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Java Programming Transparency No. 1-1 Object-Oriented Programing in Java Cheng-Chia Chen.

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1 Java Programming Transparency No. 1-1 Object-Oriented Programing in Java Cheng-Chia Chen

2 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No. 1-2 Contents  Object and Class  The contents of an object/class  Creating and initializing Objects  Accessing object data and methods  Destroying and finalizing objects  Subclass and inheritance  Interfaces  Java modifiers summary

3 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No. 1-3 What is an Object ?  Real-world objects: Concrete objects: Apple1, Car1, TV2, Teacher2, Student3, … Conceptual Objects: 1, 2.3, Date1, Meeting2, point2, …  Objects have: Properties (attributes): color, weight, height, sex, name, speed, position,… Capabilities (behaviors): can receive commands(, request, query) and respond (do actions) based on its internal states to change its internal state and/or external environment.  The properties of an object constitutes its current state.

4 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No. 1-4 What is a Software object ?  a software bundle of data and functions used to model real-world objects you find in everyday life.  In OOP, Software objects are building block of software systems program is a collection of interacting objects objects cooperate to complete a task to do this, they communicate by sending “messages” to each other  Software objects can model tangible things: School, Car, Bicycle, conceptual things: meeting, date Processes: finding paths, sorting cards  Note: Software objects are only abstraction of real-world objects; irrelevant properties and behavior will not be modeled in software objects.

5 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No. 1-5 What is a Java Object?  In Java, an object consists of 0 or more fields and 0 or more methods. Fields are used to model properties. Methods are used to model capabilities.  Fields are variables. like the fields of a C struct. An object without methods is equivalent to a C struct.  A method is similar to a C function. Normally, it will operate on the fields of the object. These fields are accessible by name in the method.  Java variables can not hold objects, only references to them. Object do not have a names. Object are created only at runtime.  Given a reference r to an object, the syntax for accessing a field is: r.field_name, the syntax for accessing a method is: r.method()

6 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No. 1-6 Classes and Objects  Current conception: a java/software object  a real-life object, e.g., a Java car  a real car  Disadvantage: impractical to work with objects this way may be indefinitely many (i.e., modeling all atoms in the universe) do not want to describe each individual separately, because they may have much in common  Classifying objects into classes of similar properties/behaviors factors out commonality among sets of similar objects lets us describe what is common once then “stamp out” any number of copies later Ex: Student: { S1, S2, S3 } Course:{C1,C2,C3} Teacher:{ T1,T2} but not {s1, t1}, {s2, t2}, {c1,c2,c3,s3}  Analog: stamp 印章 (class) Imprints 戳印 (objects)

7 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No. 1-7 What is a Java Class?  In Java, a class is a template (textual description) of a set of similar objects. All objects in the class have the same types of properties and the same set of capabilities.  It defines the fields and methods that all objects in that class will have. Classes have names. Class appear in the text of your program. A java program consists of a set of classes.  A defined class is a Java Type, so you can have objects or variables of that type.

8 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No. 1-8 Class diagrams

9 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No. 1-9 An Example: the class of Circles:  Properties: a circle can be described by the x, y position of its center and by its radius.  Methods: Some useful operations on Circles: compute circumference, compute area, check whether points are inside the circle, etc.

10 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No The Circle class  By defining the Circle class (as below), we create a new data type. // The class of circles (partially defined) class Circle { // Fields double x, y; double r; // Methods double circumference() { return 2 * * r; } double area() { return * r * r ; } void scale(double multiplier) { r *= multiplier; } void print() { System.out.println("circle of radius "+ r + " with center at (" + x + "," + y + ")“ ); } }

11 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Creating Objects  In Java, objects are created by the new operator.  For example: //define a variable to refer to Circle objects;no objects yet. Circle c ; // c is null now // create a circle object and make the variable refer to it c = new Circle(); // define variable and create Circle object all at once Circle d = new Circle(); Note: the fields in these objects are given default values at creation (0 for numbers; null for object references)

12 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Accessing Object Data  We can access data fields of an object (subject to visibility restrictions -- see later).  For example: // create a new Circle Circle c = new Circle(); //initialize our circle to have center (2, 5) and radius 1.0. c.x = 2.0; c.y = 5.0; c.r = 1.0; // create another circle Circle d = new Circle(); //initialize this circle to have center (10,7)and double the radius of circle c. d.x = 10.0; d.y = 7.0; d.r = c.r * 2.0;

13 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Using Object Methods  To access the methods of an object, use same syntax as accessing the data of an object: Circle c; double a;... a = c.area(); // Not a = area(c); Notes  Each method has a signature, which is defined by: The method name and The sequence of all types of arguments  Each class can define several methods with same name and different types of arguments (overloading).

14 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Constructors  Every class in Java has at least one constructor method, which has the same name as the class.  The purpose of a constructor is to perform any necessary initialization for new objects.  Java provides a default constructor that takes no arguments and performs no special initialization (i.e. gives objects default values). Note: Java compiler provide the default constructor: className() only if you do not provide any constructor at your class definition.  For example: Circle c = new Circle();

15 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Defining a Constructor  Can define additional constructors for initialization. // The circle class, with a constructor public class Circle { public double x, y, r; // Constructor method public Circle(double x, double y, double r) { this.x = x; this.y = y; this.r = r; } // Other methods... as above... }

16 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Defining a Constructor (cont.)  With the new constructor, we can create and initialize a Circle object as: Circle c = new Circle(2.0, 5.0, 1.0);  A constructor is like a (static) method whose name is the same as the class name.  The return value is an instance of the class.  No return type is specified in constructor declarations, nor is the void keyword used.

17 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Multiple Constructors  A class can have any number of constructor methods. public class Circle { public double x, y, r; // Constructors public Circle(double x, double y, double r) { this.x = x; this.y = y; this.r = r; } public Circle(double r) { x = 0.0; y = 0.0; this.r = r; } public Circle(Circle c) { this.x = c.x; this.y = c.y; this.r = c.r; } public Circle() { x = 0.0; y = 0.0; r = 1.0; } // Other methods... as above... }

18 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Multiple Constructors (cont.)  With the new constructors, we can initialize circle objects as follows: Circle c1 = new Circle(2.0, 5.0, 1.0); // c1 contains (2.0, 5.0, 1.0) Circle c2 = new Circle(3.5); // c2 contains (0.0, 0.0, 3.5) Circle c3 = new Circle(c2); // c3 contains (0.0, 0.0, 3.5) Circle c4 = new Circle(); // c4 contains (0.0, 0.0, 1.0)  All uninitialized data receives default values.

19 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Invoking one constructor from another  We can use this(…) in a constructor to invoke other constructor. public class Circle { public double x, y, r; // Constructors public Circle(double x, double y, double r) { this.x = x; this.y = y; this.r = r; } public Circle(double r) //{x =0.0; y = 0.0; this.r = r;} replaceable by {this(0.0,0.0,r); } public Circle() //{x = 0.0; y = 0.0; r = 1.0;} replaceable by {this(1.0); }... } Note: do not result in recursion.

20 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Object and Object References  A java object is a memory structure containing both data and methods  An object reference holds the memory address of an object  Rather than dealing with arbitrary addresses, we often depict a reference graphically as a “ pointer ” to an object ChessPiece bishop1 = new ChessPiece(); bishop1

21 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Assignment Revisited  The act of assignment takes a copy of a value and stores it in a variable  For primitive types: int num1 = 5, unm2 = 12; num2 = num1; Before num1 5 num2 12 After num1 5 num2 5

22 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Reference Assignment  For object references, assignment copies the memory location: bishop2 = bishop1; Before bishop1bishop2 After bishop1bishop2

23 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Aliases  Two or more references that refer to the same object are called aliases of each other  One object (and its data) can be accessed using different variables  Aliases can be useful, but should be managed carefully  Changing the object ’ s state (its variables) through one reference changes it for all of its aliases  Ex: Circle c = new Circle(1.0, 2.0, 3.0); Circle d = c; // c and d are aliases. c.r = 4.0; // d.r == 4.0 now.

