .Japanese had invested millions and feared exclusion by China’s ruler Chiang Kai-Shek & was not prepared to lose a valuable province of 30m at time of economic hardship.
4AppeasementGB Govt hoped Japanese would attack Soviet Union, and preferred Japanese to Russian influence in AsiaAt Simon’s suggestion an investigating commission was appointed ( ignoring the fact that Japanese & Chinese were fighting )The Commission found that there were faults on both sides and ordered that Manchuria be governed by the League.The question of economic sanctions was not raised, as GB & France felt that a trade boycott would lead to a war with Japan that (Without US help) they could not win.
5Appeasement World Disarmament Conference 1832-34 Arthur Henderson Chairman until 1931Conference foundered due to complete unwillingness of many govt.’s to agree to restrictions on their national sovereignty.Treaty of Versailles had imposed a permanent system of control on Germany – including entry to factories without notice. German arms manufacture was limited to specially licensed factoriesFrench refused to agree that the Germans should be allowed equality of armaments with France.With GB refusing France an automatic guarantee of armed help in the event of an attack by Germany the French were determined to deny Germany as it became more and more afraid of German rearmamentHitler took the opportunity to walk out & take Germany out of The League of Nations, marking the end of collective security.
6AppeasementMarch 1935 Govt. White Paper “Statement Relating to Defence”End of collective security meant that GB must build up her own military strengthGradual rearmament started.Hitler now had excuse that he needed to reintroduce conscription & build up German Army to 600,000 men.Both were breaches of Treaty of VersaillesMacdonald meets Mussolini & French Foreign Minister LAVAL at StresaThey promise to resist any breaches of treaties which may endanger peace Stresa FrontAbyssinia was not discussed – Mussolini took from this that GB would turn a blind eye – colonial expansion only.
7With the collapse of the World Disarmament Conference in My GB Govt. had to face the fact that British disarmament had gone too far, and the national forces were dangerously weak.During a difficult Commons’ Debate Nov 1934 Baldwin & Chamberlain mismanaged it & gave the impression, eagerly taken up by Hitler that they wanted to legalize German rearmament.Knowledge of German rearmament was seen as approval.Hitler believed that the Commons debate had given him the green light to go ahead with rearming. A mild note from Britain to Germany did nothing to undo the effect of the Debate, while the French were appalled.Hitler now no longer cared whether his rearmament was legal or not. Indecisive British action was seen as proof that GB would not support the French.
8Anglo-German Naval Agreement June 1935 Simon said the GB Govt. “earnestly desired” an agreement with Germany on naval power.16th March Hitler told Sir Eric Phipps he would be content to have 35% of the strength of the British fleet.Meanwhile Hitler told Simon that Germany had reached air parity with Britain.Gross breach of Treaty of Versailles.BG accepted this, and even allowed Germany to build 45% of total of GB submarinesGB fleet was already overstretched – patrolling far East, Mediterranean & German coastal waters.Limiting German ships would lead to the stationing of fewer ships on German coast – easier to fulfil commitments in Far East & defence of IndiaMussolini convinced of Britain’s cynicism and self interest & disgusted Laval who decided there was more to be gained from cooperating with Mussolini
9Italian invasion of Abyssinia Like all dictators Mussolini felt he needed a military triumph to seal his popularity - & Italians wanted a dividend from the economic sacrifices they had made to pay for rearmament.Mussolini felt confident that GB would not risk going to war with Italy.Fascist propaganda had convinced a large proportion of the Italian nation that Britain with her rich colonies was trying to deny Italy her right to a similar African empire.Germany was now seen as the main threat to peace in Europe, and wanted to uses Italy as an ally.Sir Anthony Eden was sent to Rome to make an offer to Mussolini - he could take part of Abyssinia( who was a member of the League of Nations & GB would give Italy part of British Somaliland as compensation.Mussolini refusedHoare spoke at League (Sept 1935). GB would support the League against acts of unprovoked agressionMussolini ignored and went ahead with the invasion
10Italian invasion of Abyssinia Haile Selassie appealed to the League, and economic sanctions were applied to ItalyBaldwin fights the 1935 General Election “I give you my word of honour that there will be no great rearmaments”National Govt won convincing victoryPost election – clear sanctions were not working. Including oil & coal in sanctions would have brought Italy to its knees.Cabinet rejected this idea fearing it would provoke Italy to declare war for which GB was unprepared.News of Hoare Laval pact caused public outrageNo further action was taken & by April 1936 the Italian conquest of Abyssinia was completeJune 1936 ineffective economic sanctions were discontinuedResults League & collective security finally discredited.Mussolini drew closer to Hitler as result of sanctionsIn return Mussolini withdrew objections to AnschlussHitler uses events to send troops into Rhineland . Baldwin’s popularity slumped dramatically
11German troops occupy the Rhineland Hitler gave his troops orders to withdraw at the first sign of French oppositionNone was offeredHitler offered a peace treaty for 25 yearsBaldwin & Eden judged that public opinion would not have supported military action since the Rhineland was part of GermanyLord Lothian remarked that the German troops had merely entered their own back garden
13Spanish Civil WarJune 1936 General Franco’s army revolted against the left – wing republican govt.Quick victory was expected, however republicans controlled the South including Madrid & a bitter struggle developedGB, France, Germany & Italy agreed not to interfereMussolini & Hitler sent troops (50,000 Italian Troops)Labour under Clement Atlee shrank away from involvement with CommunistsConservatives disapproved of republican govt. so would not aidVolunteers were allowed to go - International BrigaeApril 1938 Attempts to resurrect Stresa- Recognition of Italian possession of Abyssinia in return for the withdrawal of Italian troops from SpainMussolini ignored his side of the bargain, and GB was made to look weak and indecisiveItalian & German help was decisive in securing victory for Franco
14German Occupation of Austria Further breach of Versailles the AnschlussAustrian Nazis staged huge demonstrations in Vienna, Graqz & Linz which Austrian chancellor could not controlRealising impending German invasion he announced a referendum about whether Austria should remain independentHitler decided to act before the vote in case it went against himGerman troops moved in and made Austria part pf the Third ReichGB & France did no more than protest and again were made to look weakNew understanding with Italy underlinedNew threat to Czechoslovakia – could now be attacked from south, west & north Sudetenland next