Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Light in The Darkness.  Franks under chief Clovis took over Gaul at in 485. (end of 5 th century)  A bishop introduced St. Clotilda to the chief  Through.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Light in The Darkness.  Franks under chief Clovis took over Gaul at in 485. (end of 5 th century)  A bishop introduced St. Clotilda to the chief  Through."— Presentation transcript:

1 Light in The Darkness

2  Franks under chief Clovis took over Gaul at in 485. (end of 5 th century)  A bishop introduced St. Clotilda to the chief  Through her he converted as did his tribe (Why?)

3  By 8 th century Clovis’ descendants had brought the Franks to near ruin  Decadence – No attention to kingdom  Mayor of the Palace (like a prime minister)  Charles Martel runs country  Muslim invaders almost destroyed Franks  Charles Martel organizes an army to defeat the Muslims in 732

4

5  Martel’s son Pepin requested that the pope make him king instead of Clovis’ descendants  St. Boniface was sent by the Pope to anoint Pepin king in 751  The next pope, Pope Stephen II expected help from Pepin against Lombards  Byzantine Emperor would not send army to protect Rome  He traveled to France and anointed Pepin and his two sons  Pepin defeats Lombards – Gives defeated area, including Byzantine territory to Pope  Papal States

6

7

8

9

10

11  With the crowning of Pepin King by the Church the old type of barbarian king  Warrior leader from divine descent (bloodline)  Symbolic head of people, nation, land  Priest/King Is Replaced. Change in dynasty required change in concept.

12  Through the religious act of consecration, being anointed with oil, the king was given a new sacred character.  Divinely appointed ruler of Christian people  A New David  A sacred representative as ruler and judge  Now king is incorporated into the Christian organization of the world. Pepin – Charlemagne

13  753 the Lombards were threatening Rome  The Emperor did not send any help  Pope Stephen II crossed Alps to ask Pepin’s help.  Pepin put the Lombards under siege. Lombards relented.  756 Lombards place siege on Rome  Pepin again crosses Alps to save Pope  756 Pepin gave central Italy to Pope so Pope could protect himself (land as barrier, taxes, troops).

14  Legend that Constantine had given the successors of St. Peter immense territories in Italy.  By Chance the deed to this property is found just before Pope Stephen II crosses Alps.  Supposedly Constantine was cured of Leprosy the day he became a Christian. Result = Donation  Throughout Middle Ages people believed document was genuine

15  These lands legally were still part of the Byzantine Empire  Emperor protests, but cannot do anything to regain territory

16  Pepin, using Barbarian custom, divided kingdom between his two sons, Charlemagne and Carloman  Bertha, Charlemagne’s mother, tried to make alliances with the Lombards instead of with the Pope  Carloman died, Charlemagne took his half of kingdom sending wife and two boys into exile.  Charlemagne realigned with Pope

17  Lombards with Carloman’s widow Desiderius, and secretly aided by the Byzantines threaten Pope.  Charlemagne crosses Alps and crushes resistance  Did not leave a Lombard king, but became king of the Lombards

18  799 Pope Leo III is attacked, beaten, imprisoned, and accused of numerous crimes by Roman nobility.  Pope escapes to Charles.  Charles restores him to Rome as Pope  799 Charles comes to Rome to judge accusations against Pope  How can a king be seen as the judge of a pope?  How desperate the Pope’s position was to allow this. Leo III took an oath that he did not do the crimes he was charge of.  Charles clears Leo III of all charges

19  Christmas 800 AD  Charles comes to Rome and crowned Emperor by Pope  Anointed on forehead signifying sacred character of Emperor as a “New David”

20  Missionaries were protected by C. in all the territories he conquered.  If a tribe was particularly resistent to conversion, he used forced conversions  Violated their religious freedom  Church many times criticized C. for this  C’s intent seems to have been genuine zeal for Christianity

21  Mandated that parish priest be educated  Bishops to hold periodic oral examinations to insure quality of priests  Mandated schools (next slide)  Tithes to Church mandatory  Church had always helped the poor. Now it had, by law, all the resources she needed.  Mandated the form of liturgy used in Rome be used throughout Empire  Laws to reform monastaries + supported efforts to make Benedictine rule universal  Laity forced to memorize Creed and Lord’s Prayer

22  Understood the need of his time – founding a new culture  During Merovingian's dynasty culture reached a new low  Schools  Every monastary had to have a school  Every priest had to teach the children  He gathered the greatest intellectuals of Europe to his court **This Renaissance, permeated by Christianity, caused all intellectual activity for centuries to be specifically Christian.

23  Under Charlemagne the appearance of synthesis of Christianity and Barbarian culture.  He introduced Roman Law & Church Law into Civil Law  Encouraged scholarship in his court  Worked to have priest better educated  “Encouraged” the spread of Christianity  Christianity became the glue of his Empire  The beginnings of Christendom

24

25  He completely controlled the Church, including the choice of bishops and abbots  The Church did not complain too much because he see to have genuine zeal for the Church  Church still always had upper hand – She annointed him King and Emperor  Unjust sentencing  Forced conversions or capital punishment  Many minor violations of piety resulted in capital punishment  Piety seen as a social duty  Though his public life was guided by zeal for the Church, his private life with women was not pure. Many mistresses.

26  Charlemagne dies in 814  His son Louis the Pious did not have his political skills  Louis reverted to barbarian custom and splt the empire between his sons.  The sons fought among themselves  The first Viking raids began in 793  Once the unity of the empire was broken, the Vikings were able to invade and pillage at will.

27  Relationship between lord & vassal the same as between barbarian war leader and his company of armed men  Primitive code of honor (the strong are honored)  Primitive code of loyalty (to the strong and the clan or tribe)  Primitive code of justice (revenge, seven fold)

28  With the fall of the Empire a generation after Charlemagne’s death the reign of “rule by law” ended and was replaced by the barbarian “war culture”  Fidelity was not to a king or emperor, but to local warrior lord. Feudalism, the relationship between lord and vassal was all that remained to give structure to society. (Except in England & Germany)

29  Peace Movement – Synod of Charroux (989)  Peace of God - Anathema for:  Break into churches  Robs a church  Robs the poor  Injures clergy  Excommunication

30  Truce of God  Time of Peace  Sunset on Wednesday – Sunrise on Monday  Advent & Christmas, Lent & Easter  Punishments  Exiled - thirty years of penance  Make compensation or be excommunicated  Die before penance is over – no one may bury or visit his body  Priests shall pray for those who keep the peace and curse those who do not at every feast day mass

31  Chivalry  Unable to suppress the warrior culture the Church tries to elevate it  Knights are sworn to protect the Church the widow and the orphan; the poor  Knights take vows and become consecrated persons with a duty to protect Christendom

32  Crusades  The Crusades will cause a melding of the culture of the warrior and the culture of Christ  The warrior found a purpose beyond loyalty to local lord (warrior chief), accumulating power and wealth and revenge  Now they had a higher and broader calling, to server God and His Church

33  King Alfred tries to resurrect a Christian Culture.  Supports Church  Supports Learning, especially through vernacular Otto in Germany makes alliance with Church and is coronate Holy Roman Emperor in Bishops become Counts and administer the Empire

34  King Alfred tries to resurrect a Christian Culture.  Supports Church  Supports Learning, especially through vernacular Otto in Germany makes alliance with Church and is coronate Holy Roman Emperor in Bishops become Counts and administer the Empire

35


Download ppt "Light in The Darkness.  Franks under chief Clovis took over Gaul at in 485. (end of 5 th century)  A bishop introduced St. Clotilda to the chief  Through."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google