Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Feminist Literary Theory The Second Sex. Feminist Literary Theory SIMONE DE BEAUVOIR (1908-1986) F The Second Sex n Questioned the “othering” of women.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Feminist Literary Theory The Second Sex. Feminist Literary Theory SIMONE DE BEAUVOIR (1908-1986) F The Second Sex n Questioned the “othering” of women."— Presentation transcript:

1 Feminist Literary Theory The Second Sex

2 Feminist Literary Theory SIMONE DE BEAUVOIR ( ) F The Second Sex n Questioned the “othering” of women by Western philosophy n Rediscovery of forgotten women’s literature n Revolutionary advocate of sexual politics n Questioning of underlying phallocentric, Western, rational ideologies n Championed pluralism: gender, sexual, cultural, ethnicity, postcolonial perspectives The Second Sex POSTSTRUCTURALISM

3 Feminist Literary Theory n Exorcise the male mind n Deconstructs logocentricism of male discourse n Sees gender as a cultural construct n Focus on unique problems of feminism: F History and themes of women literature F Female language F Psycho-dynamics of female creativity Gender As a Social Construct POSTSTRUCTURALISM

4 Feminist Literary Theory JULIA KRISTEVA (1941-) n Psychologist, linguist & novelist n Influenced by Barthes, Freud & Lacan n “Dismantles all ideologies,” including feminism n Disagrees with “patriarchal” views of Freud and Lacan n Pre-Oedipal maternal body source of semiotic aspect of language Feminizing Freud POSTSTRUCTURALISM

5 Feminist Literary Theory ABJECTION (to throw away; despicable) n Identity is constituted by excluding anything that threatens one's own (or one's group's) borders. n The maternal function is a threat to a woman’s identity. n In a patriarchial society, we are forced to accept out maternal bodies (cannot abject them). n Thus women develop depressive sexuality. n But no need to reject motherhood--just need a new discourse of maternity--and willingness to explore and accept multiple identities. I Am Woman POSTSTRUCTURALISM

6 Feminist Literary Theory n Maternal regulation is the law before the law. n Freud and Lacan maintain that the child enters the social by virtue of the paternal function, specifically paternal threats of castration. Feminizing Freud POSTSTRUCTURALISM

7 Feminist Literary Theory n Religion, specifically Catholicism (which makes the mother sacred), and science (which reduces the mother to nature) are the only discourses of maternity available to Western culture. Feminizing Freud POSTSTRUCTURALISM

8 Feminist Literary Theory n Maternal function cannot be reduced to mother, feminine, or woman. n Kristeva tries to counter-act stereotypes that reduce maternity to nature. n Each one of us is what she calls a subject-in- process--in contrast with traditional notions of an autonomous unified (masculine) subject. Feminizing Freud POSTSTRUCTURALISM Source: Kelly Oliver, Virginia Tech

9 Feminist Literary Theory n Masculine symbolic order represses feminine semiotic order n Semiotic open to men and women writers n Semiotic is “creative”--marginal discourse of the avant garde F Raw material of signification from pre-Oedipal drives (linked to mother) F Realm of the subversive forces of madness, holiness and poetry F Creative, unrepressed energy Madness, Holiness & Poetry POSTSTRUCTURALISM

10 Feminist Literary Theory n Challenges Judeo-Christian icons of woman. n Balancing act: live within Lacan’s symbolic order of patriarchal laws without losing uniqueness. n Women can produce own symbols and language. n Multiplicity of female expression n “To break the code, to shatter language, to find specific discourse closer to the body and emotions, to the unnamable repressed by the social contract.” --Kristeva I Am Woman POSTSTRUCTURALISM

11 Feminist Literary Theory n ALICE JARDINE, Gynesis (1982) n Woman as a binary opposition n Man/woman F Rational/irrational F Good/evil n Implied male logocentricism n The concept of jouissance Binary Equals as POSTSTRUCTURALISM

12 Helene Cixcous n Critic, novelist, playwright n Picks up where Lacan leaves off n Denounces patriarchal binary oppositions n Women enter into the Symbolic Order differently n Deconstructs patriarchal Greek myths n Femininity (jouissance) unrepresentable in phallocentric scheme of things n Favors a “bisexual” view The Joy of Jouissance as POSTSTRUCTURALISM

