2Age of -ismsMany of the ideas and ideologies that shape our world originated or were modified in the 19th CenturyMost of these –isms deal with economics; however, many also describe or impact the social systems of class and hierarchy and imply political action. Other –isms deal with politics and imply economic action. All are interrelated.
3Economic Concepts of the 19thC Class ConsciousnessOwners – capitalistsNon-landed middle class and white collar workers – bourgeoisieFactory and trade workers—proletariat
4Economics—systems and theorists Capitalism (free market economy, free enterprise system) : an economic system in which themeans of production and distribution are privately owned and operated for profitdecisions regarding investment of capital are made by investorsproduction, distribution, and the prices of goods, services, and labor are determined largely by the forces of supply and demand in a free market.
5Classical Economics (capitalism) Adam Smith Wealth of Nations (1776) describedLaissez faire economics is based on these principles:Though government must perform many important functions, economic growth is best when unregulated (free enterprise)Society=many individuals who compete out of self interest to meet demand of consumers in the marketplaceDistrust government regulation because government, composed of individuals acting out of self interest, is corruptGovernment roles: maintain sound currency, enforce laws and contracts, protect property, impose low tariffs and taxes, maintain army and navy to protect foreign trade.
6Malthus (British)The Principle of Population (1798) responding to Romantic ideals of continuing progress of man: a bleak pictureBasic thesis: population will outrun food supplyPopulation grows geometrically; food supply arithmeticallyCannot control two basic drives for food, sex.Eventually, resources will be gone: life will end.Life for working class inevitably continues to worsenIf wages raised, workers will have more children, who will consume extra wages PLUS more foodTwo solutions;Marriage/chastity/contraception (but he considered contraception a vice)Convince the working class to work for a higher standard of living, spending on consumer goods instead of having children
7“Through the animal and vegetable kingdoms, nature has scattered the seeds of life abroad with the most profuse and liberal hand. She has been comparatively sparing in the room, and the nourishment necessary to rear them... The race of plants, and race of animals shrink under this great restrictive law. And the race of man cannot, by any efforts of reason, escape from it. Among plants and animals its effects are waste of seed, sickness, and premature death. Among mankind, misery and vice. ... “
8Ricardo (British) Principles of Political Economy (1817) Iron Law of WagesRaise wages: more children in working classIncreased numbers enter labor market: wages go downLow wages: fewer children in working classDecreased numbers enter labor market: wages go upRaise wages: more children, etc.Conclusion: Wages will always tned toard minimum levelSupported employers in desire for low wages and against labor unions
9“The market price of labour is the price which is really paid for it, from the natural operation of the proportion of the supply to the demand; labour is dear when it is scarce, and cheap when it is plentiful. However much the market price of labour may deviate from its natural price, it has, like commodities, a tendency to conform to it.“
10Influence of Classical Economics Working classes hated these ideas; landowners and merchants loved themFrance: Louis Philippe and Guizot told French to go forth and enrich themselves: anyone who worked with enough energy need not be poorCapital intensive projects of roads, canals, rr’sPoor stayed poorGermany: stayed aristocraticZollverein: free trade union 1834 all German states (not Austria)State domination of economy
11Utilitarianism (Britain) Jeremy Bentham popularized the basic premise, principle of utility: Must evaluate actions on basis of their consequences. Best actions: the greatest happiness for the greatest numberPrinciple of utility would overcome special interests of privileged groups=rational govtApply reason/utility to strip traditional abuses from legal system = justiceNew Poor Law –1834 (by followers of B)Poor Law CommissionGovernment relief only in workhousesWorkhouse life to be more unpleasant than life outside (awful work, husband and wife separated, social stigma)Assumption: didn’t work, because lazy
12Repeal of Corn Laws Corn Laws 1815 Anti Corn Law League During French Revolution/Napoleon and continental system, no importing of grains, so prices up, landlords profits soaredAfter Waterloo, grain imports drove prices and profits downCorn laws: tariffs on imported grain to bring prices back up;Consequence: workers demanded higher wages to pay for bread—social unrestAnti Corn Law LeagueOrganized by manufacturers to call for imported grain, lower prices, no need for higher wagesThen British manufactured goods’ prices stay low, strengthen competitive position in foreign markets1846 Repeal of Corn LawsSir Robert Peel 1846as result of Irish Potato famine: had to import grain to feed starving IrishAccompanied with government aid to make British ag more efficient and keep profits high