24 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Destroying Objects  When an object no longer has any valid references to it, it can no longer be accessed by the program It is useless, and therefore called garbage Java performs automatic garbage collection periodically, returning an garbage object's memory to the system for future use Hence it is needless to explicitly destroy objects.  How can references to objects '' go away'‘ ? Re-assigning object variables (a = b; a = null) or object variables (locals or parameters) going out of scope.  no more malloc/free bugs

25 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Object Finalization  A constructor method performs initialization for an object; a Java finalizer method performs finalization for an object.  Garbage collection only help freeing up memory.  But there are other resources needed to be released. file descriptors, sockets, lock, database connection.

26 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Example: A Finalizer Method from the Java FileOutputStream class. /** * Closes the stream when garbage is collected. * Checks the file descriptor first to make sure it is not already closed. */ protected void finalize() throws IOException { if (fd != null) close(); }

27 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Notes about finalize()  invoked before the system garbage collects the object.  no guarantees about when a finalizer will be invoked, or in what order finalizers will be invoked, or what thread will execute finalizers.  After a finalizer is invoked, objects are not freed right away. because a finalizer method may "resurrect" an object by storing the this pointer somewhere.  may throw an exception; If an uncaught exception actually occurs in a finalizer method, the exception is ignored by the system.  No ‘class Finalization’ method defined.

28 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Classes v.s. Objects  two of the most frequently occurring terms in the OO programmer's vocabulary.  A class An object...  exist at compile time exists at runtime only  a template/pattern created/instantiated from for objects a class' specification  "only exists once" can be created many times from one class  a.java file returned by the new operator  dress pattern dress  architectural plans house  stampimprints

29 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Types of variables and methods in a Java class  There are two main types of variables/fields: instance variables class (or static) variables Instance variables store information pertaining to one particular object's state Class variables store information pertaining to all objects of one class  Likewise, there are two types of methods: Instance methods Class (static) methods Instance methods belong to individual objects; whereas class methods belongs to the whole class. Note: In class method, you cannot use this and instance variables.(why?)

30 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Class Name Instance Methods Class diagram of an Account class. ShowNumberOfAccount Class Methods

31 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Declare class field/method with the ‘static’ Modifier  makes methods and variables belong to the class rather than instances of the class.  Example: counting how many circles: public class Circle { public double x, y, r; // instance variables // ncircles is class variable public static int ncircles = 0; // Constructors public Circle(double x, double y, double r) { this.x = x; this.y = y; this.r = r; ncircles++; } public Circle(double r) { x = 0.0; y = 0.0; this.r = r; ncircles++; }...}

32 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No The static Modifier (cont.)  In the above example, there's only one instance of the ncircles variable per Circle class but one instance of x, y and r per Circle object.  Diff. ways to reference ncircles: Circle.ncircles // ClassName.classVarName ncircles; this.ncircles, // used inside the Circle class definition only c.ncircles // where c is a Circle variable  Similar approach for static methods.  Examples of static methods (or called class method): Math.cos(x) Math.pow(x,y) Math.sqrt(x)

33 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Notes on class methods  Must be declared with the static keyword Also called static method  Can only operate on class variables (e.g., static ) Cannot use ‘this’ Cannot use instance variables  To access a class method: same as to access class vars: Circle.countCircles() // ClassName.classVarName countCircles(); this.countCircles(), // legal only when inside the Circle class definition c.countCircles() // where c is a Circle variable  Lots of examples of class methods in the JDK (e.g., String ) String

34 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Example: instance member v.s. class member Class B { int x; static int y; static int b1() { … } int b2 () { … } static int b3() { … // class method int c; c = x; c = this.y //error c = y; c = B.y; //ok! A a = new A(); B b = new B(); c = a.a1(); //ok! c = a.a2() ; // ok! c = A.a2() ; // error! c = A.a1() ; // ok! c = b.b1() ; //ok! c = b.b2() ; // ok! c = B.b2() ; // error! c = B.b1() ; // ok! c = b1(); // ok c = b2(); // error } Int b4() { // instance method c = x; c = this.x //ok! c = y; c = B.y; c = this.y //ok! … c = b1(); c = this.b1() // ok c = b2(); c=this.b2() // ok } Class A { public static int a1(){…} public int a2() {…} … }

35 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Class and Instance initializers  Both class and instance variables can have initializers attached to their declarations. static int num_circles = 0; float r = 1.0;  Class variables are initialized when the class is first loaded.  Instance variables are initialized when an object is created.  Sometimes more complex initialization is needed. For instance variables, there are constructor methods,and instance initializer. For class variables static initializers are provided

36 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No An example static/instance initializer public class TrigCircle { // Trigonometric circle // Here are our static lookup tables, and their own simple initializers. static private double sin[] = new double[1000]; static private double cos[] = new double[1000]; // Here's a static initializer "method" that fills them in. // Notice the lack of any method declaration! static { double x, delta_x; int i; delta_x = (Circle.PI/2)/(1000-1); for(i = 0, x = 0.0; i < 1000; i++, x += delta_x) { sin[i] = Math.sin(x); cos[i] = Math.cos(x); } … // The rest of the class omitted.

37 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No An example static/instance initializer (continued) // instance field and methods Private int[] data = new int[100]; // data[i] = i for i = // instance initializer as an unnamed void method { for(int I = 0; I <100; I++) data[I] = I; } … }

38 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Notes on initializers  can have any number of static/instance initializers;  can appear anywhere a field or method can appear.  Static initializer behaves like class method and cannot use this keyword and any instance fields of the class  The body of each instance initializers (alone with field initialization expressions) is executed in the order they appear in the class and is executed at the beginning of every constructor.  The body of each static initializers (alone with static field initialization expressions) is executed in the order they appear in the class and is executed while the class is loaded.

39 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Inheritance in OOP  Inheritance is a form of software reusability in which new classes are created from the existing classes by absorbing their attributes and behaviors.  Instead of defining completely (separate) new class, the programmer can designate that the new class is to inherit attributes and behaviours of the existing class (called superclass). The new class is referred to as subclass.  Programmer can add more attributes and behaviors to the subclass, hence, normally subclasses have more features than their superclasses.  Inheritance relationships form tree-like hierarchical structures.

40 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Subclasses and Inheritance  An important aspect of OO programming:  the ability to create new data types based on existing data types  Example... a class of drawable Circles: we'd like to be able to draw the circles we create, as well as setting and examining their properties. for drawing, we need to know the color of the circle's outline and its body In Java, we implement this by defining a new class that extends the behavior of the Circle class. This new class is a subclass of Circle.

41 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Subclass Example  The class GraphicCircle: public class GraphicCircle extends Circle { // Extra fields Color outline, fill; // Extra constructors public GraphicCircle(Color edge, Color fill) { x = 0.0; y = 0.0; r = 1.0; outline = edge; this.fill = fill; } public GraphicCircle(double r, Color edge, Color fill) { super(r); outline = edge; this.fill = fill; } // Extra methods public void draw(Graphics g) { g.setColor(outline); g.drawOval(x-r, y-r, 2*r, 2*r); g.setColor(fill); g.fillOval(x-r, y-r, 2*r, 2*r); } }

42 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Subclass Inheritance  A subclass inherits fields and methods from its parent class.  A subclass method overrides a superclass method if they have the same signature.  A subclass field shadows a superclass field if they have the same name.  Refer to the superclass field via super.field  Note: you can also use super.method(…) to refer to overridden superclass method.

