The Pacific Ocean Over period of several thousand years, people from Malay Peninsula crossed the water to settle in the islands of: East Indies East Indies New Guinea New Guinea Melanesian Melanesian Polynesian Polynesian Marquesas Marquesas New Zealand New Zealand Hawaii Hawaii
Polynesian expansion was a result of planned voyages with intention of colonization (before Europe). They navigated using the stars and ocean currents. They navigated using the stars and ocean currents.
The Indian Ocean Malayo-Indonesians colonized the island of Madagascar in a series of voyages through the 15 th century. Arab sailor technique used monsoon winds to establish trade routes. How did Muslims benefit other travelers? How did Muslims benefit other travelers? They shared trade routesThey shared trade routes
Ming Dynasty China After end of Mongol rule, China was looking to resurrect its past under emperor Yongle (1402-1422). Civil Service Civil Service Reforestation Reforestation Emphasis on centralized government Emphasis on centralized government Population growth Population growth
In 1405 the Ming took on the world’s largest maritime expeditions in the history of the world. Lead by the eunuch Muslim, Zheng He Southeast Asia, Indonesia, India, Arabia, E. Africa Southeast Asia, Indonesia, India, Arabia, E. Africa Showed to establish prestige by “showing off” Ming wealth and bringing back tribute. No colonies or conquest No colonies or conquest Came to an abrupt end. Why? Came to an abrupt end. Why? Yongle diedYongle died Waste of moneyWaste of money Focus on Mongol threatFocus on Mongol threat
European Comparisons: State Building and Cultural Renewal China was centralized and unified Europe was independent and competitive amongst its states (Spain and Portugal) Sophisticated tax system to raise armies Sophisticated tax system to raise armies France v. Spain (Hundred Years War 1337-1453)France v. Spain (Hundred Years War 1337-1453) Europe moved away from past (Renaissance) China moved toward the past (Confucianism)
European Comparisons: Maritime Voyaging Europe had four ships China had hundreds Europe was seeking wealth and converts America and S.E. Asia America and S.E. Asia China did not need wealth, allies, or converts European voyages had a signifigant effect on world power. Chinese voyages ended with no long lasting effects.
The Atlantic Ocean Vikings During 10 th century During 10 th century Iceland, Greenland, Newfoundland Iceland, Greenland, Newfoundland How did climate effect their voyages? How did climate effect their voyages? Sailed in warm weatherSailed in warm weather
African Attempts Attempts Genoa 1291Genoa 1291 Mali 1300sMali 1300s Genoa and Portugal Genoa and Portugal MadeirasMadeiras AzoresAzores CanariesCanaries
Americas Arawak from S. America Arawak from S. America Lesser and Greater Antilles (1000)Lesser and Greater Antilles (1000) Conquered by The Carib in 15 th centuryConquered by The Carib in 15 th century
The Post-Classic Period in Mesoamerica, 900-1500
The Aztecs/Mexica Originally northern people with clan based social organization. Established the cities of Tenochtitlan and Tlateloco (present Mexico City) around 1325. Monarchy-no absolute power No primogeniture
How did kings increase their wealth and power? Territorial conquest Aztec Empire increased resulting in: unequal distribution of wealth and commoners lost political influence Agricultural production was increased by undertaking land reclamation projects and constructing irrigated fields and chinampas. Merchants Simple technology: no wheeled vehicles, no large animals to work, no money used Economy Disproportionate income barter Tribute was needed for survival
Religion Polytheistic Huitzilopochtli, sun god Healthy diet of human hearts to make crops grow. Thousands of sacrifices a year.
Cultural Response to Environment Challenge How did the harsh high altitudes affect the life of inhabitants? Organization of labor efficient systems Harsh climate but more consistent agriculture (no droughts) Ayllu- clan held land collectively, obligated to work together for food and supplies them to chief.
organized members of the ayllu to provide a quota or labor workers for religious establishments, royal court, and aristocracy After 1000 introduced mit’a, an organized members of the ayllu to provide a quota or labor workers for religious establishments, royal court, and aristocracy. Men for hunting, war, and government.. Men for hunting, war, and government; women wove clothes and cared for the crops at home, Gender-. Men for hunting, war, and government. Divided responsibilities.. Men for hunting, war, and government; women wove clothes and cared for the crops at home, Four Zones Vertical integration 4 zones with different goods all exchanged goods through a network of exchange routes; exchange along ecological boundaries. They were interdependent.4 zones with different goods all exchanged goods through a network of exchange routes; exchange along ecological boundaries. They were interdependent.
The Inca Small chiefdom in Cuzco until military expansion in 1430s. By 1525, the Inca constructed a huge empire (6 million). What was the key to their wealth? Strong military; trade Expansion of the mit’a Provide for the: old, sick, and weak System was similar to modern socialism
Local rulers Control by way of: military garrisons, taking hostages Central rule King How did the king prove himself worthy? Conquering more territory
Cuzco- capital city homogeneous Puma- worshiped Rituals, feasts, sacrifice Cultural achievements Didn’t create, made better Astronomical observation Metallurgy
Inca domination resulted in increased wealth, but also in reduced levels of local autonomy. When the elite fell into civil war in 1525, Inca control over its vast territories was weakened.
Comparison Both: highly integrated political economic systems long before 1500s; women important; highly stratified society; simple technology, influenced heavily by climate and geography, huge populations, conquests ruled by elites; using religion for legitimacy In the Andes, more geographical influenced cultural integration and state formation. Use of domesticated animals, broad control expand vertical exchange system, used more trade to combat the region Mesoamerica; no total dominant ruler, pyramids, sacrifice, tribute relationships and markets, used more technology to combat climate.