Presentation on theme: "Who began the Industrial Revolution in the United States? Samuel Slater immigrated to the US and brought with him memorized factory designs from Britain."— Presentation transcript:
Who began the Industrial Revolution in the United States? Samuel Slater immigrated to the US and brought with him memorized factory designs from Britain. He set up the first successful factory in Pawtucket, RI. His factory produced thread, and like Britain, the US Industrial Revolution began in the textile industry.
What prompted the expansion of slavery in the South in the early 1800s? The cotton gin was developed by Eli Whitney in 1793. It cleaned cotton quickly; therefore, plantation owners could plant and harvest more cotton to make a higher profit.
What did the American System propose? President Madison proposed this plan to –Develop transportation systems, –Establish a protective tariff, –Resurrect the national bank. Henry Clay supported the plan. Ultimately, the Erie Canal and the National Road were constructed under the American System.
What did the Supreme Court decisions affirm in the early 1800s? In McCulloch v. Maryland, the Supreme Court ruled that states cannot tax the BUS or the federal government. –Thus, the Court ruled that the BUS was constitutional. As with Gibbons v. Ogden, the Marshall Court reaffirmed the federal government’s supremacy over the states, specifically concerning interstate trade.
What document transferred Florida to the US? The Adams-Onis Treaty transferred Florida from Spain to the US in 1819. Spain’s power was declining and it became too weak to maintain its North American landholdings.
What document warned Europe to stay out of North America? In 1823, the Monroe Doctrine stated that European powers should not interfere with the Western Hemisphere. President Monroe also pledged not to meddle in European affairs. –What was his presidency known as? –‘The Era of Good Feelings’
What were the major terms of the Missouri Compromise? In 1820, the MO Compromise stated that ME was admitted as a free state, MO as a slave state, and future states north of the 36’30” line of latitude would be free, while those south would be slave. –Henry Clay helped reach this compromise.
Why was the election of 1824 significant? Although AJ won the popular vote, no candidate won an electoral college majority. Thus, the HoR decided the outcome. After Henry Clay threw his support to JQA, Adams became president. –Clay became JQA’s Secretary of State.
How did the Jacksonians feel about the election’s outcome? The Jacksonians charged that Clay and JQA had a ‘corrupt bargain’ and the election was stolen. Jacksonians left the Republican Party and formed the Democratic- Republican Party. They worked to undermine JQA’s presidency.
Why is AJ’s presidency known as the Age of the Common Man? During the 1828 campaign, AJ portrayed himself as a man of humble origins, despite the fact that he was a wealthy plantation owner. However, through the 1820-1840s, the property requirements for male suffrage was reduced, thereby expanding the population of eligible voters.
What was the spoils system? Under AJ, the spoils system was instituted. He threw out government officials and replaced them with his supporters. His friends became his closest advisers, thereby earning the nickname ‘Kitchen Cabinet.’
What law affected Natives in 1830? Because AJ believed assimilation would not work, he urged Congress to pass the Indian Removal Act. This affected tribes, such as the Cherokee, Choctaw, Seminole, Creek, and Chickasaw, who lived in GA, NC, SC, AL, MS, and TN. Since white planters and gold miners wanted that land, Natives were forced to move westward.
What happened to the Cherokee? The Cherokee brought their case to the Supreme Court, which ruled in Worcester v. Georgia that the Cherokee could stay on their lands. AJ refused to honor the Court’s ruling, citing GA’s state rights. AJ said, ‘JM has made his decision; now let him enforce it.’ Thus, the Cherokee were forcibly removed through the Treaty of New Echota. They began the Trail of Tears to lands ‘westward,’ during which they lost 25% of their population.
How did John C. Calhoun respond to the 1828 tariff? As AJ’s VP, JCC of SC called the 1828 a ‘Tariff of Abominations.’ Protective tariffs benefit domestic businesses, but raise prices on consumer goods. Southerners were furious at the protective tariffs. JCC wrote the ‘South Carolina Exposition,’ in which he affirmed SC’s right of nullification.
How did AJ respond when SC rebelled? SC declared the 1828 and the 1832 tariffs null and void. Thus, they threatened to secede if tariffs were collected. AJ persuaded Congress to pass the Force Bill, which gave him the power to use federal troops against SC. Henry Clay negotiated a proposal to reduce tariffs over a 10-year period. This earned him the nickname ‘The Great Compromiser.’
How did AJ react to the BUS? AJ hated the BUS and vetoed the charter to renew it because it had an unfair advantage over other banks, and stockholders earned the interest. This meant that a privileged few were making money that should have benefited all taxpayers. AJ developed ‘pet banks’ by diverting federal deposits into certain state banks. After a confrontation with BUS President Nicolas Biddle, the BUS went out of business in 1841.
What political party developed in 1834? JQA, Henry Clay, and Daniel Webster formed the Whig Party. They were frustrated with AJ’s policies and worked to promote the American System and sabotage AJ.
What was AJ’s economic legacy? AJ’s successor was MVBuren, who was unable to deal with AJ’s ‘wildcat’ banks. The banks had printed paper money in excess of the gold and silver they had on deposit. Thus, the paper money became worthless. The Panic of 1837 ensued when people tried to redeem their paper money for gold or silver. Savings were lost, banks closed, and businesses went bankrupt.
What was significant about WHHarrison’s campaign and presidency? In the 1840 election, WHH used the campaign slogan ‘Tippecanoe and Tyler, too’ to run as a Whig. He portrayed himself as a common man. He died only one month into his presidency from pneumonia. His VP John Tyler became president. Because he opposed many parts of the Whig platform, Whigs nicknamed him ‘His Accidency.’
Trace the development of the two- party system in the US: Federalist (GW & AH) Republican (TJ) (1796) Democratic-Republican (AJ) (1824) Whig (JQA & Clay)