13 Helene Cixcous n Women are closer to the Imaginary n Women more fluid, less fixed n The individual woman must write herself n Feminine literature: not objective; erase differences between order and chaos, text and speech; inherently deconstructive n Admires Joyce and Poe n Men can produce feminist literature Deconstructing Sigmund as POSTSTRUCTURALISM

14 Queer Theory n Gender and sexuality not “essential” to identity n Socially constructed n Mutable and changeable n Self shaped by language, signs and signifiers. n Self becomes a subject in language, with more multiplicity of meaning. n Western ideas of sexual identity come from science, religion, economics and politics and were constructed as binary oppositions Queer Ideas as POSTSTRUCTURALISM

15 Queer Theory n Queer theory deconstructs all binary oppositions about human sexuality. n Encourages the examination of the world from an alternative view. n Allows for the inclusion of gender, sexuality, race and other areas of identity by noticing the distinctions between identities, communities, and cultures. n Challenges heterosexism and homophobia, in addition to racism, misogyny and other oppressive discourses while celebrating diversity. Deconstructing Sex as POSTSTRUCTURALISM

16 Postcolonialism n Attempts to resurrect colonized cultures n Deconstruct Western view of third-world nations as “otherness” n Edward Said: “Orientalism” was an artificial word constructed by the West to talk about and the East (Typical binary opposition) n Empire-building nations used literature as power n Ingrained Western myths & phallic logocentricism in colonized people The Myth of the Orient as POSTSTRUCTURALISM

17 Different Ways to “Read” a Film/Novel n Archetypal n Freudian / Lacanian n Ideological n Deconstructionist n Feminist n Queer n Post-colonial

18 Catherine in Jules & Jim n Identity defined in relation to men n Rebels against identity society has constructed for her n Abjects maternal & wife roles n Repressed desires n Multiple personalities n Celebrates jouissance n “Poetry, madness & holiness” n A violent feminist

19 Catherine in Jules & Jim n Identity defined in relation to men n Rebels against identity society has constructed for her n Abjects maternal & wife roles n Repressed desires n Multiple personalities n Celebrates jouissance n “Poetry, madness & holiness” n A violent feminist

20 Catherine in Jules & Jim n Identity defined in relation to men n Rebels against identity society has constructed for her n Abjects maternal & wife roles n Repressed desires n Multiple personalities n Celebrates jouissance n “Poetry, madness & holiness” n A violent feminist

21 Catherine in Jules & Jim n Identity defined in relation to men n Rebels against identity society has constructed for her n Abjects maternal & wife roles n Repressed desires n Multiple personalities n Celebrates jouissance n “Poetry, madness & holiness” n A violent feminist

22 Catherine in Jules & Jim n Identity defined in relation to men n Rebels against identity society has constructed for her n Abjects maternal & wife roles n Repressed desires n Multiple personalities n Celebrates jouissance n “Poetry, madness & holiness” n A violent feminist

23 Catherine in Jules & Jim n Identity defined in relation to men n Rebels against identity society has constructed for her n Abjects maternal & wife roles n Repressed desires n Multiple personalities n Celebrates jouissance n “Poetry, madness & holiness” n A violent feminist

24 Catherine in Jules & Jim n Identity defined in relation to men n Rebels against identity society has constructed for her n Abjects maternal & wife roles n Repressed desires n Multiple personalities n Celebrates jouissance n “Poetry, madness & holiness” n A violent feminist

25 Catherine in Jules & Jim n Identity defined in relation to men n Rebels against identity society has constructed for her n Abjects maternal & wife roles n Repressed desires n Multiple personalities n Celebrates jouissance n “Poetry, madness & holiness” n A violent feminist

26 Catherine in Jules & Jim n Identity defined in relation to men n Rebels against identity society has constructed for her n Abjects maternal & wife roles n Repressed desires n Multiple personalities n Celebrates jouissance n “Poetry, madness & holiness” n A violent feminist


Download ppt "Feminist Literary Theory The Second Sex. Feminist Literary Theory SIMONE DE BEAUVOIR (1908-1986) F The Second Sex n Questioned the “othering” of women."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google