43 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Using Subclasses  Subclasses are just like ordinary classes: GraphicCircle gc = new GraphicCircle();... double area = gc.area();  We can assign an instance of GraphicCircle to a Circle variable.  Example: GraphicCircle gc;... Circle c = gc; //widening conversion is // always safe; explicit cast is not needed.

44 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Superclasses, Objects, and the Class Hierarchy  Every class except Object has a superclass.  If a class has no extends clause, it extends the Object class.  Object Class: the only class that does not have a superclass methods defined in Object can be called by any Java object

45 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Abstract Classes  Abstract class allows us to declare methods without implementation. the unimplemented method is called an abstract method. Subclasses can extend abstract class and provide implementation of all or portion of abstract methods.  The benefit of an abstract class is that methods may be declared such that the programmer knows the interface definition of an object, however, methods can be implemented differently in different subclasses of the abstract class.

46 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Abstract Classes (cont.)  Any class containing an abstract method is automatically abstract itself  But an abstract class need not have abstract methods in it!  an abstract class can not be instantiated  a subclass of an abstract class can be instantiated if it overrides each of the abstract methods of its superclass and provides an implementation for all of them  if a subclass of an abstract class does not implement all of the abstract methods it inherits, that subclass is itself abstract

47 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Abstract Classes (cont.): an example public abstract class Shape { public abstract double area(); // abstract methods // to be implemented by subclasses public abstract double circumference(); } public class Circle extends Shape { protected double r; protected static final double PI= ; public double Circle() { r = 1.0; } public double Circle(double r) { this.r = r; } // implementation of two abstract methods of shape class public double area(){ return PI*r*r; } public double circumference() { return 2*PI*r; } public double getRadius() { return r; } }

48 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Abstract Classes : an example (cont.) public class Rectangle extends Shape { protected double w,h; // two constructors public Rectangle() { w=1.0; h=1.0; } public Rectangle(double w, double h) { this.w = w; this.h = h; } // implementation of two parent methods public double area() { return w*h; } public double circumference() { return 2*(w + h); } // methods for this class public double getWidth() { return w; } public double getHeight() { return h; } }

49 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Inheritance revisited  the concept of inheritance  the protected modifier  adding and modifying methods through inheritance  creating class hierarchies

50 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Inheritance  Inheritance allows a software developer to derive a new class from an existing one  The existing class is called the parent class, or superclass, or base class  The derived class is called the child class or subclass.  The child class inherits characteristics (data & methods) of the parent class That is, the child class inherits the methods and fields defined for the parent class

51 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Inheritance  Inheritance relationships are often shown graphically in a class diagram, with the arrow pointing to the parent class  Inheritance relationships: base class: Vehicle derived class: Car Car inherits data & methods from Vehicle Inheritance should create an is-a relationship, meaning the child is a more specific version of the parent Vehicle Car

52 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Deriving Subclasses  The reserved word extends is used to establish an inheritance relationship class Car extends Vehicle { // class contents }  Example: next slide

53 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No. 1-53

54 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No class Book { protected int pages = 1500; public void pageMessage () { System.out.println ("Number of pages: " + pages); } // method pageMessage } // class Book class Dictionary extends Book { private int definitions = 52500; public void definitionMessage () { System.out.println ("Number of definitions: "+definitions); System.out.println ("Definitions per page: " +definitions/pages); // inherited var } // method definitionMessage } // class Dictionary

55 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Inheritance Example class Main { // Test Driver public static void main (String[] args) { Dictionary webster = new Dictionary (); webster.pageMessage(); // inherited method webster.definitionMessage(); } } // class Words

56 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Controlling Inheritance by the protected Modifier  The protected (and public) visibility modifier allows a member of a parent class to be inherited into the child But protected visibility provides more encapsulation than public does However, protected visibility is not as tightly encapsulated as private visibility  Note: Unlike C++, Inheritance does not change the visibility of the parent class members when used through instances of child classes.

57 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Visibility modifiers and their usage The visibility modifiers determine which class members can be referenced from where and which cannot.  public members: all classes  protected members all classes in the same package + all subclasses (and subsubclasses …) Note: Java has no notions of public, private or protected inheritance as in C++; all inheritances are public.  package members [default visibility] all classes in the same package  private members can only be used in the same class where the member is defined.

58 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No package a.b.c; public class A { public int p1… protected int p2… int p4; //package scope private int p3 … } … extend A visible region for package members visible region for protected members visible region for pubic members [of class A] Visible regions for members of class A package a.b.c … extend A visible region for private members of class A

59 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Protected members are accessible to subclass (and package) code public class B extends A{ … // p1 and p2 of A can // be used } public class A { public int p1; protected int p2; int p3 private int p4; … } class C extend B { int p; B b = new B(); … p = b.p1; // ok since p1 is public p = b.p2 ; // ok p = p2; // ok ! protected p2 is inherited A a = new A(); p = a.p2 // error!! // protected field (p2) can be accessed [from subclasses] only through subclass instances } class D { B b = new B(); int i = b.p2; //error p2 is not visible within D class }

60 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No The super Reference  Constructors are not inherited, even though they are declared to have public visibility  Yet we often want to use the parent's constructor to set up the "parent's part" of the object  The super reference can be used to refer to the parent class, and is often used to invoke the parent's constructor

61 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No class Book { protected int pages; public Book (int pages) { this.pages = pages; } public void pageMessage () { System.out.println ("Number of pages: " + pages); } } // class Book class Dictionary extends Book { private int definitions; public Dictionary (int pages, int definitions) { super (pages); // construct Book part of a Dictionary this.definitions = definitions; } // constructor Dictionary public void definitionMessage () { System.out.println ("Number of definitions: " + definitions); System.out.println ("Definitions per page: " + definitions/pages); } // method definitionMessage } // class Dictionary

62 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No class Main2 { public static void main (String[] args) { Dictionary webster = new Dictionary (1500, 52500); webster.pageMessage(); webster.definitionMessage(); System.out.println(webster); // try println object } // method main } // class Words2

63 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Single vs. Multiple Inheritance  Java supports single inheritance, meaning that a child class can have only one parent class  Multiple inheritance allows a class to be derived from two or more classes, inheriting the members of all parents  Collisions, such as the same variable name in two parents, have to be resolved  In most cases, the use of interfaces gives us the best aspects of multiple inheritance without the overhead

64 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Types of Objects and Variables  The type of an object is the class that is referred to when it is created via new construct. Student s1 = new Student(“name”, age, sex);  Two types associated with variables ( including method parameters/fields): The declared type of a variable is the type referred to in its declaration (also: declared class; compile-time type) Person p1, p2 = new Person(…) ; The actual type of a variable is the type of the object bound to the variable at a specific moment during program execution (also: run- time type) p1 = s1 ; Note: the declared type of a variable is static(i.e., unchangable ) once it is declared, while the actual type of a variable is dynamic (i.e., can be changed by assignment of new object of different type. p2 = s1;

65 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Example: Declared type and actual type

66 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Example Actual type

67 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Overriding Methods  What happens if both parent and child class contains members of the same signature ? fields => variable shadowing; constructor : impossible! methods => methods overriding  A child class can override the definition of an inherited method in favor of its own A child can redefine a method it inherits from its parent  Overriding method: has the same signature as the parent's method has different code in the body  The actual type (not casted type) of an object determines which method is invoked  See Messages.java