13Socialism Free market CANNOT adequately produce and distribute goods To right the wrongs of capitalismFree market CANNOT adequately produce and distribute goodsMismanagement, low wages, unequal distribution of resources cause much sufferingHuman society SHOULD NOT be individual, but an unselfish communitymeans of production and distribution are government owned and operateddecisions regarding investment of capital are made by the governmentproduction, distribution, and the prices of goods, services, and labor are determined largely by the government
14Utopian SocialismDefinition: early 19th Century thinkers and writers labeled as:utopian because ideals visionary and advocated creation of ideal communities and labeledsocialist because they wanted change of the structures of government and economics that supported capitalismOften had radical ideas about sexual morality (“free love”) and familyAs a consequence, people who may have shared their economic concerns rejected their social ideas
15Saint SimonianismCount Claude Henri de Saint Simon ( ), liberal French aristocratFought in Am Rev, welcomed Fr RevWriter and social criticAdvocated sexuality outside marriageIdeal government: large board of directors organizing and administering individuals and groups for social harmony(kind of technocracy)Not redistribution of wealth, but management by experts to provide economic/social justiceOnly a few followed him: Saint Simonian societies where discussed feminism, other advanced ideas
16Owenism Robert Owen, British cotton manufacturer Self made; partner in factory at New Lanark, ScotlandBelieved in environmentalism of Enlightenment:If people in correct surroundings = good characterNew Lanark put ideals in practiceProvided good living conditions for his workersRecreation for all; education for children, several churches (though he didn’t believe, advocated “free love”Rewards for good work in factoriesMad a good profitPleaded for reorganization of industry based on his modelUS: sold New Lanark to establish New Harmony, IndianaQuarrels among members: failedBack to Britain, Grand National UnionAttempt to gather all union members in one:Collapsed with other trade organizations in 1830’s
17FourierismCharles Fourier, French intellectual commercial salesman, but not as known as OwensWriter who hoped for someone to apply his ideasThey didn’tBelieved industrial order ignored emotional man; social discipline ignored pleasure seekingAdvocated phalanxes: communal agrarian communities with “liberated” living; avoid boredom“Free love,” with marriage for later lifeNo one required to work at same thing for whole day, move from one task to another to avoid boredom
18Influence of utopian socialists Expected government to apply their ideas; government, society too hard to changeLouis Blanc, 1830 The Organization of Labor demanded end to competition, but recognized difficulties, didn’t seek whole new society, just give vote to working class. Working class with power would finance jobs for poor, social justice to replace existing order.
19AnarchismBasic idea: overthrow and abolish existing social/economic/political order; then rebuild a new order with equality and freedom so that all develop to potentialAnarchists believe that the classless, stateless society should be established right away, as soon as possible.Some wanted peaceful abolition of traditional society; others felt that if assassinated political or economic leaders, upper class, existing order falls.
20Auguste Blanqui (1805-81) Major spokesman for terrorism Société républicaine centrale vs governmentin and out of prison for involvement in movements to overthrow the government1870 two unsuccessful armed demonstrations: 12th of January at funeral of Victor Noir, journalist shot by Pierre Bonaparte; 14th of August, led an attempt to seize some guns at a barrack.Part of Commune; imprisoned through much of it: condemned to death, then out of prison; died of apoplexyHe wanted to develop a professional revolutionary vanguard (trained terrorists and assassins) to attack capitalistic societyVague ideas of what would develop after
21“it is my duty as a proletarian, deprived of all the rights of the city, to reject the competence of a court where only the privileged classes who are not my peers sit in judgment over me” [defense speech]
22Bakunin (1814-76) Russian anarchist Life of struggle Peasant, sought ed in MoscowImprisoned and condemned to death for part in uprising vs governmentEscaped to W. Europe: set up international anarchist organization Social Democratic AllianceDiffered from Marxism: didn’t believe in intermediate “dictatorship of proletariat” before dissolved government altogetherRejected governing systems in every name and shape, from the idea of God downwards; and every form of external authorityThe revolutionist should be a devoted man, who allowed no private interests or feelings, and no scruples of religion, patriotism or morality, to turn him aside from his mission: by all available means to overturn the existing society.
