Presentation on theme: "The National revival and the liberation Life is like a big ocean in whose depths there are many hidden reefs. One of the most important reefs in the life."— Presentation transcript:
The National revival and the liberation Life is like a big ocean in whose depths there are many hidden reefs. One of the most important reefs in the life of the Bulgarian country is the reef, that provoked the need for national revival.
The ‘awakeners’ were the first, who dove into the depths and found the reef for cultural revival. The cultural revival was made possible by a profound economic, social and political changes which overcame the Ottoman Empire in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.
The awakeners Paiisi Hilendarski was born in the town of Bansko in 1722 In 1745 he entered Hilendar and became a taxidiot In 1761 he travelled to he Habsburg monarchy to consult copies from Russian manuscripts
In 1762 he moved to the monastery of Zograf There he created A Slavonic- Bulgarian History of the Peoples, Tsars, Saints and of all their Deeds and of the Bulgarian Way of Life His aim was to resurrect the national consciousness and to impose to Bulgarians that they have reasons for a national self-confidence and pride
Of all the Slav peoples the must glorious were the Bulgarians; they were the first who called themselves tsars, the first to have a patriarch, the first to adopt the Christian faith, and they it was who conquered the largest amount of territory. Thus, of all the Slav peoples they were the strongest and the most honoured, and the first Slav saints cast their radiance from amongst the Bulgarian people and through the Bulgarian language.
Yuri Venelin was a Habsburg subject and pioneer Slavicist In 1829 published The Ancient and Present-Day Bulgarians in their Political, Ethnographic and Religious Relationship to the Russians
Paissi and his fellow awakeners put on the Bulgarian nation an eternal wreath symbolizing the spirit of the national revival.
Economic, social and political changes in the Ottoman Empire The upheavals from eighteenth and early nineteenth century were in favor of awakeners’ ideas as they opened the borders of the Empire and gave them the chance to create Bulgarian communities in other countries and to present the Bulgarian question to the European society.
Treaty of Passarowitz (1718) was important trade agreement between Ottoman and Habsburgs Empires In 1740s Britain and France received trading preferences In 1774 there was a treaty of Kutchuk Kainardji
In late 18 th century Bulgarian population started moving from countryside plains towards small towns Preferred destinations were small mountain towns.
Other part of Bulgarian population decided to emigrate to other states Those Bulgarian emigrants created major cultural centers out of the borders of the Ottoman Empire that played significant role in the development of Bulgarian culture
The problem with ayans was resolved by the Empire in the period 1820-1831 It had positive long-run impact on Bulgarians Most beneficial were Bulgarians sheep-reares and cloth-producers
The next important step in the Bulgarian cultural revival was the implementation of Bulgarian language in both of church and school Neofit Bozveli introduced Slavic liturgical training Vasil Aprilov established the first school teaching in Bulgarian
The struggle for a separate Bulgarian church
The first outbursts against Greek-dominated church began in 1820s In 1835 there was a concerted move to secure the nomination of Bulgarian speaking bishop In 1839 the Hatt-i-Sherif is issued The movement against Greek bishops enlarged in 40s and 50s, led by Neofit Bozveli and Ilarion Makariopolski
In 1849 the Porte agreed that Bulgarians should be allowed to build a church in the Ottoman Capital The church was called St Stephen and the donator was Stefan Bogoridi
The Bulgarians could not longer rely on Russia In 1856 there was a Hatt-i-Humayoun In the same year there was a petition to the sultan In Constantinople 1860 witnessed a virtual declaration of ecclesiastical independence by the Bulgarian church In 1867 Patriarch Gregory the Sixth offered the Bulgarians an autonomous church within the patriarchate
In February 1870 the sultan issued a firman, or declaration of intent, to recognize a separate Bulgarian church headed by an exarch The first Bulgarian exarch is the Bishop Antim of Vidin
The struggle for political independence and the liberation of 1878 In 19 th century Bulgarian society achieved great progress in their cultural and educational revival, but was still doing few actions regarding their political independence
Georgi Sava Rakovski was born in Kotel in 1821 In 1840 tried to develop secret societies in Athens and Braila During Crimean war organized a small legion in order to support Russian army In 1862 took part in the destruction of the last Ottoman garrison in Serbia In 1866 he created the Bulgarian Secret Central Committee
Luben Karavelov was born in 1834 in Koprivshtitsa He was among the first Bulgarian writers He was also among the most prominent followers of Rakovski and his revolutionary ideas
Vasil Levski was born in 1837 in Karlovo In 1858 he entered a monastery for two years In 1862 he joined Rakovski legion in Belgrade He introduces the idea about the Apostles He was major figure in the development of secret revolutionary system in the whole country
“If I succeed, I shall succeed for the whole nation; If I fail, then I alone shall die”
Hristo Botev was born in Kalofer in 1848 He got his basic education at home Botev won a scholarship for Odesa He was mostly popular with poetry Died in 1876 leading a cheta that should have supported the April Uprising in the revolutionary district of Vratsa
In 1876 Ottoman Empire had problems with Bosnia and Serbia The leaders of Bulgarian revolutionary Committee saw in it the opportunity for simultaneous rising April Uprising did not run as it was planned It resulted in no serious damages to the Ottoman authority and the massacre of 5000 Bulgarian Christians
The brutal suppression of April Uprising led to public disagreements in Western Europe and Russia As a result of it Russia declared a war on Ottoman Empire in 1877
The end of War and the creation of the new Bulgarian State San Stefano PeaceBerlin Treaty