68 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No class Messages { public static void main (String[] args) { Message m = new Message(); Advice a = new Advice(); m.message(); a.message(); (Message a).message() // same as a.message() } } // class Messages class Message { public void message() { System.out.println (”Message"); } } // class Thought class Advice extends Message { public void message() { // overriding method System.out.println (”Advice"); } } // class Advice

69 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Overloading vs. Overriding  Don‘t confuse the concepts of overloading ( 多載 ) and overriding( 覆蓋 )  Overloading deals with multiple methods in the same class with the same name but different signatures  Overriding deals with two methods, one in a parent class and one in a child class, that have the same signature  Overloading lets you define a similar operation in different ways for different data  Overriding lets you define a similar operation in different ways for different object types

70 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No The super Reference Revisited  Inherited parent methods/fields can be explicitly invoked using the super reference  If a method/field is declared with the final modifier, it cannot be overridden  The concept of overriding can be applied to data (called shadowing variables), but shadowing behaves quite differently from overriding.  The syntax of super is: super. method ( parameters ) super.var  See Firm.java

71 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Shadowing superclass fields vs overriding superclass methods class A { int x ; int m() …} class B extends A { int x; int m() …} class C extends B { int x; // x in B and A are shadowed // by this.x int m() {…} // m() overrides m() in A & B C c = new C(); … x, this.x // field x in C super.x, ((B) this).x // field x in B ((A) this).x // filed x in A super.super.x // syntax error!! c.x // field in C ((B)c).x // fields in B ((A)c).x// fields in A ((A) c).m() ; // m() in A ? no !! super.m(); // m() in B ((B) this).m(); // m() in C ((A) this).m(); // m() in C ((A) c).m(); ((B) c).m(); m(); // m() in C

72 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No class Firm { public static void main (String[] args) { Manager sam = new Manager ("Sam", "123 Main Line", " ", " ", ); Employee carla = new Employee ("Carla", "456 Off Line", " ", " ", ); Employee woody = new Employee ("Woody", "789 Off Rocker", " ", " ", ); woody.print(); System.out.println ("Paid: " + woody.pay()); System.out.println(); carla.print(); System.out.println ("Paid: " + carla.pay()); System.out.println(); sam.print(); sam.awardBonus (2000); System.out.println ("Paid: " + sam.pay()); System.out.println(); } }

73 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No class Employee { protected String name, address, phone, ID; protected double salary; public Employee (String name, String address, String phone, String ID, double salary) { this.name = name; this.address = address; this.phone = phone; this.payRate = payRate; this.ID = ID; } // constructor Employee public double pay () { return salary; } // method pay public void print () { System.out.println (name + " " + ID); System.out.println (address); System.out.println (phone); } } // class Employee

74 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No class Manager extends Employee { private double bonus; public Manager (String name, String address, String phone, String ID, double pay) { super (name, nddress, phone, ID, pay); // call parent’s constructor bonus = 0; // bonus yet to be awarded } public void awardBonus (double bonus) { this.bonus = bonus; } public double pay () { // managers need special way to count pay! double pay = super.pay() + bonus; // call parent’s method bonus = 0; return pay; } }

75 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Class Hierarchies  A child class of one parent can be the parent of another child, forming class hierarchies Animal MammalBird HorseBatParrot

76 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Class Hierarchies  Two children of the same parent are called siblings  Good class design puts all common features as high in the hierarchy as is reasonable  Class hierarchies often have to be extended and modified to keep up with changing needs  There is no single class hierarchy that is appropriate for all situations  See Accounts2.java

77 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No class Accounts2 { public static void main (String[] args) { SavingsAccount savings = new SavingsAccount (4321, , 0.02); BonusSaverAccount bigSavings = new BonusSaverAccount (6543, , 0.02); CheckingAccount checking = new CheckingAccount (9876, , savings); savings.deposit (148.04); bigSavings.deposit (41.52); savings.withdrawal (725.55); bigSavings.withdrawal (120.38); checking.withdrawal (320.18); } // method main } // class Accounts2

78 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No class BankAccount { protected int account; protected double balance; public BankAccount (int accountNum, double initialBalance) { account = accountNum; balance = initialBalance; } public void deposit (double amount) { balance += amount; } // method deposit public boolean withdrawal (double amount) { boolean result = false; if (amount > balance) System.out.println ("Insufficient funds."); else { balance -= amount; System.out.println ("New balance: " + balance); result = true; } return result; } } // class BankAccount

79 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No class SavingsAccount extends BankAccount { protected double rate; public SavingsAccount (int accountNum, double initialBalance, double interestRate) { super (accountNum, initialBalance); rate = interestRate; } // constructor SavingsAccount public void addInterest () { balance += balance * rate; } // method addInterest } // class SavingsAccount

80 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No class BonusSaverAccount extends SavingsAccount { private final int PENALTY = 25; private final double BONUSRATE = 0.03; public BonusSaverAccount (int accountNum, double initialBalance, double interestRate) { super (accountNum, initialBalance, interestRate); } // constructor SuperSaverAccount public boolean withdrawal (double amount) { return super.withdrawal (amount+PENALTY); } // method withdrawal public void addInterest () { balance += balance * (rate + BONUSRATE); } // method addInterest

81 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No class CheckingAccount extends BankAccount { private SavingsAccount overdraft; public CheckingAccount (int accountNum, double initialBalance, SavingsAccount protection) { super (accountNum, initialBalance); overdraft = protection; } // constructor CheckingAccount public boolean withdrawal (double amount) { boolean result = false; if ( ! super.withdrawal (amount) ) { System.out.println ("Using overdraft..."); if ( ! overdraft.withdrawal (amount - balance) ) System.out.println ("Overdraft source insufficient."); else { balance = 0; System.out.println ("New balance on account " + account + ": " + balance); result = true; } } return result; } } // class CheckingAccount

82 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No The Object Class  A class called Object is defined in the java.lang package of the Java standard class library  All objects are derived from the Object class  If a class is not explicitly defined to be the child of an existing class, it is assumed to be the child of the Object class  The Object class is therefore the ultimate root of all class hierarchies  The Object class contains a few useful methods, such as toString(),equals(), hashCode() which are inherited by all classes  You may choose to override equals and/or toString to define equality/toString in your way.

83 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No import java.awt.Point; class TestToString { public static void main (String[] args) { Integer n = new Integer (25); Point p = new Point (0, 0); A a = new A(); System.out.println ( n.toString() ); System.out.println ( p.toString() ); System.out.println ( a.toString() ); } // method main } // class TestToString class A { public String toString() { return "I am AnyClass"; } // method toString } // class AnyClass

84 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Abstract Classes revisted  An abstract class is a placeholder in a class hierarchy that represents a generic concept  An abstract class cannot be instantiated  We use the modifier abstract on the class header to declare a class as abstract  An abstract class often contains abstract methods (like an interface does), though it doesn ’ t have to

85 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Abstract Classes  The child of an abstract class must override the abstract methods of the parent, or it too will be considered abstract  An abstract method cannot be defined as final (because it must be overridden) or static (because it has no definition yet)  The use of abstract classes is a design decision; it helps us establish common elements in a class that is too general to instantiate

86 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No References and Inheritance  An object reference can refer to an object of its class, or to an object of any class related to it by inheritance  For example, if the Holiday class is used to derive a child class called Christmas, then a Holiday reference could actually be used to point to a Christmas object Holiday Christmas Holiday day; day = new Christmas();