23Proudhon (1809-65) Much tamer anarchism The Confessions of a Revolutionary, Proudhon wrote, anarchy is order.What is Property attacked banking system"Property is theft!".Do away with money, trappings of wealthCriticized banks for only lending to already rich, cronies, large businessesTried to establish banks that loaned only to small businessmenEnvisioned society organized on basis of mutualismLike small businessesPeaceful cooperation, exchange of good instead of competitionNo need for stateInfluenced French laborKarl Marx directed some of his writings against Proudhon’s ideas
24Influence of Anarchism STILL AROUND: Actual fomenting of riots and other social disturbances from its inception into the 20th CAssassination of world political and business leaders, royalty to disrupt societyMost successful: anarchist party allied with liberal left and socialists in Spain in early 1930’s after king overthrownAnarchist government in Barcelona was actually successful in redistributing means of production, organizing factories, etc until revolution intervenedCommunists and rightists made sure, during the chaos of the revolution, that successful leaders were killed or exiled.
25Marxism Another kind of socialism Difference from others: Abolition of private property with extensive, radical rearrangement of societyClaims to scientific accuracy in describing the march of historyRejected reform of present societyCall for immediate revolutionDefined by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in Communist Manifesto
26Friedrich Engels ( )Middle class German: father owned textile factory in Manchester, EnglandPartnership with Marx, who became his great friend because ideas were similarWrote Communist Manifesto
27Karl Marx (1818-1883) Early life Rhineland German Jewish (family converted to Lutheranism) he atheistic, anti religion and churchEdited radical journal, so driven from Germany to ParisPartnership with EngelsAsked to write pamphlet for Communist LeagueCommunist Manifesto (German, 1848), which defined Communism, differentiated vs socialismPamphlet regarded as just one more; no influence then
28Das Kapital (Capital) Influences: German Hegelianism French socialism (thought from thesis vs antithesis=synthesis)Marx: dominant vs subordinate social groups = conditions leading to new dominant social group = new discontent, conflict, etcFrench socialismPortrayal of problems of capitalistic society with all its inequalitiesIdea of forced redistribution of propertyDevelopment of society/social conditions in historical stagesBritish classical economicsVocabulary for analyzing industrial/capital economy and society empirically and scientifically
29Major Ideas Marx’s words: “What I did that was new was to prove: (1) that the existence of classes is bound up with particular historical phases in the development of production(2) that the class struggle necessarily leads to the dictatorship of the proletariat(3) that this dictatorship itself only constitutes the transition to the abolition of all classes and to a classless society
30History falls into an inevitable pattern: History is merely the record of humankind’s struggle with physical nature to produce what man must have to surviveThe particular productive process of a human group at a given time in history determines structure, ideas, values of societyInevitable class conflict results from this interaction: traditionally conflict between class that owns and controls and the classes who work for them to actually producePiecemeal reforms cannot eliminate resulting inevitable inequalities and evils; inherent in structures of production—must be total transformation of societyCapitalism makes such revolution inevitable
31Specifically in the 19th C…. Early 19th C (industrial revolution) produced struggle between bourgeoisie (middle class) and proletariat (workers)Capitalism sharpens struggle by increasing struggle and size of proletariat classProduction/competition drives out smaller and traditional industry for giant factories and corporationsProduction/competition forces ex-middle class owners and artisans driven out of business + increasing number of workers needed for factories down into proletariat classFew giants can force workers to work for less = increased suffering = social unrest increases to explosion point and…Eventually proletariat class will revolt, overthrow few remaining magnates, organize means of production through dictatorship of the proletariatCulminates in class society free of class conflictVictorious proletariat, by nature, could not turn into oppressors“From each according to his ability; to each according to his need”Marx/Engels: “The proletarian movement is the self conscious, independent movement of the immense majority, in the interest of the immense majority.”
