Presentation on theme: "Harmony and Orderliness: On Chinese Culture Identity from Chinese Traditional Design of Architecture Space Yan Xiaoye Foreign Languages College of Shanghai."— Presentation transcript:
Harmony and Orderliness: On Chinese Culture Identity from Chinese Traditional Design of Architecture Space Yan Xiaoye Foreign Languages College of Shanghai Normal University
Introduction ﹡ Cultural identity: closely related to world view, value, and customs, etc.; presented in people’s living situation ﹡ Architecture space : fixed space, one of the categories of proxemic behavior. ♪ It includes “material manifestations as well as the hidden, internalized designs that govern behavior as man moves about on this earth”, and “follows a plan which changes with time and culture”. (Hall, 1969) ﹡ Outline of the presentation ♪ Philosophical basis of Chinese architecture design: “Integration of Nature and Man”; ♪ Value of harmony and orderliness in Chinese culture; ♪ Chinese traditional design of architecture space.
Philosophical Basis: Integration of Nature and Man ﹡ Isomorphism of Man and Nature: Chinese ancient cosmology that centres on the idea of the dynamic balance of opposites, considering change the basic law of the whole world. ♪ "In change there is the Supreme Polarity, which generates the Two Modes (yin and yang)" ♪ "The successive movement of yin and yang constitutes what is called the Way (of things)”. ♪ the Sage's "virtue equals that of Heaven and Earth” --- Zhouyi, “Book of Changes” ~ the core idea of Chinese traditional philosophy
Philosophical Basis: Integration of Nature and Man ﹡ To pursue Harmony by maintaining Equilibrium: ♪ Harmony : “the universal path which man all should pursue” ♪ Zhong (Equilibrium): “stand erect in the middle, without inclining to either side”. --- Zhongyong, “The Doctrine of the Mean” ♪ Li (Rites): the rules of propriety, which help to find the balance between opposing qualities, by dividing people into categories, and building hierarchical relationships, based on the way of Heaven: yin and yang.
﹡ “Tao models itself after naturalness” --- Laozi ♪ naturalness and "non-action" (wu wei) ♪ “tian di you da mei”: (The operations of) Heaven and Earth proceed in the most admirable way. --- Zhuangzi Philosophical Basis: Integration of Nature and Man
Value of Harmony and Orderliness in Chinese Culture ﹡ Four interrelated dimensions of harmony (Jia, 2008): intrapersonal harmony, interpersonal harmony, social harmony, and harmony between man and the cosmic world or nature. ﹡ Harmony based on orderliness ♪ “jun zi he er bu tong”: Educated persons are in relational harmony while taking different places or holding different views (Jia, 2008). --- The Analects of Confucius, Zi Lu
~ Valuing internal structures, functions, and relationships ~ Featuring the space capacity, organic layout, mutual coordination and restraint of the whole architectural group Chinese Traditional Design of Architecture Space
﹡ Harmony in the whole architectural group: reflected in dynamic balance ♪ emphasizing the combination of motion and tranquility ♪ intending to change space into time ♪ bringing people the feeling of harmony with infinite nature in dynamic balance Example: the Great Wall ♪ European design: emphasizing vision at a distance Chinese design: incorporating the experience of movement. Example: Chinese classical garden ~ Designed to be enjoyed from many points of view” (Hall, 1969). ~ Valuing “movement of steps, shift of scenes”
﹡ Harmony with Humanity: reflected in modeling itself after human relationships ~ Helping to promote interpersonal and social harmony, by ensuring that every individual knows his or her place in the social order, whether noble or humble, and accordingly plays his or her part well. ♪ Features: the central north-south axis line the pattern of inside / outside the difference between East and West ♪ Examples : the city layout of Beijing in Ming Dynasty organic layout of buildings in Forbidden City. Siheyuan, "a courtyard surrounded by four buildings",
the hanging flower gate the screen wall the opposite house the main house the eastern chamber.the yard the western chamber verandah the entrance gate the outer court
﹡ Harmony with nature: reflected in the principle of “The works of men should match the works of Heaven” ♪ The figure or the layout of Chinese traditional architecture is often modeled after the universe or the Heaven Example: Temple of Heaven in Beijing ~ Designed to be in a circular shape, based on the view that “Qian stands for Heaven, and it is round” (“Book of Changes”) ♪ The harmonious beauty of man and nature is also fully reflected in the design of Chinese classical gardens ~ breaking through the strictly symmetrical structure ~ borrowing scenes from surrounding landscapes ~ radiating the beauty of nature in a seamless combination of buildings and the natural world.
Hall of Prayer for Good Harvests Imperial Vault of HeavenCircular Mound Altar
﹡ Architecture space is both a material and social phenomenon. It reflects the deep structure of culture. ﹡ Greatly influenced by the philosophical concept of “Integration of Nature and Man”, Chinese traditional design of architecture space, as the symbol of culture, embodies Chinese cultural identity featured by harmony and orderliness. ﹡ “Some traditions ……. may resurrect themselves under new conditions, and once again actively participate in shaping distinctive presents” (Duanfang Lu, 2004) ﹡ Chinese traditional design of architecture space should, and can blend in with many new cultural elements, and finally show a new harmonious beauty to the world. Conclusion
Thank you so much for your attention! Yan Xiaoye Foreign Languages College of Shanghai Normal University