87 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No References and Inheritance  Assigning a descendant class instance to an ancestor reference is considered to be a widening conversion, and can be performed by simple assignment  Assigning an ancestor object to a subclass reference can also be done, but it is considered to be a narrowing conversion and must be done with a cast  The widening conversion is the most useful

88 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Polymorphism  A polymorphic reference is one which can refer to one of several possible methods. Same invocation expression(say o.m(…)), different methods actually called.  Suppose the Holiday class has a method called celebrate, and the Christmas class overrode it  Now consider the following invocation: day.celebrate();  If day refers to a Holiday object, it invokes Holiday's version of celebrate; if it refers to a Christmas object, it invokes that version

89 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Polymorphism  In general, it is the type of the object being referenced, not the reference type, that determines which method is invoked  Note that, if an invocation is in a loop, the exact same line of code could execute different methods at different times  Polymorphic references are therefore resolved at run- time, not during compilation

90 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Polymorphism  Note that, because all classes inherit from the Object class, an Object reference can refer to any type of object  A Vector is designed to store Object references  The instanceOf operator can be used to determine the class from which an object was created  See Variety.java

91 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No import java.awt.Point; import java.util.Vector; class MyVariety { public static void main (String[] args) { Vector collector = new Vector(); Integer num1 = new Integer (10); collector.addElement (num1); Point origin = new Point (0, 0); collector.addElement (origin); Integer num2 = new Integer (37);collector.addElement (num2); Point corner=new Point (12, 45);collector.addElement (corner); int temp; Object something; for (int count=0; count < collector.size(); count++) { something = collector.elementAt (count); if (something instanceof Integer) { temp = ((Integer)something).intValue() + 20; System.out.println (something + " + 20 = " + temp); } else System.out.println ("Point: " + something); } } }

92 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Polymorphism via Inheritance  Consider the following class hierarchy: StaffMember VolunteerEmployee ExecutiveHourly

93 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No class Firm2 { public static void main (String[] args) { Staff personnel = new Staff(); personnel.payday(); }

94 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No class Staff { StaffMember[] staffList = new StaffMember[6]; public Staff() { staffList[0] = new Executive ("Sam", "123 Main Line", " ", " ", ); staffList[1] = new Employee ("Carla", "456 Off Line", " ", " ", ); staffList[2] = new Employee ("Woody", "789 Off Rocker", " ", " ", ); staffList[3] = new Hourly ("Diane", "678 Fifth Ave.", " ", " ", 8.55); staffList[4] = new Volunteer ("Norm", "987 Suds Blvd.", " "); staffList[5] = new Volunteer ("Cliff", "321 Duds Lane", " "); ((Executive)staffList[0]).awardBonus (5000); ((Hourly)staffList[3]).addHours (40); } // constructor Staff

95 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No public void payday() { double amount; for (int count=0; count < staffList.length; count++) { staffList[count].print(); amount = staffList[count].pay(); if (amount == 0.0) System.out.println ("Thanks!"); else System.out.println ("Paid: " + amount); System.out.println ("**********************"); } } // method payday } // class Staff

96 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No class StaffMember { protected String name, address, phone; public StaffMember (String empName, String empAddress, String empPhone) { name = empName; address = empAddress; phone = empPhone; } // constructor StaffMember public double pay() { return 0.0; } // default pay method public void print() { System.out.println ("Name: " + name); System.out.println ("Address: " + address); System.out.println ("Phone: " + phone); } } // class StaffMember

97 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No class Volunteer extends StaffMember { public Volunteer (String empName, String empAddress, String empPhone) { super (empName, empAddress, empPhone); } // constructor Volunteer public double pay() { return 0.0; } // method pay } // class Volunteer

98 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No class Employee extends StaffMember { protected String ID; protected double payRate; public Employee (String empName, String empAddress, String empPhone, String empSsnumber, double empRate) { super (empName, empAddress, empPhone); this.ID = ID; payRate = empRate; } // constructor Employee public double pay () { return payRate; } // method pay public void print () { super.print(); System.out.println (“ID number: " + ID); System.out.println ("Pay rate: " + payRate); } // method print } // class Employee

99 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No class Executive extends Employee { private double bonus; public Executive (String name, String addr, String phone, String ID, double pay) { super (name, addr, phone, ID, pay); bonus = 0; // bonus yet to be awarded } // constructor Executive public void awardBonus (double bonus) { this.bonus = bonus; } // method awardBonus public double pay () { double pay = super.pay() + bonus; bonus = 0; return pay; } // method pay public void print () { super.print(); System.out.println ("Current bonus: " + bonus); } // method print }

100 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No class Hourly extends Employee { private int hoursWorked; public Hourly (String name, String addr, String phone, String ID, double hrRate) { super (name, address, phone, ID, hrRate); hoursWorked = 0; } public void addHours (int moreHours) { hoursWorked += moreHours; } // method addHours public double pay () { return payRate * hoursWorked; } // method pay public void print () { super.print(); System.out.println ("Current hours: " + hoursWorked); } // method print } // class Hourly

101 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Summary for inheritance Inheritance: reuse the existing objects (is-a relation) Protect modifier: better encapsulation Use super to invoke parent’s methods. Overriding methods and overloaded methods All Java classes inherit from object class Polymorphism: which overriding method is invoked based on the object’s type Widening & narrowing

102 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Interfaces  A Java interface is a collection of abstract methods and constants  An abstract method is a method header without a method body (i.e., no implementation)  An abstract method in an interface can be declared using the modifier abstract, but because all methods in an interface are abstract, it is usually left off. cf: abstract methods in an abstract class must be declared explicitly using the abstract modifier.  An interface is used to formally define a set of methods that a class will implement

103 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Interfaces public interface Doable { public void doThis(); public int doThat(); public void doThis2 (float value, char ch); public boolean doTheOther (int num); } interface is a reserved word None of the methods in an interface are given a definition (body) A semicolon immediately follows each method header

104 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Interfaces  An interface cannot be instantiated Doable d = new Doable(); // error  Like a class, a user-defined interface can be used as the type of variables. Doable a, b;  Methods in an interface have public visibility by default  A class formally implements an interface by stating so in the class header providing implementations for each abstract method in the interface  If a class asserts that it implements an interface, it must define all methods in the interface or the compiler will produce errors.

105 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Interfaces public class CanDo implements Doable { public void doThis () { // whatever } public void doThat () { // whatever } // etc. } implements is a reserved word Each method listed in Doable is given a definition

106 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Interfaces  A class can implement more than one interfaces  See Speaker.java (page 236)Speaker.java  See Philosopher.java (page 237)Philosopher.java  See Dog.java (page 238)Dog.java  The interfaces are listed in the implements clause, separated by commas  The class must implement all methods in all interfaces listed in the header

107 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Interfaces  An interface can be implemented by multiple classes  Each implementing class can provide their own unique version of the method definitions  An interface is not part of the class hierarchy  A class can be derived from a base class and implement one or more interfaces

108 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Interface constants  Unlike interface methods, interface constants require nothing special of the implementing class  Constants in an interface can be used in the implementing class as if they were declared locally  This feature provides a convenient technique for distributing common constant values among multiple classes

109 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Extending Interfaces  An interface can be derived from another interface, using the extends reserved word  The child interface inherits the constants and abstract methods of the parent  Note that the interface hierarchy and the class hierarchy are distinct  Unlike class hierarchy, an interface can extend more than one interfaces. public interface Transformable extends Scable, Translatable, Rotatable { }  A class that implements an interface must define also all methods in all ancestors of the interface.

