Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Light in The Darkness.  Franks under chief Clovis took over Gaul at in 485. (end of 5 th century)  A bishop introduced St. Clotilda to the chief  Through.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Light in The Darkness.  Franks under chief Clovis took over Gaul at in 485. (end of 5 th century)  A bishop introduced St. Clotilda to the chief  Through."— Presentation transcript:

1 Light in The Darkness

2  Franks under chief Clovis took over Gaul at in 485. (end of 5 th century)  A bishop introduced St. Clotilda to the chief  Through her he converted as did his tribe (Why?)

3  By 8 th century Clovis’ descendants had brought the Franks to near ruin  Decadence – No attention to kingdom  Mayor of the Palace (like a prime minister)  Charles Martel runs country  Muslim invaders almost destroyed Franks  Charles Martel organizes an army to defeat the Muslims in 732

4

5  Martel’s son Pepin requested that the pope make him king instead of Clovis’ descendants  St. Boniface was sent by the Pope to anoint Pepin king in 751  The next pope, Pope Stephen II expected help from Pepin against Lombards  Byzantine Emperor would not send army to protect Rome  He traveled to France and anointed Pepin and his two sons  Pepin defeats Lombards – Gives defeated area, including Byzantine territory to Pope  Papal States

6

7

8

9

10

11  With the crowning of Pepin King by the Church the old type of barbarian king  Warrior leader from divine descent (bloodline)  Symbolic head of people, nation, land  Priest/King Is Replaced. Change in dynasty required change in concept.

12  Through the religious act of consecration, being anointed with oil, the king was given a new sacred character.  Divinely appointed ruler of Christian people  A New David  A sacred representative as ruler and judge  Now king is incorporated into the Christian organization of the world. Pepin – Charlemagne

13  753 the Lombards were threatening Rome  The Emperor did not send any help  Pope Stephen II crossed Alps to ask Pepin’s help.  Pepin put the Lombards under siege. Lombards relented.  756 Lombards place siege on Rome  Pepin again crosses Alps to save Pope  756 Pepin gave central Italy to Pope so Pope could protect himself (land as barrier, taxes, troops).

14  Legend that Constantine had given the successors of St. Peter immense territories in Italy.  By Chance the deed to this property is found just before Pope Stephen II crosses Alps.  Supposedly Constantine was cured of Leprosy the day he became a Christian. Result = Donation  Throughout Middle Ages people believed document was genuine

15  These lands legally were still part of the Byzantine Empire  Emperor protests, but cannot do anything to regain territory

16  Pepin, using Barbarian custom, divided kingdom between his two sons, Charlemagne and Carloman  Bertha, Charlemagne’s mother, tried to make alliances with the Lombards instead of with the Pope  Carloman died, Charlemagne took his half of kingdom sending wife and two boys into exile.  Charlemagne realigned with Pope

17  Lombards with Carloman’s widow Desiderius, and secretly aided by the Byzantines threaten Pope.  Charlemagne crosses Alps and crushes resistance  Did not leave a Lombard king, but became king of the Lombards

18  799 Pope Leo III is attacked, beaten, imprisoned, and accused of numerous crimes by Roman nobility.  Pope escapes to Charles.  Charles restores him to Rome as Pope  799 Charles comes to Rome to judge accusations against Pope  How can a king be seen as the judge of a pope?  How desperate the Pope’s position was to allow this. Leo III took an oath that he did not do the crimes he was charge of.  Charles clears Leo III of all charges

19  Christmas 800 AD  Charles comes to Rome and crowned Emperor by Pope  Anointed on forehead signifying sacred character of Emperor as a “New David”

20  Missionaries were protected by C. in all the territories he conquered.  If a tribe was particularly resistent to conversion, he used forced conversions  Violated their religious freedom  Church many times criticized C. for this  C’s intent seems to have been genuine zeal for Christianity

21  Mandated that parish priest be educated  Bishops to hold periodic oral examinations to insure quality of priests  Mandated schools (next slide)  Tithes to Church mandatory  Church had always helped the poor. Now it had, by law, all the resources she needed.  Mandated the form of liturgy used in Rome be used throughout Empire  Laws to reform monastaries + supported efforts to make Benedictine rule universal  Laity forced to memorize Creed and Lord’s Prayer

22  Understood the need of his time – founding a new culture  During Merovingian's dynasty culture reached a new low  Schools  Every monastary had to have a school  Every priest had to teach the children  He gathered the greatest intellectuals of Europe to his court **This Renaissance, permeated by Christianity, caused all intellectual activity for centuries to be specifically Christian.

23  Under Charlemagne the appearance of synthesis of Christianity and Barbarian culture.  He introduced Roman Law & Church Law into Civil Law  Encouraged scholarship in his court  Worked to have priest better educated  “Encouraged” the spread of Christianity  Christianity became the glue of his Empire  The beginnings of Christendom

24

25  He completely controlled the Church, including the choice of bishops and abbots  The Church did not complain too much because he see to have genuine zeal for the Church  Church still always had upper hand – She annointed him King and Emperor  Unjust sentencing  Forced conversions or capital punishment  Many minor violations of piety resulted in capital punishment  Piety seen as a social duty  Though his public life was guided by zeal for the Church, his private life with women was not pure. Many mistresses.

26  Charlemagne dies in 814  His son Louis the Pious did not have his political skills  Louis reverted to barbarian custom and splt the empire between his sons.  The sons fought among themselves  The first Viking raids began in 793  Once the unity of the empire was broken, the Vikings were able to invade and pillage at will.

27  Relationship between lord & vassal the same as between barbarian war leader and his company of armed men  Primitive code of honor (the strong are honored)  Primitive code of loyalty (to the strong and the clan or tribe)  Primitive code of justice (revenge, seven fold)

28  With the fall of the Empire a generation after Charlemagne’s death the reign of “rule by law” ended and was replaced by the barbarian “war culture”  Fidelity was not to a king or emperor, but to local warrior lord. Feudalism, the relationship between lord and vassal was all that remained to give structure to society. (Except in England & Germany)

29  Peace Movement – Synod of Charroux (989)  Peace of God - Anathema for:  Break into churches  Robs a church  Robs the poor  Injures clergy  Excommunication

30  Truce of God  Time of Peace  Sunset on Wednesday – Sunrise on Monday  Advent & Christmas, Lent & Easter  Punishments  Exiled - thirty years of penance  Make compensation or be excommunicated  Die before penance is over – no one may bury or visit his body  Priests shall pray for those who keep the peace and curse those who do not at every feast day mass

31  Chivalry  Unable to suppress the warrior culture the Church tries to elevate it  Knights are sworn to protect the Church the widow and the orphan; the poor  Knights take vows and become consecrated persons with a duty to protect Christendom

32  Crusades  The Crusades will cause a melding of the culture of the warrior and the culture of Christ  The warrior found a purpose beyond loyalty to local lord (warrior chief), accumulating power and wealth and revenge  Now they had a higher and broader calling, to server God and His Church

33  King Alfred tries to resurrect a Christian Culture.  Supports Church  Supports Learning, especially through vernacular Otto in Germany makes alliance with Church and is coronate Holy Roman Emperor in 963 - Bishops become Counts and administer the Empire

34  King Alfred tries to resurrect a Christian Culture.  Supports Church  Supports Learning, especially through vernacular Otto in Germany makes alliance with Church and is coronate Holy Roman Emperor in 963 - Bishops become Counts and administer the Empire

35


Download ppt "Light in The Darkness.  Franks under chief Clovis took over Gaul at in 485. (end of 5 th century)  A bishop introduced St. Clotilda to the chief  Through."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google