32Political –isms Nationalism Single most powerful European political ideology of th C Europe (now in Central/E Europe and old USSR)Based on concept that a nation is composed of people with common language, customs, culture and history. This nation, then should be administered by the same government: national and ethnic boundaries should coincideAlso related: popular sovereignty– particular ethnic group should be able to decide own form of government, determine own leaders; BUT usually significant minorities (sometimes ruling minorities) within each ethnic grouping: (Slavs in German areas of Austria, etc)
33Influence in the 19th C Contraries: Congress of Vienna Settlement on basis that legitimate monarchies rather than dynasties should be basis of political unitsNationalists protested reestablishment of multinational Austrian and Russian empiresAlso protested when peoples of same ethnic group ( Germans and Italians) put in political units smaller than ethnic nationCreating NationsElite writers/journalists spread idea of nationalismLanguage: “official” or dominant sometimes imposed by government over local dialects; during 19th c resurrect dead languages (in 1850 less than half inhabitants of France spoke official French—Provence, etc. local languages)Problems of nationHow big is big enough? Viable economy? Significant cultural association? Cultural elite to nourish and spread? Ability to conquer others? Argument in reality lead to unrest and rebellionProblem spots in the 1800’s:IrelandItalyGermanyPolandE. Europe (Hungarians, Czechs, Slavs)Balkans: Serbs, Greeks, Albanians, Romanians, Bulgarians
34LiberalismOften used by conservatives to mean anyone who challenges traditional political, social, religious values19th C: political goalsBased on Enlightenment principles (Dec. Rights of Man and Citizen); Often from educated, middle class (who wanted careers open to talent, not birth)Wanted legal equality, religious toleration, freedom of the pressGovernment limited in power, recognizing legitimacy only when freely given consent of governedRepublican or Parliamentary governmentState or crown ministers responsible to Representatives of people, not just to monarch or rulerConstitutional government, but not necessarily democracy: wanted representation of propertied, middle classesIronically, contemptuous of both aristocracy and lower classesPrivilege based on wealth and property, not birthBUT NOT voices of common people==separated from rural and urban working classes
35Economic goals of 19th C liberals Followed Adam SmithLaissez faire freedom from mercantilistic, regulated economiesAbility to manufacture and sell goods freelyRemove tariffs and internal barriers to tradeVs guilds: labor to be bought and sold as any other commodityWanted freedom for talented and propertied to enrich selvesThen more goods and services for all at lower pricesProgress = material progress for allProgramsBritain: protect civil liberties with reform; limit monarch and parliament; expand electorate to middle classFrance: Napoleonic Code already guaranteed legal system; called for greater rights “principles of 1789”Germany: little middle class participation in government and military, no idea of individual liberty; therefore, wanted united Germany so that they could achieve a freer social and political order (didn’t happen)
36ConservatismConservatism in general seeks to preserve the traditional institutions of government and economy to keep power in hands of traditional aristocracies, church hierarchies and monarchiesAssociated with Romantic thinkers such as Edmund Burke (Irish born, British protested Fr Rev) and Friedrich HegelThreatened by waves of Revolution, beginning with the French RevolutionFeared and hated Enlightenment rationalism and reformist writingsSaw selves surrounded by enemies; permanently defending selves vs liberalism, nationalism and popular sovereignty
38Rousseau: Basis of Romanticism State of nature opposite to HobbesNoble savage;Man good, civilization badTest of true values—feelingseducation =to free a personGod=beyond reasonSocial contract: sum of wills of individualsCome together to discuss, then all vote“general will”
39Kant: Critique of Pure Reason World of phenomena=what we can perceiveCategories of understanding: mind sets up to impose on sensory experience; from mind=reasoningGod and most of nature really not in this categoryNoumenal world=objective reality we cannot perceive totallyCan only be known through “practical reason,” feelings/conscience (innate sense/moral duty)Categorical imperative: act by rules you will to be universal law
40HegelGerman born philosopher: educated, worked as editor, but didn’t like journalism, so became teacher, university professorAbsolute (reality) = pure Thought, or Spirit, or Mind, incapable of definition because process of development; self recognitionGeist= between spirit and reality (world Spirit) “The Absolute” (Christian/others atheistic)
41Dialecticdevelopmental process = dialectic = thesis vs antithesis produces synthesis.The thesis might be an idea or a historical movement.The idea or movement contains within itself incompleteness that gives rise to opposition, an antithesis, a conflicting idea or movement.As a result of the conflict, a third point of view arises, synthesis, which overcomes the conflict by reconciling at a higher level the truth contained in both the thesis and antithesis. This synthesis becomes a new thesis that generates another antithesis, giving rise to a new synthesis,Dialectic:SynthesisAntithesisSynthesis which becomes ThesisThesis
42Implications—why basis of conservatism Reality is the Absolute unfolding dialectically in this process of self-development toward the goal of total self consciousness“God is God,” Hegel argued, “only in so far as he knows himself.”Expressed in Nature and in historyIts increasing self consciousness manifests inArt—material = beautyReligion—in symbolsPhilosophy--rationallyHegel considered membership in the state one of the individual's highest duties. Ideally, the state is the manifestation of the general will, which is the highest expression of the ethical spirit. Obedience to this general will is the act of a free and rational individual.
43Schopenhauer: Anti Romantic Freedom of the Will; Freedom & Reality Divided reality into what is capable of being experienced and what isn’tExperience depends on the senses; therefore, cannot conceive of reality outside of sensory experienceIndependent reality is a closed book ; “all is one” (noumenal only describes what happens inside you, not objective reality)No God, free will, etc. Universe=energy/go/impersonal force you cannot define “nature red in tooth and claw”Relief from horror of existence only through arts.