110 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No interface Printable { public String name(); public String print(); // public can be omitted } // interface Printable class PrintLogger { public void log (Printable file) { System.out.println (file.name() + " : " + file.print()); } // method log } // class PrintLogger An interface Example

111 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No class File { protected String id; protected int size; public File (String id, int size) { this.id = id; this.size = size; } // constructor File public String name() { return id; } // method name } // class File class TextFile extends File implements Printable { protected String text; public TextFile (String id, int size, String contents) { super(id, size); text = contents; } // constructor TextFile public String print() { return text; } } // class TextFile

112 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No class BinaryFile extends File { protected byte[] data; public BinaryFile (String id, int size, byte[] data) { super(id, size); this.data = data; } // constructor BinaryFile } // class BinaryFile class ImageFile extends BinaryFile implements Printable { public ImageFile (String id, int size, byte[] data) { super(id, size, data); } // constructor ImageFile public String print() { return new String (data); } } // class Image_File

113 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No public class Printer { public static void main (String[] args) { byte[] logoData = {41, 42, 49, 44 }; TextFile report = new TextFile (“Reprot 1", 1024, "One two three …"); ImageFile logo = new ImageFile(“Picture 1", 4, logoData); PrintLogger daily = new PrintLogger(); daily.log (report); daily.log (logo); }

114 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Marker interface  An interface without including any method. useful for providing additional information about an object. EX: java.lang.Serializable java.lang.Cloneable java.rmi.Remote Ex: Object obj; Object copy; copy = o.clone() // may raise CloneNotSupportedExceptionexception if(obj instanceof Cloneable) copy = o.clone(); else copy = null;

115 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Polymorphism via Interfaces  An interface name can be used as the type of an object reference variable Doable obj;  The obj reference can be used to point to any object of any class that implements the Doable interface  The version of doThis that the following line invokes depends on the type of object that obj is referring to: obj.doThis();

116 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Polymorphism via Interfaces  That reference is polymorphic, which can be defined as "having many forms"  That line of code might execute different methods at different times if the object that obj points to changes  See PrinterLogger.java(slide 106)  Note that polymorphic references must be resolved at run time; this is called dynamic binding  Careful use of polymorphic references can lead to elegant, robust software designs

117 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Some interfaces used in core java classes  The Java standard class library contains many interfaces that are helpful in certain situations  The Comparable interface contains an abstract method called compareTo, which is used to compare two objects pubilc iterface Comparable { public abstract int comparedTo(Object); } Ex: int rlt = x.comparedTo(y); if(rlt < 0) {… } // x < y else if (rlt>0) { …} // x > y else {…} // rlt = 0 means x is equal to y.  The String class implements Comparable which gives us the ability to put strings in alphabetical order

118 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No The Iterator and Enumeration interface The java.util.Iterator/Enumeration interface contain methods that allow the user to move through a collection of objects easily public interface Iterator { public abstract boolean hasNext(); public abstract Object next(); public abstract void remove(); } pubic interface Enumeration { public boolean hasMoreElements(); pubic Object nextElement(); } Ex: Object obj ; // obj is an object implementing Iterator for(Iterator i = (Iterator)obj; i.hasNext(); ) processing(i.next());

119 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Events [skipped]  An event is an object that represents some activity to which we may want to respond  For example, we may want our program to perform some action when the following occurs: the mouse is moved a mouse button is clicked the mouse is dragged a graphical button is clicked a keyboard key is pressed a timer expires  Often events correspond to user actions, but not always

120 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Events  The Java standard class library contains several classes that represent typical events  Certain objects, such as an applet or a graphical button, generate (fire) an event when it occurs  Other objects, called listeners, respond to events  We can write listener objects to do whatever we want when an event occurs

121 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Events and Listeners Source This object may generate an event Listener This object waits for and responds to an event Event When an event occurs, the source calls the appropriate method of the listener, passing an Event object that describes the event

122 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Listener Interfaces  We can create a listener object by writing a class that implements a particular listener interface  The Java standard class library contains several interfaces that correspond to particular event categories  For example, the MouseListener interface contains methods that correspond to mouse events  After creating the listener, we add the listener to the component that might generate the event to set up a formal relationship between the generator and listener

123 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Mouse Events  The following are mouse events: mouse pressed - the mouse button is pressed down mouse released - the mouse button is released mouse clicked - the mouse button is pressed and released mouse entered - the mouse pointer is moved over a particular component mouse exited - the mouse pointer is moved off of a particular component  Any given program can listen for some, none, or all of these  See Dots.java (page 246)Dots.java  See DotsMouseListener.java (page 248)DotsMouseListener.java

124 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Mouse Motion Events  The following are called mouse motion events: mouse moved - the mouse is moved mouse dragged - the mouse is moved while the mouse button is held down  There is a corresponding MouseMotionListener interface  One class can serve as both a generator and a listener  One class can serve as a listener for multiple event types  See RubberLines.java (page 249)RubberLines.java

125 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Key Events  The following are called key events: key pressed - a keyboard key is pressed down key released - a keyboard key is released key typed - a keyboard key is pressed and released  The KeyListener interface handles key events  Listener classes are often implemented as inner classes, nested within the component that they are listening to  See Direction.java (page 253)Direction.java

126 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Animations  An animation is a constantly changing series of pictures or images that create the illusion of movement  We can create animations in Java by changing a picture slightly over time  The speed of a Java animation is usually controlled by a Timer object  The Timer class is defined in the javax.swing package

127 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Animations  A Timer object generates an ActionEvent every n milliseconds (where n is set by the object creator)  The ActionListener interface contains an actionPerformed method  Whenever the timer expires (generating an ActionEvent ) the animation can be updated  See Rebound.java (page 258)Rebound.java

128 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Summary of Java Modifiers  Modifiers used in java: for accessibility: public, [package], protected, private abstract, final, static native, strictfp synchronized transient volatile

129 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No usage of accessibility modifiers modifierused onaccessible to code from privatemember (i.e. field, constructor or method) the containing class none[package]class, interface, member the containing package protectedmemberthe containing package or subclasses of the containing class publicclass, interface, member anywhere

130 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No usage of abstract, final and static modifiers modifierused onMeaning abstractclass + interface method contains abstract methods the body is not implemented finalclass method field + variable cannot be extended cannot be overridden cannot be changed staticclass+interface field+method initializer the nested class (interface) is top-level class field(method) run when class loaded

131 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No usage of native, synchronized, transient, strictfp and volatile modifierused onmeaning nativemethod implemented by non- java code. no method body. synchronizedmethod lock this.class or this before executing method transientfield non-persistent data; need not be serialized volatile (rarely used) field updated value on thread WM must be reflected on MM immediately. strictfp (rarely used) method FP operations must strictly conform to IEEE754

132 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Example of transient fields class Point { int x, y; transient float rho, theta; } // rho and theta are not persistent data

133 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Example of synchronized method and volatile field class Test { static int i = 0, j = 0; static void one() { i++; j++; } static void two() { System.out.println("i=" + i + " j=" + j); } }  Volatile modifier guarantees that any thread that read a field will get the most recently written value.

134 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Example of synchronized method and volatile field public class Main { pubic static void main(String[] args){ new Thread1().start(); new Thread2().start(); }} class Thread1 extend Thread { public void run(){ for(;;) Test.one();} } class Thread2 extend Thread { public void run(){ for(;;) {Test.two(); sleep(500); } } // it is possible that Thread2 prints a result with // j > i, since i,j may be updated out of order in MM.

135 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Example of synchronized method and volatile field class Test { static int i = 0, j = 0; static synchronized void one() { i++; j++; } static synchronized void two() { System.out.println("i=" + i + " j=" + j); } } // i and j must be equal class Test { static volatile int i = 0, j = 0; static void one() { i++; j++; } static void two() { System.out.println("i=" + i + " j=" + j); } } // i always >= j.

