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What Kind of Intervention for Whom, and When? Responses of English Language Learners to Intervention.

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Presentation on theme: "What Kind of Intervention for Whom, and When? Responses of English Language Learners to Intervention."— Presentation transcript:

1 What Kind of Intervention for Whom, and When? Responses of English Language Learners to Intervention

2 Dr. Kathleen J. Brown, Director University of Utah Reading Clinic 5282 South 320 West, Suite D110 Murray, UT

3 Are Porfirio, Juan, & Saul Reading Below Grade Level?  Given sufficient b.k., on a grade level passage, they should: be at least 90% accurate read with sufficient speed  G1 = wpmG4 = wpm  G2 = wpmG5 = wpm  G3 = wpmG6 = wpm comprehend at least 70% (Good, Simmons, & Kame’enui, 2003; Hasbrouck & Tindal, 1992; Leslie & Caldwell, 2000; Morris, 1999)

4 Are Bill, Porfirio, Juan, & Saul Reading Below Grade Level?  15-40% depending on SES (Allington, 1994)  2002 NAEP data 31% Utah 4th graders “below basic”  Probability unsuccessful G1 readers still unsuccessful in G4 =.88 (Juel, 1988)

5 Problem: Porfirio et al. More Likely to Struggle Than Bill  63% of ELLs & 58% of Hispanics “below basic” on G4 Reading (NAEP, 2005)  40% ELL students “drop out” vs. 10% from English-only homes (Gengras & Careaga, 1989)  ELL students “at-risk” for reading difficulties (Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998)

6 Problem: Current Trend to “Niche” Porfirio et al.  Everything from misbehavior to poor academic achievement explained by “He’s ELL…”  Need an “Act of Congress” to qualify an ELL child for resource or to retain

7 Porfirio et al. Need Help; Now What?  Guided reading at instructional level  (w/comprehension & vocab work)  pacing in controlled, leveled text  explicit, sequenced word study & p.a.  fluency work  educators with clear understanding of reading DEVELOPS and how instruction can LEAD that development

8 Porfirio et al. Need Help; Now What?  time on task... a.k.a. “consume” as much text as possible  in an effective format (small group, pairs, 1-on-1)  for as long as he needs it… a.k.a. “there is no quick fix”

9 Will This Really Help Porfirio et al.?  At-risk G1 students who received 95 sessions of Early Steps finished the year reading between primer and late-G1.  Matched control G1 students who received 135 sessions of regular Title 1 intervention finished the year at preprimer. (Brown, Reynolds, & Sinatra, 2000; also see Morris, Tyner, & Perney, 2000 & Santa & Hoien, 1999)

10 Will This Really Help Porfirio et al.?  G2 & G3 ELL students who started the year at primer and received 45 sessions of Next Steps, made 1 year of progress as readers (to early-G2).  Matched control ELL G2 & G3 students who received 135 sessions of regular Title 1 intervention made 1/2 year’s progress (to late-G1). Brown, Morris, & Fields, 2002; Brown, Morris & Fields, 2003

11 How long will Porfirio et al. Need Help?  G2 students who received Early Steps in G1, and no intervention in G2 had made 1/2 year’s progress by March (to early-G2).  Matched control G2 students who received no intervention in G2 made 1/2 year’s progress by March (between primer & late- G1). Brown, Morris, & Fields, 2001

12 What Do These Data Mean for Porfirio et al.?  Intervention can help them make substantial progress as readers  They may need more than 1 year of intervention to get to/maintain grade level performance  remember Dominique & Shelby!!!

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21 What Do These Data Suggest re: ELL Struggling Readers?  Some ELL are “curriculum casualties” and just need basic intervention (Porfirio)  Some ELL are truly LD and need intensive, ongoing intervention (Juan)  Some ELL are “garden variety poor readers” and need intensive, ongoing intervention (Saul)  BEWARE OF POLITICS & LABELS!!!

22 What Needs to Be in Place to Help Porfirio et al?...  Materials lots of controlled, leveled text (carefully selected little books and controlled basal selections)  Enough Trained Bodies for Each Student educators who understand reading development and know how to deliver effective intervention efficiently

23 What Do Educators Need?  Clinical Experience/Practicum watch mentor model with student work 1-on-1 with a student get “on-line” feedback & theoretical framework from mentor observe other tutors and students

24 Critical Issues: Time & 1-on-1  Clinical Experience/Practicum 1-on-1 clears management issues so educators can see reading development “up close and personal” over time intensive and ongoing:  tutoring needs to happen 2-5x/week for 1 year to see reading development happen from ground zero (no words to independence (primer or better)  on-line mentoring needs to happen weekly or at least monthly

25 Goal = Develop a“Team Approach”  teachers group for reading to allow students to function at instructional level AMAP  in non-Title I schools, staff + volunteers build a tutoring program  in Title I schools, paraprofessionals are effective intervention tutors  remember Granger Elementary!!

26 What Role Do Universities Play?  Develop courses that focus on what we know from research about reading development and how instruction leads it  Help students develop an understanding of rigorous empirical research methods (quan + qual) vs. random, preferred anecdote

27 What Role Do Universities Play?  Resurrect a “clinical tradition” in graduate coursework  Build a “clinical tradition” in undergraduate coursework  Require methods professors have “clinical experience”


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