136 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Nested Classes  In addition to a class containing data and methods, it can also contain other classes  A class declared within another class is called a nested class (or called inner class) Outer Class Nested Class

137 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Why Nested Classes  A nested class has access to the variables and methods of the outer class, even if they are declared private  Nested classes can be hidden from other classes in the same package.  Anonymous classes are handy when defining callbacks on the fly.  Convenient when writing event-driven programming

138 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Nested Classes  A nested class produces a separate bytecode file  If a nested class called Inside is declared in an outer class called Outside, two bytecode files will be produced: Outside.class Outside$Inside.class  Nested classes can be declared as static, in which case they cannot refer to this, instance variables or methods of outer classes.  A nonstatic nested class is called an inner class

139 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Kinds of Java classes /interfaces Top-level classes /interfaces  Non-nested top-level classes/interfaces are ordinary classes/interfaces that are direct members of a package.  Nested top-level classes / interfaces are static members of other top-level classes/interfaces nested interfaces are implicitly static (hence top-level). Inner classes:  Member classes are non-static nested classes  Local classes are classes defined inside method body  Anonymous classes are classes defined within method body without given a class name

140 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Example class A { … static A1 { // I am a nested top-level class …} A2 { // w/o static modifier, so I am a member class …} void m1(…) { class A3 { // A3 is declared inside a method, so is a local class …} …} void m2(…) { // A4 is an interface or class A4 a = new A4() { void m3() {…} m4() … }; // a is an object of an anonymous subclass/implementation of A4.

141 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Nested top-level classes /interfaces  also called static member classes/interfaces  behave like an ordinary top-level class/interface except that it can access the static members of all of its direct or indirect containing classes. can be public, protected, package or private. Should use the name A.B.C t o reference to a class C enclosed by class B enclosed by class A. A B C A B

142 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Example of a static member interface public class LinkedStack { public interface Linkable { // interfaces are static by default. public Linkable getNext(); public void setNext(Linkable node); } // The top of the stack is a Linkable object. Linkable top; public LinkedStack() {}; pubic boolean empty() { return (top == null) ;} public void push(Linkable node) { node.setNext(top); top = node; } public Object pop(Linkable node) throw EmptyStackException { if(empty()) throw new EmptyStackException(); Object r = top; top = top.getNext(); return r; } } Linkable getNext() top null

143 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No // This class defines a type of node that we'd like to // use in a linkedStack. class IntegerNode implements LinkedStack.Linkable { // Here's the node's data and constructor. private int i; public IntegerNode(int i) { this.i = i; } // implementation of LinkedStack.Linkable. private LinkedList.Linkable next; public LinkedList.Linkable getNext() { return next; } public void setNext(LinkedList.Linkable node) { next = node; } }

144 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No public class test { pubic static void main(String[] args) { // declare an array of 10 IntergerNodes IntergerNode[] n = new IntergerNode[10]; LinkedStack s = null; for (int i = 0; i < n.length; i++) { n[i] = new IntergerNode(i); s.push(n[i]) ; } while(! s.empty()) System.out.println(s.pop()); }

145 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Features of static member classes  obey the same rules of static methods: can access only static members (using simple or full name) accessible to other classes according to the used visibility modifier. note: useful for compiler only. as to interpreters: pubic or protected nested/member classes => visible to all classes, package or private nested/member classes => visible to containing package

146 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No How is a nested class referenced ?  How to reference a nested static class C inside [static] class A of [static] class B of package a.b : outside package a.b => a.b.A.B.C if import a.b.A.B.C or a.b.A.B.* => C // not recommended if import a.b.A.B or a.b.A.* => B.C // not recommended inside package a.b => A.B.C (or a.b.A.B.C) inside class A => B.C (or A.B.C or a.b.A.B.C) inside class B => C ( or any of the above)  Note: All static fields, methods, and classes of a top level class are accessible to all code [even inside a static class] within the class no matter they are private or not.

147 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No import LinkedStack.Linkable; // or import LinkedStack.*; class IntegerNode implements Linkable { // Here's the node's data and constructor. private int i; public IntegerNode(int i) { this.i = i; } // implementation of LinkedStack.Linkable. private LinkedList.Linkable next; public Linkable getNext() { return next; } public void setNext(Linkable node) { next = node; } }

148 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No public class A { static int a; static private int ma(); static class B1 { static int y1; static private int mb1(); static class C1 { static int c1; static int mc1(); }} static class B2 { static class B1 { … } static int b2; static private int mb2(); static class C2 { // various ways to access other members // a, A.a, ma(), A.ma(), B1, A.B1 reference A’s members // b2, B2.b2, A.B2.b2, mb2, B2.mb2(), A.B2.mb2(), B2.B1, B1. // A.B1.y1, A.B1.C1.c1, B1.C1.c1, C1.c1 }} access references in nested classes

149 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Member classes  static class  behaves like static fields/methods  member class  behaves like instance fields/methods beside referring to all static fields/methods, can also reference this, instance field/method of all enclosing classes, even they are private. associated with an instance of each of the enclosing classes  Member class v.s. Static class static class and its enclosing classes are static class-class relationship member class and its enclosing classes are instance-instance relationship. 1. Each member class instance must be created/accessed through instances of the containing class. 2. Each member class instance is associated with an unique instance of each of its containing classes.

150 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Example: A LinkedList Enumerator, as a Member Class import java.util.Enumeration; public class LinkedStack { // those from old LinkedStack public interface Linkable {... } private Linkable top; public void push(…) {... } public Object pop() {... } // This method returns an Enumeration object for this inkedStack. // Note: no LinkedStack object is explicitly passed to the // constructor. public Enumeration enumerate() { return new Enumerator(); }

151 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Example: A LinkedList Enumerator, as a Member Class // the implementation of the Enumeration interface. protected class Enumerator implements Enumeration { Linkable current; public Enumerator() { current = top; } public boolean hasMoreElements() { return (current != null); } public Object nextElement() { if (current == null) throw new NoSuchElementException("LinkedStack"); Object value = current; current = current.getNext(); return value; } } }  Note: Enumerator is only accessible to subclasses or the package of LinkedStack.

152 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Restrictions on member classes  A member class cannot have the same name as any containing class or package.  Member classes cannot contain any static fields, methods or classes (with the exception of constant fields). since member class is associated with object instances, it is nonsense/needless to have static members.  Interfaces cannot be defined as member classes. since interfaces cannot be instantiated, there is no way for an object to create an interface instance. A nested interface is by default static, even if the modifier ‘static’ is not given in the header.

153 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No New syntax for member classes  member class can access instance field/method of containing class. public Enumerator() { current = top; }  How to make the reference explicit ? public Enumeration() { this.current = this.top;} // this.current ok ; but this.top err!! // since there is no top in class Enumeration  Solution: public Enumeration() { this.current = LinkedStack.this.top;}  New syntax: C: a containing class name C.this is used to reference the associated C instance. needed only when using this incurs ambiguity.

154 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No accessing superclass members of the containing class  Recall that we use super.f (or super.m(…)) to reference shadowed or overridden member of parent class of this.  Likewise, we use C.super.f to reference the f field of the parent class of C, which is a containing class of this, and use C.super.m() to reference the method m() of the parent class of C.

155 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No using containing class instance to invoke constructors of member class  Every instance of a member class is associated with an instance of its containing class. pubic Enumeration enumerate(){return new Enumeration();} can also be written as pubic Enumeration enumerate() { return this.new Enumeration;}  More useful case: LinkedStack stack = new LinkedStack(); Enumeration e1 = stack.enumerate(); // could create one without invoking enumerate()!! Enumeration e1 = stack.new Enumeration();  syntax: C: a containing class of member class D with constructor D(…); s : this or var of type C s.new D(…) will invoke D(…) of class D in instance of C referenced by s.

156 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Some special case  It is possible that a class extends a member class. public class A { … public class B { …} …} class C extend A.B { pubic C( … ) { ??? } … }  problem: what is the instance of the containing class A of the parent class B of C  Solution: pubic C( A a, … ) { a.super(…); }

157 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Containing Hierarchy vs Inheritance Hierarchy class A extends A1 { int x; class B extends B1 { int x; class C extends C1 { int x; …} } } class A1 { int x; …} class B1 { int x; …} class C1 extends C2 { int x; …} class C2 { int x; … } Problem: how to reference different x in class C. this.x, C.this.x // x in C B.this.x // x in B A.this.x // x in A super.x, ((C1)this).x // x in C1 ((C2)this).x // x in C2 ((B1) (B.this)).x, B.super.x // x in B1 ((A1) (A.this)).x, A.super.x // x in A1 Problem: how about overridden methods ?

158 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Local Classes  class declared locally within a block of Java code. within method body within instance/static initialization block  Feature of Local class: Local class is to member class what local variable is to instance variable. Properties similar to that of local variables: 1. invisible outside the containing block. 2. cannot use accessibility or static modifiers Properties similar to member classes 1.can access any member of any containing classes. 2. no local interfaces can use any final local variables or method parameters that are visible from the scope in which they are defined.

159 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Example: Defining and using a Local Class // This method creates and returns an Enumeration object for this LinkedStack. public Enumeration enumerate() { // Here's the definition of Enumerator as a local class. class Enumerator implements Enumeration { Linkable current; public Enumerator() { current = top; } public boolean hasMoreElements() { return (current != null); } public Object nextElement() { … } // omitted } // Create and return an instance of the Enumerator class defined here. return new Enumerator(); }

160 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Fields and variables accessible to a local class class A { protected char a = 'a'; } class B { protected char b = 'b'; } pubic class C extends A { public static void main(String[] args) { // Create an instance of the containing class, and invoke the // method that defines and creates the local class. C c = new C(); c.createLocalObject('e'); // pass a value for final parameter e. }

161 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No private char c = 'c'; // Private fields visible to local class. public static char d = 'd'; public void createLocalObject(final char e) { final char f = 'f'; int i = 0; // i not final; not usable by local class. class Local extends B { char g = 'g'; public void printVars() { // All of these fields and variables are accessible. System.out.println(g); // (this.g) g is a field of this class. System.out.println(f); // f is a final local variable. System.out.println(e); // e is a final local argument. System.out.println(d); // (C.this.d) d -- field of containing class. System.out.println(c); // (C.this.c) c -- field of containing class. System.out.println(b); // b is inherited by this class. System.out.println(a); // a is inherited by the containing class. } } Local l = this.new Local(); // Create an instance of the local class l.printVars(); // and call its printVars() method. }

162 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Typical uses of local classes [TBA]  used to implement adapter classes

163 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Anonymous classes  a local class without a name  very commonly used as adapter classes.  created through another extension to the syntax of the new operator.  defined by a Java expression, not a Java statement.

164 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Example: Implementing an Interface with an Anonymous Class import java.io.*; // A simple program to list all Java source files in a directory public class Lister { public static void main(String[] args) { File dir = new File(args[0]); // f represents the specified directory. // List the files in the directory, using the specified filter object. // The anonymous class is defined as part of a method call expression. String[] list = dir.list( new FilenameFilter() { public boolean accept(File f, String name) { return name.endsWith(".java"); }}); for(int i = 0; i < list.length; i++) // output the list System.out.println(list[i]); }}

165 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Anonymous class vs local class  when to use anonymous class: The class has a very short body. Only one instance of the class is needed. The class is used right after it is defined. The name of the class does not make your code any easier to understand.  Restrictions on anonymous classes: An anonymous class has no name and hence cannot be used to create more than one instance for each execution. It is not possible to define constructors for anonymous classes.

166 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Example: Enumeration implemented as an anonymous class public Enumeration enumerate() { // Instantiate and return this implementation. return new Enumeration() { Linkable current = top; // This used to be in the constructor, but // anonymous classes don't have constructors. public boolean hasMoreElements() { return (current != null); } public Object nextElement() { if (current == null) throw new NoSuchElementException("LinkedList"); Object value = current; current = current.getNext(); return value; } }; // Note the required semicolon. It terminates the return statement. }

167 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Additional Java Syntax for Anonymous Classes  syntax: new class-name ( [ argument-list ] ) { class-body } new interface-name () { class-body }  Syntax 1 return an instance of an anonymous subclass of class- name the subclass can provide additional (helper ) methods/fields and/or overrides or implements existing super class methods.  Syntax 2 return an instance of a class implementing interface- name.

168 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No use initializer to help construct anonymous class instances public class InitializerDemo { public int[] array1; // This is an instance initializer. // It runs for every new instance, after the superclass constructor // and before the class constructor, if any. { array1 = new int[10]; for(int i = 0; i < 10; i++) array1[i] = i; } // another instance initializer. The instance initializers run in the order in // which they appear. int[] array2 = new int[10]; { for(int i=0; i<10; i++) array2[i] = i*2; } static int[] static_array = new int[10]; // By contrast, the block below is a static initializer. Note the static // keyword. It runs only once, when the class is first loaded. static { for(int i = 0; i < 10; i++) static_array[i] = i; } }

169 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Some other notes  Class Literals: Each user or system defined class is represented by an object of the type java.lang.Class at runtime. Given a fully qualified class name a.b.C, there are two ways to refer to the Class object representing a.b.C: 1. Class.forName(“a.b.C”) 2. a.b.C.class (2.) is useful for inner classes as well; as to (1.) it requires special knowledge of how inner classes is translated into top level classes. Class.forName(a.b.C$D); // a.b.C.D.class

170 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Default value of variables  Kinds of variables: 1.class/static variables 2.instance variables 3.local variables 4.formal method parameters 5.formal constructor parameters 6.array component : int[ ] ar = new int[10] ; // => ar[0].. ar[9] 7.exception-handler parameters  Notes about default value of uninitalized variables: 1. Default values are given only to array components or class/instance variables which are not final. 2. Local variables are not assigned default values.

171 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Blank Final  Blank finals a field or local variable declared final but without given an initial value in the declaration. Recall that a final variable cannot be reassigned values (for primitive type) or references (for array or object type) once it has been given a content. public class Test { final int y = 10 ; // y is final but not blank final. int z ; // z is not final and has default value 0 final int x ; // x is blank final, has no value here { x = 1; } // x assigned value for the 1 st time. ok!

172 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Blank final public void setX(int nx, final int ny) { x = nx; //error, final field x reassigned value. // still error even removing {x=1;} why ? // no way to determine if x = nx will be executed once only. nx = nx + 10 ; // ok, nx is not final and has value ny = ny + 10 ; // error, final ny reassigned value final int nx10 = nx; // ok final int nx11 ; // blank final int nz // local var has no default value nx = nz + 1; // error nz has no value here nz = nx11 = nx; // ok nx11 = nx; // error }}

173 Basic Java Syntax Transparency No Object of final variable can change state. class Person { final Person wife = findAWife(..); final Person[] children = new Person[5] ; … public void m() { wife.name = newName(); // ok, final object changes state wife = FindAnotherWife(…) // error! final var changes reference children[0] = bearOne(…); // ok! final object can change state children = FindChilren(..) // error! }


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